**2.1 Graviton Unification in Monopole Class IIB**

SEWG ---- SEWg as string transformation from Planck brane to (Grand Unification/GUT) monopole brane

String-Boson |
Decoupling Time s* |
Wavelength (λ=2pl) m* |
Energy (hc/λ) J* & eV* |
Modular Wavelength m* |
TemperatureK* |
Significance |

1. Planck-Boson I/SEWG |
t_{P}=2pr_{P}/c4.377x10 ^{-43} |
1.313x10^{-34} |
1.523 GJ* or 9.482x10^{27} eV* |
7.617x10^{33} |
1.079x10^{32 } |
Outside Hubble Horizon Limit in Protoverse |

2. Monopole-Boson IIB/SEWg GI-GUT decoupling |
t_{M}=2pr_{M}/c1.537x10 ^{-40} |
4.6110x10^{-32} |
4.337 MJ* or 2.700x10^{25} eV* |
2.169x10^{31} |
3.072x10^{29} |
Outside Hubble Horizon Limit in Protoverse |

3. XL-Boson HO32/SEW.G |
t_{XL}=2pr_{XL}/c2.202x10 ^{-39} |
6.605x10^{-31} |
302.817 kJ* or 1.885x10^{24} eV* |
1.514x10^{30} |
2.145x10^{28} |
Outside Hubble Horizon Limit in Protoverse |

4. ECosmic Bosons IIA/SeW.G SNI decoupling |
t_{EC}=2pr_{EC}/c6.717x10 ^{-34} |
2.015x10^{-25} |
0.9927 J* or 6.180x10^{18} eV* |
4.964x10^{24} |
7.032x10^{22} |
Galactic Supercluster Sarkar M _{o}=R_{Sarkar}c^{2}/2G_{o} Scale |

5. False Higgs Vacuum | t_{HiggsPE}=2pr_{HiggsPE}/ct _{ps}.T(n_{ps})/T_{algo}1.297x10 ^{-32 } |
3.891x10^{-24} |
0.0514 J* or 3.200x10^{17} eV* |
2.570x10^{23} |
3.641x10^{21} |
Galactic Supercluster Scale |

6. Weyl-Boson HE64/S.EW.G Big Bang-Instanton EMI decoupling |
t_{ps}=2pr_{ps}/c3.333x10 ^{-31} |
1.000x10^{-22} |
0.002 J* or 1.245x10^{16} eV* |
1.000x10^{22} |
1.417x10^{20} |
Galactic Halo(Group) Scale |

7. T(n)=T_{ps}Bosonic Unification |
t_{BU}=n_{BU}/H_{o}1.897x10 ^{-9} |
0.56902 Protoverse |
T(n)^{4} = {[n+1]^{2}/n^{3}}H_{o}M_{o}c^{2}/(2p^{2}sR_{H}^{2}[550]) = 18.1995{[n+1]^{2}/n^{3}} (K^{4}/V)* |
1.757 Protoverse |
T _{ps}-bosonicT _{EW}^{4}=18.2[n+1] ^{2}/n^{3}n=H _{o}t_{BU} |
Unitary Modular Geometric Mean Scale |

8. Higgs Boson Vacuum Electroweak WNI decoupling |
t_{EW}=n_{EW}/H_{o}0.00274~1/365 |
4.167x10^{-18}Quantum Scale |
4.799x10^{-8} J* or 298.785 GeV* |
2.400x10^{17} |
3.400x10^{15} |
Inner Mesonic Ring Quantum Scale |

** **

**The Coupling of the Supermembranes in Vafa-F-Space of Inflaton Selfdual Monopole IIB** We next reduce the atomic scaling to its intrinsic superstring dimension in deriving the Higgs Bosonic Restmass Induction, corresponding to the Dilaton of M-Theory.

Renormalising the wavefunction B(n) about the FRB=-½ as maximum ordinate gives a probability y

^{2}dV for y(0)=√(alpha/2p) for the renormalization.

Alpha/2p being the probability of finding the FRB fluctuation for the interval [-X,X-1] in volume element dV as the uncertainty fluctuation.

This volume element defines the dimensional intersection from C-Space into F-Space via M-Space in the topological mapping of the complex Riemann C

_{∞}-Space about the Riemann pole of the FRB as the Calabi-Yau superstring space in 10 dimensions.

X=½(√5-1)=0.618033..... and Y=-(X+1)=-½(√5+1)=-1.618033...

-X(X-1)=0.236067... in analogue to X(X+1)=1=T(n) and XY=X+Y=-1=i

^{2}as the complex origin.

But 0.236067..= X

^{3}, so defining the 'New Unity' as #

^{3}=Alpha and the precursive unity as the Cuberoot of Alpha or as # in the symmetry #:#

^{3}= SNI:EMI = Strong Nuclear Interaction Strength { ElectroMagnetic Interaction Strength}.

The Strong-Interaction-Constant SIC=√Alpha=√e

^{2}/2e

_{o}hc=√(60pe

^{2}/h) in standard and in string units, reduces the SNI finestructure constant # by a factor Alpha

^{1/6 }; that is in the sixth root of alpha and so relates the SIC at the post quantisation level as # to the prequantum epoch as SIC=√Alpha=#

^{3/2}.

The SNI is therefore so 11.7 times weaker at the XL-Boson 'Grand-Unification-Time' SEW.G of heterotic superstring class HO(32), than at the E

_{ps}E

_{ss}timeinstantenuity S.EW.G of the superstring of the Quantum Big Bang in heterotic class HE(8x8) {this is the stringclass of Visi in the group theories}.

This then is the Bosonic Gauge Coupling between superstrings HO(32) and HE(8x8).

The coupling between superstrings IIA (ECosmic and manifesting the cosmic rays as superstring decay products) and IIB (Magnetic Monopole) derives directly from the B(n), with B(n=0)=J

_{o}=2e/hA = 0.9927298 1/J* or 6.2705x10

^{9}GeV* and representative of the ECosmic stringclass and the super high energy resonances in the cosmic ray spectrum, bounded in the monopolic resonance limit of 2.7x10

^{16}GeV*.

1-J

_{o}=0.00727021 approximates r

_{g}/r

_{10}c

^{2}=4/550=0.007272... approximates Alpha at n=n

_{ps}.

The Unity of the SNI transforms to [1-X]=X

^{2}and the EMI transforms as the Interaction of Invariance from X to X.

The Weak Nuclear Interaction or WNI as X

^{2}becomes [1+X]=1/X and the Gravitational Interaction or GI transforms as X

^{3}transforms to [2+X]=1/X

^{2}by MODULAR SYMMETRY between X and Alpha and the encompassing Unification Unity: [1-X][X][1+X][2+X] = 1.

This Unification Polynomial U(u)=u

^{4}+2u

^{3}-u

^{2}-2u+1 = 0 then has minimum roots (as quartic solutions) at the Phi=X and the Golden Mean Y=-(1+X).

This sets the coupling between SNI and EMI as X; the coupling between EMI and WNI becomes X

^{2}and the coupling between WNI and GI then is again X.

The general Force-Interaction-Ratio so is: SNI:EMI:WNI:GI = SEWG = #:#

^{3}:#

^{18}:#

^{54}.

This is the generalisation for the cubic transform: x→x

^{3}with the Alpha-Unity squaring in the functionality of the WNI and defining G-Alpha as Alpha

^{18}in the Planck-Mass transforming in string bosonic reduction to a basic fundamental nucleonic mass (proton and neutrons as up-down quark conglomerates and sufficient to construct a physical universe of measurement and observation):

m

_{c}=m

_{planck }Alpha

^{9}from the electromagnetic string unification with gravitation in the two dimensionless finestructures:

**For Gravitational Mass Charge from higher D Magnetic Charge: 1=2pG.m**

_{planck}^{2}/hc**For Electromagnetic Coulomb Charge as lower D Electric Charge: Alpha=2pke**

^{2}/hcAlpha as the universal masterconstant of creation, then becomes defined via the Riemann Analysis from XY=i

^{2}definition, reflecting in modulation in the statistical renormalisation of the B(n) as the probability distributions in quantum wave mechanics however.U(u) has its maximum at u=-½=FRB for U(-½)=25/16=(5/4)

^{2}for the B(n) supersymmetry.

The derivation of the HBRMI draws upon this definition process and sets the coupling angle as arcsin(X/@) for a Unitary 'Force' @=(#f

_{G}).cf

_{ps}E-Alpha/Alpha and with the electron mass replacing the fundamental nucleonmass m

_{c}in the definition of E-Alpha.

A disassociated GI unifies with the WNI in the L-Boson and is supersymmetric to an intrinsic unification between the SNI and the EMI as the X-Boson for the duality f

_{G}f

_{S}=1 in modular definition of a characteristic GI-mass #f

_{G}as the disassociated elementary gauge field interaction.

The transformation of the 5 superstring classes proceeds in utilizing the self-duality of superstring IIB as the first energy transformation of the Inflaton in the Planck string class I transmutating into the monopole string class IIB.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/F-theoryF-theoryis a branch of string theory developed by Cumrun Vafa.^{[1]}The new vacua described by F-theory were discovered by Vafa and allowed string theorists to construct new realistic vacua — in the form of F-theory compactified on elliptically fibered Calabi–Yau four-folds. The letter "F" supposedly stands for "Father".^{[2]}

F-theory is formally a 12-dimensional theory, but the only way to obtain an acceptable background is to compactify this theory on a two-torus. By doing so, one obtains type IIB superstring theory in 10 dimensions. The SL(2,Z) S-duality symmetry of the resulting type IIB string theory is manifest because it arises as the group of large diffeomorphisms of the two-dimensional torusClick to expand...

**2.2 Quark-Lepton Unification in XL-Boson Class HO(32)**

SeW.G --- S.EW.G

**2.3 Cosmic Ray Unification in XL-Boson Class IA**

SEW.G --- SeW.G

**The Elementary Cosmic Ray Spectrum **

**The elementary Cosmic Ray Spectrum derives from the transformation of the Planck-String-Boson at the birth of the universe.**

The following tabulation relates those transformation in energy and the modular duality between the distance parameters of the macrocosm of classical spacetime geometry and the microcosm of the quantum realm.

String-Boson |
Wavelength (λ) m |
Energy (hc/λ) J & eV |
Modular Wavelength m |
Significance |

1. Planck-Boson | 1.2x10^{-34} m |
1.6 GJ or 9.9x10^{27} eV |
8.0x10^{33} m |
Outside Hubble Horizon Limit |

2. Monopole-Boson | 4.6x10^{-32} m |
4.3 MJ or 2.7x10^{25} eV |
2.2x10^{31} m |
Outside Hubble Horizon Limit |

3. XL-Boson | 6.6x10^{-31} m |
303 kJ or 1.9x10^{24} eV |
1.5x10^{30} m |
Outside Hubble Horizon Limit |

4. X-K-Boson transit (+) | 8.8x10^{-28} m |
227 J or 1.6x10^{21} eV |
1.1x10^{27} m |
2πR_{Hubble11D} |

5. X-K-Boson transit (-) | 1.0x10^{-27} m |
201 J or 1.2x10^{21} eV |
1.0x10^{27} m |
2πR_{HubbleHorizonLimit} |

6. CosmicRayToe | 1.9x10^{-27} m |
106 J or 6.6x10^{20} eV |
5.3x10^{26} m |
2πR_{Hubble10D} |

7. CosmicRayAnkle | 2.0x10^{-25} m |
1.0 J or 6.2x10^{18} eV |
5.0x10^{24} m |
Galactic Supercluster Scale |

8. CosmicRayKnee (+) | 1.0x10^{-22} m |
0.002 J or 1.24x10^{16} eV |
1.0x10^{22} m |
Galactic Halo(Group) Scale |

9. CosmicRayKnee (-) | 6.3x10^{-22} m |
0.3 mJ or 2.0x10^{15} eV |
1.6x10^{21} m |
Galactic Disc(Halo) Scale |

10.CosmicRay | 1.4x10^{-20 }m |
0.002 mJ or 1.4x10^{13 }eV |
7.1x10^{19 }m |
Galactic Core Scale |

Lower Cosmic Ray energies then become defined in standard physics, such as supernovae, neutron stars and related phenomena, engaging electron accelerations and synchrotron radiation.

7. represents the ECosmic-Boson aka superstring class IIA as a D-brane attached open string dual to the (selfdual) monopole string class IIB and where the D-Brane or Dirichlet-Coupling in both cases becomes the 'intermediary' heterotic (closed loop) superstring HO(32).

It is the HO(32) superstring, which as a bosonic full-quantum spin superstring bifurcates into the subsequently emerging quark-lepton families as the K-L-Boson split into Proto-DiNeutronic Ylemic NeutronMatter.

The Ylem then manifests the massless Higgs Bosonic precursor as a scalar 'Neutron-Boson' (10), which then becomes massinductive under utility of the Equivalence Principle of General Relativity, relating gravitational mass to inertial mass.

It are supersymmetric double neutrons which bifurcate into the observed mass content in the universe and not a decoupling matter-antimatter symmetry. The primordial neutron beta-decay so manifests the nucleon-lepton distinction in the decoupling of the strongweak nuclear interaction, mediated by the electromagnetic alpha-interaction hitherto unified with the omega-gravitational interaction. This primordial ylem radioactivity manifests the bosonic string class IIB as a monopolic masscurrent as a D-brane interaction in modular duality to the transformation of the selfdual magnetic monopole to the bi-dual electromagnetic cosmic rays at the ECosmic energy level. The monopole class is chiral (selfdual) and the Ecosmic class is nonchiral (bi-dual); from this derives the nonparity of the spacial symmetry aka the CP-Violation of the weak nuclear interaction, related to neutrinoflux as monopolic superconductive currentflows.

As the heterotic classes are all 'closed looped', the elementary particles of the standard models emerge from the HE(64) class coupled to the HO(32) class in the inflationary string epoch.

8. depicts the Weyl-Boson of the Big Bang Planck-singularity of the Weyl-Geodesic of relativistic spacetime as the final 'octonionised' string class HE(8x8).

9. modulates the experimentally well measured 'knee' energy for Cosmic Rays as the distribution flux of high-energy protons as the primary particle in the 2π-factor. The wormhole radius is 10^{-22} m/2π for a Halo-(DarkMatter)-Radius of 2πx10^{22} metres.

10. is the massless ancestor of the Higgs-template and defined through the Weyl-String-Eigenenergy E*=kT*=hf*=m*c^{2} =1/e*=1/2R_{e }c^{2}.

The scale of (10) emerges from the holographic principle as 2π^{2}R*^{3}.f*^{2}=e* for R*=h/(2πm'c)=1.41188..x10^{-20 }m for a Compton Energy of E'=m'c^{2}=2.2545..x10^{-6} J or 14.03 TeV, which serendipitously is the maxium energy regime for which the LHC is designed.

The Experimental Evidence for the Superstrings is observed indeed every day in the laboratories of the astrophysics around the globe.

*The SciAm article below from 1998 links to the above in clarification of the questions raised.**http://auger.cnrs.fr/presse/ScAm_jan97.html*

**Cosmic Rays at the Energy Frontier**

**These particles carry more energy than any others in the universe. Their origin is unknown but may be relatively nearby.**

by James W. Cronin, Thomas K. Gaisser and Simon P. Swordy

Roughly once a second, a subatomic particle enters the earth's atmosphere carrying as much energy as a well-thrown rock. Somewhere in the universe, that fact implies, there are forces that can impart to a single proton 100 million times the energy achievable by the most powerful earthbound accelerators. Where and how? Those questions have occupied physicists since cosmic rays were first discovered in 1912 (although the entities in question are now known to be particles, the name "ray" persists). The interstellar medium contains atomic nuclei of every element in the periodic table, all moving under the influence of electrical and magnetic fields. Without the screening effect of the earth's atmosphere, cosmic rays would pose a significant health threat; indeed, people living in mountainous regions or making frequent airplane trips pick up a measurable extra radiation dose.

Perhaps the most remarkable feature of this radiation is that investigators have not yet found a natural end to the cosmic-ray spectrum. Most well-known sources of charged particles--such as the sun, with its solar wind--have a characteristic energy limit; they simply do not produce particles with energies above this limit. In contrast, cosmic rays appear, albeit in decreasing numbers, at energies as high as astrophysicists can measure. The data run out at levels around 300 billion times the rest-mass energy of a proton because there is at present no detector large enough to sample the very low number of incoming particles predicted. Nevertheless, evidence of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays has been seen at intervals of several years as particles hitting the atmosphere create myriad secondary particles (which are easier to detect).

On October 15, 1991, for example, a cosmic-ray observatory in the Utah desert registered a shower of secondary particles from a 50-joule (3 x 10^{20} electron volts) cosmic ray. Although the cosmic-ray flux decreases with higher energy, this decline levels off somewhat above about 10^{16} eV, suggesting that the mechanisms responsible for ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays are different from those for rays of more moderate energy. In 1960 Bernard Peters of the Tata Institute in Bombay suggested that lower-energy cosmic rays are produced predominantly inside our own galaxy, whereas those of higher energy come from more distant sources. One reason to think so is that a cosmic-ray proton carrying more than 10^{19} eV, for example, would not be deflected significantly by any of the magnetic fields typically generated by a galaxy, so it would travel more or less straight. If such particles came from inside our galaxy, we might expect to see different numbers coming from various directions because the galaxy is not arranged symmetrically around us. Instead the distribution is essentially isotropic, as is that of the lower-energy rays, whose directions are scattered.

**Supernova Pumps**

Such tenuous inferences reveal how little is known for certain about the origin of cosmic rays. Astrophysicists have plausible models for how they might be produced but no definitive answers. This state of affairs may be the result of the almost unimaginable difference between conditions on the earth and in the regions where cosmic rays are born. The space between the stars contains only about one atom per cubic centimeter, a far lower density than the best artificial vacuums we can create.

Furthermore, these volumes are filled with vast electrical and magnetic fields, intimately connected to a diffuse population of charged particles even less numerous than the neutral atoms.

This environment is far from the peaceful place one might expect: the low densities allow electrical and magnetic forces to operate over large distances and timescales in a manner that would be quickly damped out in material of terrestrial densities. Galactic space is therefore filled with an energetic and turbulent plasma of partially ionized gas in a state of violent activity. The motion is often hard to observe on human timescales because astronomical distances are so large; nevertheless, those same distances allow even moderate forces to achieve impressive results. A particle might zip through a terrestrial accelerator in a few microseconds, but it could spend years or even millennia in the accelerator's cosmic counterpart. (The timescales are further complicated by the strange, relativity-distorted framework that ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays inhabit. If we could observe such a particle for 10,000 years, that period would correspond to only a single second as far as the particle is concerned.)

Astronomers have long speculated that the bulk of galactic cosmic rays--those with energies below about 10^{16} eV--originate with supernovae. A compelling reason for this theory is that the power required to maintain the observed supply of cosmic-ray nuclei in our Milky Way galaxy is only slightly less than the average kinetic energy delivered to the galactic medium by the three supernova explosions that occur every century. There are few, if any, other sources of this amount of power in our galaxy.

When a massive star collapses, the outer parts of the star explode at speeds of up to 10,000 kilometers per second and more. A similar amount of energy is released when a white dwarf star undergoes complete disintegration in a thermonuclear detonation. In both types of supernovae the ejected matter expands at supersonic velocities, driving a strong shock into the surrounding medium. Such shocks are expected to accelerate nuclei from the material they pass through, turning them into cosmic rays. Because cosmic rays are charged, they follow complicated paths through interstellar magnetic fields. As a result, their directions as observed from the earth yield no information about the location of their original source.

By looking at the synchrotron radiation sometimes associated with supernova remnants, researchers have found more direct evidence that supernovae can act as accelerators. Synchrotron radiation is characteristic of high-energy electrons moving in an intense magnetic field of the kind that might act as a cosmic-ray accelerator, and the presence of synchrotron x-rays in some supernova remnants suggests particularly high energies. (In earthbound devices, synchrotron emission limits a particle's energy because the emission rate increases as a particle goes faster; at some point, the radiation bleeds energy out of an accelerating particle as fast as it can be pumped in.) Recently the Japanese x-ray satellite Asca made images of the shell of Supernova 1006, which exploded 990 years ago. Unlike the radiation from the interior of the remnant, the x-radiation from the shell has the features characteristic of synchrotron radiation. Astrophysicists have deduced that electrons are being accelerated there at up to 10^{14} eV (100 TeV).

The EGRET detector on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory has also been used to study point sources of gamma rays identified with supernova remnants. The observed intensities and spectra (up to a billion electron volts) are consistent with an origin from the decay of particles called neutral pions, which could be produced by cosmic rays from the exploding star's remnants colliding with nearby interstellar gas. Interestingly, however, searches made by the ground-based Whipple Observatory for gamma rays of much higher energies from some of the same remnants have not seen signals at the levels that would be expected if the supernovae were accelerating particles to 10^{14} eV or more.

A complementary method for testing the association of high-energy cosmic rays with supernovae involves the elemental composition of cosmic-ray nuclei. The size of the orbit of a charged particle in a magnetic field is proportional to its total momentum per unit charge, so heavier nuclei have greater total energy for a given orbit size. Any process that limits the particle acceleration on the basis of orbit size (such as an accelerating region of limited extent) will thus lead to an excess of heavier nuclei at high energies. Eventually we would like to be able to go further and look for elemental signatures of acceleration in specific types of supernovae. For example, the supernova of a white dwarf detonation would accelerate whatever nuclei populate the local interstellar medium. A supernova that followed the collapse of a massive star, in contrast, would accelerate the surrounding stellar wind, which is characteristic of the outer layers of the progenitor star at earlier stages of its evolution. In some cases, the wind could include an increased fraction of helium, carbon or even heavier nuclei.

The identity of high-energy cosmic rays is all but lost when they interact with atoms in the earth's atmosphere and form a shower of secondary particles. Hence, to be absolutely sure of the nuclear composition, measurements must be made before the cosmic rays reach dense atmosphere. Unfortunately, to collect 100 cosmic rays of energies near 10^{14} eV, a 10-square-meter detector would have to be in orbit for three years. Typical exposures at present are more like the equivalent of one square meter for three days.

Researchers are attacking this problem with some ingenious experiments. For example, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration has developed techniques to loft large payloads (about three tons) with high-altitude balloons for many days. These experiments cost a tiny fraction of what an equivalent satellite detector would. The most successful flights of this type have taken place in Antarctica, where the upper atmosphere winds blow in an almost constant circle around the South Pole. A payload launched at McMurdo Sound on the coast of Antarctica will travel at a nearly constant radius from the Pole and return eventually to near the launch site. Some balloons have circled the continent for 10 days. One of us (Swordy) is collaborating with Dietrich Müller and Peter Meyer of the University of Chicago on a 10-square-meter detector that could measure heavy cosmic rays of up to 10^{15} eV on such a flight. There are efforts to extend the exposure times to roughly 100 days with similar flights nearer the equator.

**Across Intergalactic Space**

Studying even higher-energy cosmic rays--those produced by sources as yet unknown--requires large ground-based detectors, which overcome the problem of low flux by watching enormous effective areas for months or years. The information, however, must be extracted from cascades of secondary particles--electrons, muons and gamma rays--initiated high in the atmosphere by an incoming cosmic-ray nucleus. Such indirect methods can only suggest general features of the composition of a cosmic ray on a statistical basis, rather than identifying the atomic number of each incoming nucleus.

At ground level, the millions of secondary particles unleashed by one cosmic ray are spread over a radius of hundreds of meters. Because it is impractical to blanket such a large area with detectors, the detectors typically sample these air showers at a few hundred or so discrete locations. Technical improvements have enabled such devices to collect increasingly sophisticated data sets, thus refining the conclusions we can draw from each shower. For example, the CASA-MIA-DICE experiment in Utah, in which two of us (Cronin and Swordy) are involved, measures the distributions of electrons and muons at ground level. It also detects Cerenkov light (a type of optical shock wave produced by particles moving faster than the speed of light in their surrounding medium) generated by the shower particles at various levels in the atmosphere. These data enable us to reconstruct the shape of the shower more reliably and thus take a better guess at the energy and identity of the cosmic ray that initiated it. The third one of us (Gaisser) is working with an array that measures showers reaching the surface at the South Pole. This experiment works in conjunction with AMANDA, which detects energetic muons produced in the same showers by observing Cerenkov radiation produced deep in the ice cap. The primary goal of AMANDA is to catch traces of neutrinos produced in cosmic accelerators, which may generate upward-streaming showers after passing through the earth.

In addition to gathering better data, researchers are also improving detailed computer simulations that model how air showers develop. These simulations help us to understand both the capabilities and the limitations of ground-based measurements. The extension to higher energies of direct cosmic-ray detection experiments, which allows both ground-based and airborne detectors to observe the same kinds of cosmic rays, will also help calibrate our ground-based data.

**Rare Giants**

Cosmic rays with energies above 10^{20} eV strike the earth's atmosphere at a rate of only about one per square kilometer a year. As a result, studying them requires an air-shower detector of truly gigantic proportions. In addition to the 1991 event in Utah, particles with energies above 10^{20} eV have been seen by groups elsewhere in the U.S., in Akeno, Japan, in Haverah Park, U.K., and in Yakutsk, Siberia. Particles of such high energy pose a conundrum. On the one hand, they are likely to come from outside our galaxy because no known acceleration mechanism could produce them and because they approach from all directions even though a galactic magnetic field is insufficient to bend their path. On the other hand, their source cannot be more than about 30 million light-years away, because the particles would otherwise lose energy by interaction with the universal microwave background--radiation left over from the birth of the cosmos in the big bang. In the relativistic universe that the highest-energy cosmic rays inhabit, even a single radio-frequency photon packs enough punch to rob a particle of much of its energy.

If the sources of such high-energy particles were distributed uniformly throughout the cosmos, interaction with the microwave background would cause a sharp cutoff in the number of particles with energy above 5 x 10^{19} eV, but that is not the case. There are as yet too few events above this nominal threshold for us to know for certain what is going on, but even the few we have seen provide us with a unique opportunity for theorizing. Because these rays are essentially undeflected by the weak intergalactic magnetic fields, measuring the direction of travel of a large enough sample should yield unambiguous clues to the locations of their sources.

It is interesting to speculate what the sources might be. Three recent hypotheses suggest the range of possibilities: galactic black-hole accretion disks, gamma-ray bursts and topological defects in the fabric of the universe. Astrophysicists have predicted that black holes of a billion solar masses or more, accreting matter in the nuclei of active galaxies, are needed to drive relativistic jets of matter far into intergalactic space at speeds approaching that of light; such jets have been mapped with radio telescopes. Peter L. Biermann of the Max Planck Institute for Radioastronomy in Bonn and his collaborators suggest that the hot spots seen in these radio lobes are shock fronts that accelerate cosmic rays to ultrahigh energy. There are some indications that the directions of the highest-energy cosmic rays to some extent follow the distribution of radio galaxies in the sky.

The speculation about gamma-ray bursts takes off from the theory that the bursts are created by relativistic explosions, perhaps resulting from the coalescence of neutron stars. Mario Vietri of the Astronomical Observatory of Rome and Eli Waxman of Princeton University independently noted a rough match between the energy available in such cataclysms and that needed to supply the observed flux of the highest-energy cosmic rays. They argue that the ultrahigh-speed shocks driven by these explosions act as cosmic accelerators.

Perhaps most intriguing is the notion that ultrahigh-energy particles owe their existence to the decay of monopoles, strings, domain walls and other topological defects that might have formed in the early universe. These hypothetical objects are believed to harbor remnants of an earlier, more symmetrical phase of the fundamental fields in nature, when gravity, electromagnetism and the weak and strong nuclear forces were merged. They can be thought of, in a sense, as infinitesimal pockets preserving bits of the universe as it existed in the fractional instants after the big bang. As these pockets collapse, and the symmetry of the forces within them breaks, the energy stored in them is released in the form of supermassive particles that immediately decay into jets of particles with energies up to 100,000 times greater than those of the known ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays. In this scenario the ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays we observe are the comparatively sluggish products of cosmological particle cascades.

Whatever the source of these cosmic rays, the challenge is to collect enough of them to search for detailed correlations with extragalactic objects. The AGASA array in Japan currently has an effective area of 200 square kilometers, and the new Fly's Eye HiRes experiment in Utah will cover about 1,000 square kilometers. Each detector, however, can capture only a few ultrahigh-energy events a year. For the past few years, Cronin and Alan A. Watson of the University of Leeds have been spearheading an initiative to gather an even larger sample of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays. This development is named the Auger Project, after Pierre Auger, the French scientist who first investigated the phenomenon of correlated showers of particles from cosmic rays. The plan is to provide detectors with areas of 9,000 square kilometers that are capable of measuring hundreds of high-energy events a year. A detector field would consist of many stations on a 1.5-kilometer grid; a single event might trigger dozens of stations. An Auger Project design workshop held at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in 1995 has shown how modern off-the-shelf technology such as solar cells, cellular telephones and Global Positioning System receivers can make such a system far easier to construct. A detector the size of Rhode Island could be built for about $50 million. To cover the entire sky, two such detectors are planned, one each for the Northern and Southern hemispheres.

As researchers confront the problem of building and operating such gigantic detector networks, the fundamental question remains: Can nature produce even more energetic particles than those we have seen? Could there be still higher-energy cosmic rays, or are we already beginning to detect the highest-energy particles our universe can create?

**Further Reading**

Introduction to Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Ray Physics. Pierre Sokolsky. Addison-Wesley, 1988. Cosmic Rays and Particle Physics. Thomas K. Gaisser. Cambridge University Press, 1990. High Energy Astrophysics, Vol. 1. Second edition. Malcolm S. Longair. Cambridge University Press, 1992. Cosmic Ray Observations below 10^{14} eV. Simon Swordy in Proceedings of the XXIII International Cosmic Ray Conference. Edited by D. A. Leahy, R. B. Hicks and D. Venkatesan. World Scientific, 1994.

**The Authors**

JAMES W. CRONIN, THOMAS K. GAISSER and SIMON P. SWORDY work on both the theoretical questions of how cosmic rays are created and the practical problems inherent in detecting and analyzing them. Cronin, a professor of physics at the University of Chicago since 1971, earned his master's degree from the university in 1953 and his doctorate in 1955. In 1980 he shared the Nobel Prize with Val L. Fitch for work on symmetry violations in the decay of mesons. Gaisser, a professor of physics at the University of Delaware, has concentrated on the interpretation of atmospheric cosmic-ray cascades; he earned his doctorate from Brown University in 1967. In 1995 Gaisser spent two months in Antarctica setting up cosmic-ray detectors. Swordy, an associate professor at Chicago, has been active in cosmic-ray measurement since 1976. He earned his Ph.D. from the University of Bristol in 1979.

**2.4 in Quark-Lepton Unification in XL-Boson Class HE(64)**

SeW.G --- S.EW.G

**2.5 The Continuous Inflaton in 10D/4D DeSitter Spacetime**

In the early radiation dominated cosmology; the quintessence was positive and the matter energy dominated the intrinsic Milgröm deceleration from the Instanton n=n_{ps} to n=0.18023 (about 3.04 Billion years) when the quintessence vanished and including a Recombination epoch when the hitherto opaque universe became transparent in the formation of the first hydrogen atoms from the quark-lepton plasma transmuted from the X-L Boson string class HO(32) of the Inflaton epoch preceding the Quantum Big Bang aka the Instanton.

From the modular membrane duality for wormhole radius r_{ps }= l_{ps}/2p, the critical modulated Schwarzschild radius r_{ss }= 2pl_{ss} = 2px10^{22} m* for l_{ps} = 1/l_{ss}

and for an applied scalefactor a = n/[n+1] = l_{ss}/R_{H} = {1-1/[n+1]}

for a n=H_{o}t coordinate n_{recombination} = 6.259485x10^{-5 }or about 6.259485x10^{-5}(16.88 Gy) = 1.056601 Million years

attenuated by exp{-hf/kT} = e^{-1} = 0.367879 to a characteristic cosmological time coordinate of 0.36788x1.056601 = 388,702 years after the Instanton n_{ps}.

The attenuation of the recombination coordinate then gives the cosmic temperature background for this epoch in the coordinate interval for the curvature radius

R(n=2.302736x10^{-5}) = 3.67894x10^{21} m* to R(n=6.259485x10^{-5}) = 10^{22} m*.

This radial displacement scale represents the size of a typical major galaxy in the cosmology; a galactic structure, which became potentialised in the Schwarzschild matter evolution and its manifestation in the ylemic prototypical first generation magnetar-neutron stars, whose emergence was solely dependent on the experienced cosmic temperature background and not on their mass distributions.

The temperature evolution of the Instanton can be written as a function of the luminosity L(n,T) with R(n)=R_{H}(n/[n+1]) as the radius of the luminating surface

L(n_{ps},T(n_{ps}) = 6π^{2}l_{ps}^{2}.σ.T_{nps}^{4 }= 2.6711043034x10^{96 }Watts*, where σ = Stefan's Constant = 2π^{5}k^{4}/15h^{3}c^{2} and as a product of the defined 'master constants' k, h, c^{2}, π and 'e'.

L(n,T) = 3H_{o}M_{o}.c^{2}/550n and for Temperature T(n_{ps}) ----------- T(n_{ps}) = 2.93515511x10^{36 }Kelvin*.

T(n)^{4} = H_{o}M_{o}c^{2}/(2p^{2}sR_{H}^{2}[550n^{3}/[n+1]^{2}]) for

T(n)^{4} = {[n+1]^{2}/n^{3}}H_{o}M_{o}c^{2}/(2p^{2}sR_{H}^{2}[550]) = 18.1995{[n+1]^{2}/n^{3}} (K^{4}/V)*

for a temperature interval in using the recombination epoch coordinates T(n_{1}=6.2302736x10^{-5}) = 2945.42 K* to T(n_{2}=6.259485x10^{-5}) = 2935.11 K*

This manifests as a 'false vacuum' and as a temperature gradient, as a causation of the Big Bang Instanton on physical grounds.

The metaphysical ground is the symmetry breaking from the source parity violation described in the birth and necessity of the Graviton to resymmetrize the UFoQR.

T(n_{ps}) of the singularity is 0.0389 or 3.89% of the pre-singularity.

So the POTENTIAL Temperature manifests as 3.89% in the KINETIC Temperature' which doubles in the Virial Theorem to 7.78% as 2KE + PE = 0:

TEMPERATURE/T(n_{ps})=7.544808988..x10^{37}/2.93515511x10^{36}=25.705=1/0.03890...

Applying the actual VPE at the Instanton to this temperature gradient:

r_{VPE}/r_{EMR} = {4pE_{ps}/l_{ps}3}/{8p^{5}E_{ps}^{4}/15h^{3}c^{3}} = 15/2p^{4} = 0.07599486.. = 1/12.9878.. indicating the proportionality E_{VPE}/E_{EMR} = 2T_{ps}/T_{potential} at the Instanton from the Inflaton as a original form of the vbirial theorem, staing the Kinetic Energy of the Instanton and the QBB Lambda to be twice the Potential Energy of the de Broglie wave matter Inflaton, then manifesting as the M_{o}/2M_{Hubble }= r_{Hyper}/2R_{Hubble} Schwarzschild mass cosmo-evolution.

Now reducing the timeinstanton t_{ps}=n_{ps}/H_{o} of 3.33x10^{-31 }seconds by the Temperature Gradient in the Luminosity Function gives you the scalar Higgs Potential Maximum at a pre-singularity time of t_{HiggsPE}=t_{ps}.T(n_{ps})/TEMPERATURE=1.297x10^{-32 }seconds.

This then extrapolates the Big Bang singularity backwards in Time to harmonise the equations and to establish the 'driving force of the vacuum' as potential scalar Higgs Temperature Field.

All the further evolvement of the universe so becomes a function of Temperature and not of mass.

The next big phasetransition is the attunement of the BOSONIC UNIFICATION, namely the 'singularity' temperature T_{ps}=1.41x10^{20} K with the Luminosity function.

This occurs at a normal time of 1.9 nanoseconds into the cosmology.

It is then that the universe as a unity has this temperature and so allows BOSONIC differentiation between particles. The INDIVIDUATED PHOTON of the mass was born then and not before, as the entire universe was a PHOTON as a macroquantised superstring up to then.

The size of the universe at that time was that of being 1.14 metres across.

Next came the electroweak symmetry breaking at 1/365 seconds and at a temperature of so 10^{15} Kelvin* and so it continued.

The lower dimensional lightpath x=ct in lightspeed invariance c=lf so becomes modular dualised in the higher dimensional lightpath of the tachyonic de Broglie Inflaton-Instanton V_{debroglie}=c/n_{ps} of the Inflaton.

{(2-n)(n+1)}^{3}/n^{3} = V_{dS'}/V_{dS} ......(4.36038 for n_{present}) in the first completing Hubble cycle

n^{3}/(2-n)^{3} =V_{AdS}/V_{dS'} ................. (2.22379 for n_{present}) in the first completing Hubble cycle

(n+1)^{3} = VA_{dS}/V_{dS} .....................(9.69657 for n_{present}) in the first completing Hubble cycle

r_{critical} = 3H_{o}^{2}/8pG_{o} {Sphere} and H_{o}^{2}/4p^{2}G_{o} {Hypersphere-Torus in factor 3p/2} (constant for all n per Hubble cycle)

r_{critical} = 3.78782x10^{-27} [kg/m^{3}]* and 8.038003x10^{-28 }[kg/m^{3}]*

r_{dS}V_{dS} = r_{dS'}V_{dS'} = r_{AdS}V_{AdS} = r_{critical}V_{Hubble} = M_{Hubble} = c^{2}R_{H}/2G_{o} = 6.47061227x10^{52} kg*