A white dwarf star is important as a distance indicator for the cosmic distances. Should it be in a binary system with another star in mutual orbit about each other, then mass can transfer via magnetic activity from the companion star and the Chandrasekhar limit might so become exceeded and the white dwarf explodes as a supernova type Ia.
Supernovae class Ia show no helium absorption in their spectra but show a strong absorption of singly ionised silicon atoms at about 610 nanometres; supernovae class Ib have helium lines, but no silicon lines and supernovae class Ic have neither; hydrogen is absent in all supernovae spectra type I.
Supernovae spectra change significantly, varying in brightness, as the explosion synthesises heavy elements, such as gold, iron and oxygen in the thermonuclear reactions.
Supernovae class II are rarer and show significant hydrogen absorption and are thought to collapse into a neutron star or Black Hole, having a preexplosion mass of over 8 solar masses.
The brightest supernovae are of type Ia and the uniformity of their light curves allows calibration of their apparent brightness with their 'standard' true brightness, the luminosity so serving as an indicator as to their distance by astronomical distance-luminosity calibrations.
About one supernova class Ia explodes in a typical galaxy every 300 years, so in observing a large sample of about 3600 galaxies, one such explosion per month should be seen.
The experimental data collected by the various supernova observers, and under utility of the Hubble Space Telescope to track the brightness variations of discovered supernovae type Ia, now converged in 1998 to the conclusion, that distant supernovae are between 20% and 30% dimmer than expected and as a consequence of their measured redshift they appear to be further away then theory permits.

An interpretation of this discovery implies, that the universe's expansion is accelerating; the measured redshift depicting a distance further away for a dimmer brightness than anticipated by theory.
Closer analysis of the redshift data shows an expected distribution of luminosities, calibrated to their distances in the Chilean Cala-Tololo data, up to a redshift of about 0.12 and with a redshift-gap until a redshift of 0.3; after which the 'High-Z's' begin to show the 'curving away' from a predicted decelerating expansionrate in concordance with an Euclidean flat universe of Einsteinian General Relativity.
The highest redshift recorded in 1998 was that of 'supernova Iae' at (z=1.1) by the 'High-Z-Team'.

A description of the universe as decelerating with precise deceleration parameters given in a balancing of a gravitational omega, a quintessential lambda and a Milgrom parameter points to a possible variation in the Electromagnetic Finestructure constant Alpha.

The two research results in the [Alpha]-Variation and the 'Accelerating Cosmos of the Dark Energy' are closely related.
To preemt my analysis, the universe is not accelerating, but appears to do so because of the interdimensional intersection of the EMR parameters of the spectroscopic measurements.
And it appears to accelerate for a specific redshift interval, which also is responsible for the measured [Alpha]-Variation, the 'dip' in [Alpha] is like a redshift becoming a blueshift for a specific epoch.

My cosmological analysis of the phenomena predicts, that supernovae type Ia with a redshift above 1.84 will be measured to conform to the theoretical predictions for a decelerating and flat supercosmos.
The appearance of an accelerating cosmos is a limited phenomenon, relevant for a specific and unmapped redshift interval from (z=0.343 to 0.291), with interval (z = 1.08 to 1.84) imaged in the interval (0.343 to 0.291) with a variation maximum for thge mapping at the Arpian limit (zarp = 0.2505).

In particular, it has already been noted, that Supernova Iae, also known as SN1998eq with redshift 1.1 is less anomalously dimmed than the nearer ones; just as I predict for all the more distant ones.
SN1997ff with redshift 1.7 is one of the most distant supernova found by Adam Riess in 2001 by the Hubble-Space-Telescope at the time of this writing and whilst the argument can be made that acceleration decreases with distance, the actual location in relationship to the cosmological redshift remains constant in a 'slowing down from faster' or 'speeding up from slower' , if the decisive measuring stick is the expansion of the universe under constancy of light speed (c); demanding however a 'Redshift-Correlation-Correction'.

Indulge yourself in a thought experiment and travel with the expanding event horizon, the boundary of the universe (which has no boundary in the curved overall sense, all locations being centred selfrelatively), this then becomes the looking back in time to the origin of the Big Bang.
You then experience the receeding origin of the singularity slowly moving away from you and relative to you as 'stationary observer' at the event horizon, your own recessional velocity of (22% of (c)) is nullified and must be accounted for in your calculations of the recessional universe you are observing.

cosmicsurferAds. CurvatureAdS.

The 'de Broglie' inflationary model, where a supermembrane epoch ends in timeinstantenuity as the EpsEss heterotic superstring, which then expands with a decreasing recessional velocity towards a 'de Broglie' boundary as macroquantisation in 10D, but beginning with light speed (c) under guidance of Special Relativity can be applied.
Other inflation scenarios, such as chaotic inflation had proved untenable by the experimental data and the microwave background pointing to a zero curvature and to a flat universe.
The macro quantisation of the heterotic superstring, also known as HE(8X8) constitutes the 'conifoldment' of the higher dimensions, either as a 6D-Calabi-Yau manifold or as a 7D-Joyce-Sphere, relative to 10D-C-space and 11D-M-space respectively.

And the 'de Broglie' inflation quantises Einstein's field equations of General Relativity in their Friedmann formulations; the Milgrom parameter becoming acceleration: (-2cHo/(n+1)3) and the distance-scale factor parametrising as: {r[n] = Rmax(n/(n+1))} and the velocity as: (c/(n+1)2); the parametric constant for dimensionless cycletime is: (n = Hoxt).

And so knowing the present cycletime (np=1.132419321) via an arbitrary Mean-Alignment-Time or MAT, relative to a phase shiftable proto universe and set as (Midnight, November 4th, 1996, Canberra, Australia, local time); the present universal speed of recession is calculated as (22% of c), which then maps a selfrelative 'Arpian redshift' as the renormalisation for the receeding event horizon, mirrored in the Big Bang singularity; (zarp = 0.250529154).

We also calculate the 10D expansion of the universe as (53.105% or a radius of 8.96 billion lightyears), increasing to (113.24% or 19.11 billion lightyears [ly]) for the 11D universe.
The Hubble-Oscillation so defines the nodal Hubble-Constant: (Ho=1.8877728042x10-18 1/s*) or 58.04 Hubble Units [km/Mpc.s]) and the 10D-cosmic asymptotic diameter as (33.7522131 billion ly*). The Hubble constant varies between fps and Ho and is calculated to assume a a value of 66.9 Hubble units for the present time coordinate np in the cosmic evolution.

The [Alpha]-Variation so encompasses a period of (2[19.11 - 16.88] = 4.46 billion years) and hence two distance intervals; one from the present epoch (np) to a distance 2.23 billion years into the past at the nodal value (n=1) and its 11D-image at (n=1-0.1324..=0.8676).
Relative to the Big Bang Source however, this interval is mapped from (n=0.1324.. to n=0.2648..) as a linear double interval; just as two mirrors facing each other would reflect each other in the spacetime 'in between'. This 'in between' becomes our expanding spacetime and we can calculate the relevant distances, using cycletime n as parameter and the nodal Hubble-Constant as invariant at (n=1).
At (n=0.1324..or 2.23 billion years after the Big Bang; v'/c=0.7798 and z =1.843), relative to event horizon and at (n=0.2648.. or 4.46 billion years after the Big Bang; v'/c=0.6251 and z =1.08), relative to event horizon.

The cosmological redshift epoch between (z=1.082 to 1.843) and corresponding to a 2.23 billion year duration includes the 'peak of galaxies' at (z=1.18) and is characterised in the absolute minimum of the quintessential lambda and the gravitational maximum contractions to form galactic structures and superstructures under the auspices of the Sarkar Constant of 236.1 million lightyears.

Now looking back at those large redshift values, the lower one coinciding with the redshift of z=1.1 for supernova 1998 Iae, measured by Brian Schmidt of the 'High-Z-Team' must encompass a 'looking through' the imaged z-interval, namely the interval from the node at 2.23 billion years back to 4.46 billion years or the z-interval from
(n=0.8676, v'/c=0.2867, z=0.3431) to (n=1.0000, v'/c=0.2500, z=0.2910).

In other words, the 11D intersection of M-space intersects 10D-C-space in the two intervals, which form selfrelative images of each other.
The 10D Riemann hypersphere is subject to gravitation in mass-parameters and decelerates asymptotically towards its 11D M-space boundary in negative and open curvature, mirroring the asymptotic expansion in perfect flatness of Euclidean zero curvature, however.
The EMR-parameters so double themselves in the said interval, a interval which is itself expanding and contracts between the two nodal values of maximum frequency (fps) and minimum frequency (Ho).
But it is only the EMR parameter that defines this 'oscillating universe', the mass parameter remains asymptotic as defined in the parametric scalefactor
{r(n)=Rmax(n/(n+1), with Rmax=RHubble=RH=1.597767545x1026 m*}.

Revisiting the redshift data of 1998, we notice the 'missing redshifts' in the interval from (z=0.12-0.3), with the limiting nodal (z=1.843) mapped onto the nodal (z=0.291) and the boundary image (z=1.082) mapped in its boundary image (z=0.343). The first supernova, beginning to 'curve away' from the decelerating expansion predicted by theory, is at about (z=0.12).
Any receeding cosmological object with a redshift exceeding (z=0.291) can be considered to be moving in the 'Hubble Flow' with a measured redshift (zm=z), because after a distance of 2.23 billion ly no doubling of the electromagnetic parameters occurs for the distance between the two cosmic nodes.

But we find three z-intervals, in whom we must apply a redshift-correction; set in the images of the boundaries and the nodes.
The boundary (z=0.343, z=1.082) is imaged as the boundary image (zarp=0.2505, z=1.082) in the nodal mirror of (z=0.291, z=1.843) and the boundary mirror of (zarp=0.2505, z=1.082) images the nodal (z=0.291, z=1.843) in the nodal (z=zni, z=1.843).

If (v'/c=0.22), then (zm=zarp=0.2505 as the variation maximum) and at the event horizon, where zm=0, the z(zm)=zarp and azm+b=0.291 for zm=zni; subsequently (b=zarp & azni=0.0405) and a the gradient of the 'Local Flow', given in the equation: (z(zm)=azm+0.2505) for the present epoch.

The [Alpha]-Redshift spans the z(zm) range from (0.291 to 0.343) for the zm-interval from (zni to 0.2505) with positive gradient (0.052/(0.2505-zni)) and letting this gradient equal (a=0 from/zni) gives zni=0.1097 and (a=0.3692, for the [Alpha]-Redshift equation:

The [Alpha]-Blueshift spans the zm-interval from (0.2505 to 0.2910) for the same range with a negative gradient ( -0.052/0.0405=-1.284) and a linear equation:

So the 'curving away' from the deceleration model at (z=1.12) becomes a consequence of the redshift (zni=0.1097) forming a nodal image in the other nodal redshifts of (z=0.291 and z=1.843); with the boundary redshift measured as (zm=0.2505), becoming a blueshift boundary for the interval until (zm=0.291), at which the true 'Hubble-Flow' begins at the present epoch with linear equation: (z(zm) = zm).

The nearest, most studied and most luminous quasar (or quasi-stellar object) is called 'Q3C273' (Cambridge catalogue); its recessional velocity is measured as (v'/c=0.14565), for a (zm=0.1580).
Applying the [Alpha]-Redshift equation gives a 'local flow correction' of: (z(0.1580)=0.3088), for which (n={√(c/v") -1}) and (v"/c=[(z2+2z)/(z2+2z+2)]) give corrected (n=0.9507) and (v"/c=0.2628).

The distance to 'Q3C273' can now be calculated simply by the application of the scalefactor r(n) in 10 and 11 dimensions in the formulations:
R10D(n) = r(np) - RH[n/(n+1)] and R11D(n) = [np - n]RH}
'Q3C273' in 10D is (RH(0.53105 - 0.48736) = 0.044(16.88 billion ly) = 737.428 million ly);
but in 11D this becomes: ([1.1324-0.9507]RH = 0.1817(0.53105)(16.88 billion ly) = 1.6288 billion ly).

As the universal [Alpha]-Variation, the zarp redshift is the maximum variation for the present epoch in the Hubble-Oscillation and the fluctuation of the Hubble parameter as the cosmic frequency is mirrored about (H'o(np)=Ho/(2-np)), valid for the (n=1 to 2)-cycle; hence (H'o(np)= 58.04/0.8676=66.90 Hubble units).
At the nodes, say at (np=2), (H'o) quantises as (fps) in the pixelation of spacetime.
At the nodal images however, (H'o) would assume its nodal value of 58.04 Hubble Units.

The Hubble 'Constant' subsequently varies with redshift at any cycletime (n); increasing from 58.04 to 66.9 in the z-intervals (0.1097-0.2505) and (0.2910-0.3431) and decreasing from 66.9 to 58.04 in the z-intervals (0.2505-0.2910) and (1.082-1.843) for the present Hubble epoch.
The 'arpian redshift' as variation maximum is situated at n-coordinate 0.8676, implying that correctly interpreted spectroscopic measurements must converge at a Hubble-Constant of 66.9 Hubble units and a projected mapped age for the universe of (0.8676x16.88 billion years) or 14.65 billion years.
For z=(0.3431-1.082), (Ho'=66.9) and the nodal intervals z=(0-0.110) and (z from 1.843) set it as (58.04).

This is a simple yet profound solution to the 70-year search to finetune the 'Hubble-Constant'.
It is no wonder, that there was so much disagreement regarding the measurements, seeing that it changes in the described intervals as a reflection of EMR parameters.
All astronomical and cosmological measurements engage optical instruments to catch photons and all of astrochemistry and astrophysics depends on spectrum analysis.
So the universe is 'well behaved' after all and decelerating under its own gravity, modified in the quintessence.

But how do you explain the 25%, on average, discrepancy in the luminosity of the supernovae examined?

That brings in the old 'Hubble Law', where the distance (RH) to an object receeding with velocity (v'=H'oxRH) sets an epoch dependent 'Hubble Constant' as the linear proportionality constant between recessional velocity and the distance to the object.
In the case of the quasar 'Q3C273', the measured redshift (z=0.1580) relates a recessional velocity of (v'=0.14565c); which is then 'corrected' to calculate the n-cycle position of 'Q3C273', allowing a Hubble-independent determination of its distance from the observer.

If you now use the applicable Hubble-Constant between (58.04 and 66.9) as (H'o=61.1 Hubble Units), interpolated say as:
(H'o=66.9-[0.2505-0.1580][66.9-58.0]/(0.2505-0.1097) = 66.9-5.8 = 61.1 Hubble Units); then the old Hubble Law with (61.1 Hubble Units=1.98x10-18 1/s*) gives you:
(RH= 0.14565c/H'o) and calculating as: (2.34 billion ly) and a distance 43% in excess of the n-cyclic value of (1.63 billion ly); but using a higher Hubble-Constant, such as 71 Hubble-Units, commonly used in the supernovae measurements, results in a scale reduction of 86% to (2.0 billion ly) and a 'dimming' effect of so 23%, which is the observed discrepancy.

So the spectroscopic measurements incorporate a natural 'dimming effect' in luminosities, due to the cosmological objects, (which are physically much nearer, than their redshift indicate), appearing to be further away also in the electromagnetic universe, than they truly are and so the theoretical predictions of their distances are correct in principle, but require modification via the old Hubble Law, which is only approximate, (valid only at the odd nodes) and unnecessary to calculate the distances.
And at higher redshifts, passing the imaging interval from (z=0.291 to 0.343), the seeming cosmic acceleration intensifies until the other imaging interval from (z=1.082 to 1.843) has been reached. The apparent cosmic acceleration hence becomes an imaged double boundary-nodal-mirror effect.

The [Alpha]-Variation measures shifts in wavelength, which have passed through the described intervals and a 'dip' in the constant is derived from the mathematical analysis.
How do you explain the magnitude of that dip; about 80 parts per million you said, in the light of the redshift intervals?

The [Alpha]-Variation is the dimensional intersection of M-C-space, 10D-C-space forming a holographic image in 12D-F-space.
The chargequantum (e) is defined via the Riemann Analysis of B(n), the supersymmetric wavefunction of the universe:
{B(n) = [2e/hA]exp(-[Alpha]xT(n) Inverse Sorce energy or Magneto charge units (C*)}; where {T(n) =...- 3 - 2 - 1 +0+ 1 + 2 + 3 +...= n(n+1)} and the Feynman-Path-Integral for all particle histories as an alternative formulation to the Schrödinger- Dirac- and Klein-Gordon Equations for the quantum mechanistic probability distribution of quantum states in the particle-wave duality.

The Action Law of (Action=ee*) manifests the lightspeed (c)-independent form of [Alpha] and can then be calibrated via the definition of the (c)-inclusive form in magnetic constant (μo). {[Alpha] = 60πe2/h = e2/(2εohc) = μoce2/(2h) = 1/137.0470731}

A Newton-Raphson iteration for B(n) and the boundary condition {T(n)=i2 in B{-[1/2]+-i(½√3)}, with a first approximation: (e1=(½hA=1.618221145x10-19 C*) converges to: (e=1.606456344x10-19 C*).

Abstract time in F-Space is defined as:

N=Minimum Radius/Maximum Radius = λps/RHubble =λps/Rmax = nps

and so allows the definition of Inverse Time as frequency parameter physicalizing this abstraction for time in modular mirror duality made manifest in the string epoch of the Inflaton.
This then defines the GENESIS BOSON as the Particle of creation using the fundamental constants of Creation from the SEps algorithms. Those constants are then used inductively in the future by any sufficiently mentally evolved and cosmically selfaware civilisation to construct selfconsistent and logical measurement systems to rediscover their own nature and origins in a self induction of physical consciousness of their own cocreated Genesis in a perceived timearrow of entropy, flowing apparently from the past to the present to the future.

In practical terms, this engages the measurement and analysis of two fundamental constants, namely the speed of light 'c' and the Planckian quantum constant 'h' to relate the quantum as a micro energy selfstate (eigenvalue) to what is termed the classical physics of macro selfstates exemplified in the theoretical physics of Newton, Maxwell and Einstein in scientific models of reality and encompassing mechanics, electromagnetism and the relativities respectively. The dimensional analysis of 'hc' as a energyxdisplacement parameter suffices to calibrate the unitary mensuration parameters for mass, displacement and time, say in the Terran System International or SI-system of measurements of fundamental quantities, say here the kilogram, the meter and the second respectively. The other elementary units ain the SI-system are derived from the algorithmic masterconstant set and comprise the Kelvin for temperature as kinetic measure of the quantum states, the Ampere and Coulomb for electric current, the mole for molarity , the candela for luminosity with the sterradian an additional geometrized unit for angular measures.

Any arbitrary measurement system of an UO in a defined spacetime can then experimentally determine relationships and corollaries between experimental data and the changes in energy associated with dynamical systems. The UO has a mensuration system SI say and can calibrate its SI-system to any other unitary system like the star-* system of the UO*.

Dimensional Unit Calibration:

[m/s]/[m*/s*] = [c*/c] = [3x108/2.99792458x108] = [1.000692286] for {m/m*} = {1.000692286} {s/s*}​

[Js]/[J*s*] = [h*/h] = [6.66666666..x10-34/6.62607004x10-34] = [1.006126803] for {J/J*} = {1.006126803} {s*/s}​

[m5/s3]/[m5/s3]* = {[m/m*]2}.[c*/c]3 = Go*h*/Goh = 30ch*/30c*h = [c/c*][h*/h] = [0.999308193x1.00612803] = [1.005431984]​
for {m/m*} = [c/c*]2.√[h*/h] = [0.998616864x1.00305872] = [1.001671357]​

for {m}2 = 1.00334349 {m*}2 and m = 1.001671357 m* and m* = 0.998331431 m​

s = {m/m*}.[0.999308193] s* = [1.001671357x0.999308193] s* = 1.000978394 s* and {m/s} = 1.000692286 {m/s}* for {m/s}2 = 1.00138505 {m*/s*}2 as c2

J = {s*/s}[h*/h] J * = [0.999022562x1.006126803] J* = 1.005143377 J* and J* = 0.994882942 J​

kg = {s*/s}.{s/m}2.{m*/s*}2.[h*/h] kg* = {s/s*}{m*/m}2.[h*/h] kg* = [1.000978394x0.996665646x1.006126803] kg* = 1.003753126 kg*​

[H/m]/[H*/m*] = [J/J*][m*/m][C*/C]2.[s/s*]2 = μo*/μo = [120π/c*]/[4πx10-7]​
for C = √{[Js/J*s*][m*s/ms*]} C* =√{[h*/h][c/c*]} C* = √[1.006126803/1.000692286] C* = 1.002711702 C*​

[eV]/[eV*] = [e±J]/[e±J]* = [e±/e±*].[J/J*] for eV = [1.60217662x10-19/1.606456344x10-19].[1.005143377] eV* = 1.00246560 eV*​

[J/K]/[J*/K*] = {J/J*}.{K*/K} = [k*/k] = [1.411721579x10-23/1.380649x10-23] = [1.022505777] for K = [J/J*]/[1.022505777] K* = [1.005143377/1.022505777] K*= 0.983020397 K*​

Conversion Units are:​
{s} = 1.000978394 {s*}​
{m} =1.001671357 {m*}​
{kg} = 1.003753126 {kg*}​
{C} = 1.002711702 {C*}​
{J} = 1.005143377 {J*}​
{eV} = 1.00246560 {eV*}​
{K} = 0.98301975 {K*}​

(m*= 0.998331431 m; s*= 0.999022562 s ; kg*=0.99626091 kg) in calibration of the base masterconstants (h/h*, c/c*, [Go]u=(1/30c)) and we note the numerical constancy for the magnetic constant in both mensuration systems: (μo)=4πx10-7 Henry/m (H/m) in (SI) and (μo)=120π/c (H*/m*) in (*).​
We recall that: (c=2.99792458x108 m/s (SI) and c*=3x108 m*/s* (*)).​
The Henry is a derived (SI) unit for magnetic inductance and has base units (Js2/C2=kgm2/C2), which so must give the (C to C*) unitary calibration in (μoo*)=1=0.994598576 C*2/C2, which gives (C*=0.997295631C) and DEFINES the (SI)-Coulombic Charge quantum as: (e=0.997295631e*=1.6021119x10-19 C (SI)).​

The textbooks of SI-physics have (e'=1.60217662x10-19 C (SI)), however and a value which differs from the value demanded by the magnetic constant (μo ) in a factor of (e'/e=1.0000403).
As the electropolic charge quantum appears squared in the [Alpha]-Constant, the [Alpha]-variation so becomes (1.0000807), with the old value of (e') exceeding the new value of (e) in so 4 parts in 100,000 and [Alpha]' greater in magnitude than [Alpha] by 81 parts in a million and in agreement with the Churchill-Webb measurements of 1998, increasing from Alpha = μoc.e2/2h = 1/137.047075 to Alpha' = 1/137.036003.
And I would suspect, that measuring [Alpha] even further back towards the Quantum Big Bang with increasing redshift, would better approximate the 80 parts per million increase in Alpha from say lower deviations at the say 8 parts per million at lower redshifts.

So the '[Alpha]-Dip' indicates that the textbook value for the electropole is fractionally too high; but that the Alpha Finestructure-Constant remains indeed constant, once the variation in the electronic charge quantum is taken into account.
Because the magnetic permeability constants are numerically the same in both the (SI) and the (*) unitary measurement systems; but
εo = 1/120πc = 8.841941283x10-12 (F/m)* and is εo = 8.8541878176x10-12 F/m (SI), the (SI) measurement is too large by a factor of 1.00138505 to correlate correctly wirth the magnetic permeability constant μo to give the Maxwell constant μoo = (120π/c).(1/120πc) = 1/c2.

It is experimentally measured in the (e/me)-ratio of the electron, subject to electric- and magnetic fields and this fits in nicely with my analysis of the electromagnetic mass of the electron.

In particular, the effective mass of the electron: (me=h[Alpha]/(2πRec)=9.290528912x10-31 kg*), also contains a magnetocharged part via (e*=2Rec2) for ([Alpha]=meπe*/(hc)) in the unification of the EMI with the GI by [Go=4πεo]u.
This magnetocharged part, intrinsic to the UFoQR as definition from (μo) and the quantisation of (λps) in (Re), we term 'Electromagnetic Mass':
(meEMR = 2μoe2/(3Ree* = 1.556643x10-32 kg*)) which is subtracted from the effective mass (me), gives me = 9.134865x10-31 kg* or 9.10071x10-31 kg (SI) and in agreement with the SI-textbook value of 9.1093835x10-31 kg (SI) to 95 parts in 100,000, subject to perturbation theory in the factor 2/3 in the electromagnetic mass.

The 'naked' restmass of the electron is about 98.245% of the effective mass, the latter specifying the 'naked' electron to move with a speed of (0.18077c) through an electric potential of (8.5748 keV*).
A detailed analysis of the electron's relativistic mass increase in equality with its energy of magnetic self induction forms the mathematical basis to 'prove' the 'Theory of Quantum Relativity' via a binomial distribution of the (v/c) parameter about the (X+Y=XY=i2=exp[iπ]= -1) FRB or 'Functional Riemann Bound' in a 'Complex Riemann Analysis'.
The '[Alpha]-Dip' is like a double symmetry; the magneto charged part of the electron is hidden and une requires the 'image of the image' to notice the skewing of the experimental data. The [Alpha]-Variation provides the mirroring of the nodes in the boundaries and vice versa and so indicates the intrinsic definition of the [Alpha]-Finestructure-Constant as the manifestation of the interdimensional law of action, leading to a 4-dimensional superconductivity coupled to the vacuum or zero-point-energy.

In the attempt to explain the [Alpha]-Dip, some theoretists have proposed a 'slowing down' of (c).
Recent formulations by populist physicist Paul Davies and in co-authorship with Tamara Davis and Charles Lineweaver from the Department of Astrophysics at the University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia have followed the wrong avenues for the interpretation of the data however.
In a paper published in ('Nature': 'Black Holes constrain varying constants'; August 8th, 2002), the authors propose a varying light speed to be responsible for the [Alpha]-Dip and discount any possible variation in the electro charge quantum.

Davies' argument that an increase in (e) would alter the evolution of Black Holes in their entropic definitions does not take into account that a productation of the Boltzmann Constant (defining entropy), with (e) forms a fundamental finestructured constant in its own right.

In particular, the universe's wavefunction B(n) is localised in any arbitrary spacetime in 'unfreezing' the M-space 'stuck' in between the (X,Y) coordinates and subsequently in between real and imaginary linearised time parameters. This demands the establishment of a Mean-Alignment-Time or MAT, relative to a 'unfreezing definition' in a specification of the 'naked singularity', oscillating as zero-point about the FRB.

As E*.e= Epsx1/Eps = 1 as fundamental unity in the 11D Membrane-Mirror-Space of modular duality with e* the magneto charge; one can heuristically state that
(Energy E x charge quantum e) in the lower dimensional C-Line-Space C can be expressed as the inversed identity in the form of 1/T.
This then sets E.e=kTe=1 for [ek]=1/T and using an inverse proportion for mass in the lower dimensionality: [e*k*] = 1/T* sets a function f(n) = [ek]/[e*k*] = [T*/T].

This is the case for the Mass-Temperature inverse proportionality for the evolution of Black Holes from micro states to macro states and as in the Hawking Mass-Temperature relation for Black Holes:

{Minimum Planck Oscillator = ½hfPlanck = ½mPlanck.c2 for Tmax=Tps and Tmin=Tss in string modular T-duality for[/indent]
½mPlanck.TPlanck = (1/8π)(4π).mPlanck.TPlanck = Hawking Modulus HM = hc3/4πGok = MBHmin.TBHmax ={c2/4π2}. MBHmax.TBHmin.}.

friedmann6. friedmann9.

B(n) is assigned B(np) = {[ek](SI)/[ek](*)}, with {[ek](SI)=constant=(1.60217662x10-19 C)(1.380649x10-23 J/K) = 2.21204355x10-42 CJ/K} and using the old (SI) value with the Alpha-Variation for (e'); using (e±=1.6021119x10-19 C) without the Alpha-Variation gives {[ek](SI)} = 2.21195419x10-42 CJ/K}.

The (*)-constant is a relatively fixed constant as: (e±*k*=2.267869086x10-42 (CJ/K)*) and subsequently B(np) calculates a particular value for n at the asymptote B(n⇒±∞)=0 as:

{[e±k](SI)/[e±k]*} = (2.21204355/2.267869086) = 0.975384145 (0.975344742)= [2e/hA].exp(-[Alpha]x[np2+np]), which yields an unique (np) as a complex solution to the quadratic equation by ln(0.975384145/0.992729803) = {ln(0.982527312)/-Alpha} = 2.415747501 = np2+np for: np2 + np - 2.415747501 = 0
solving as: (np=FRB(-½) ± 1.6327117).
For the unfrozen M-space with Alpha-Variation: {10D-root: np = 1.1327117 (real) & 12D-root: np = -2.1327117 (imaginary)}.
For the unfrozen M-space without Alpha-Variation: {10D-root: np = 1.1344063 (real) & 12D-root: np = -2.1344063 (imaginary)}.

This 'unfreezing' of M-space then allows the singularity algorithm of the cosmogenesis to manifest in what might be called the sex chromosomes of the universal DNA-encoding in terms of frequency or a number count.

A new physical quantity in 'awareness' is defined as the timedifferential of frequency and allows the concept of 'consciousness' to be born from the defining qualities of magneto charges.
Electromagneto-monopolic 'Life' derives as consequence of selfinductions of quantum geometric entities, specified from super membranes, macro-crystallised in electropolic self-capacitances and magnetopolic self-inductances, subsequently becoming subject to mutual cross inductances.
The purpose of the superbranial selfreplication on ever increasing scales, and until modular duality is reached in minmax boundary conditions; is to establish the multiversal nestings of the smallest within the largest - a process which constituted the beginnings of it all in the 'naked singularity' becoming defined as the Genesis BOSON.

The GENESIS Boson then becomes the parametric initialisation of creation in the abstract labelings of:
ENERGY=k.TEMPERATURE=h.FREQUENCY=h/TIME=MASS.c2 and using the SEps-MasterConstant Set: {4; 6; 7; Lo=1/[6x1015]; c2=9x1016; 11; h=1/[15x1032]; A=14x1524; k=1/[15x1618]; 26x6561} in reverse order and with arbitrary symbols as shown becoming associated with those 'master constants'.

Particularly then: ENERGY=hRmaxps with MASS=hRmaxpsc2=0.01183463299 and TEMPERATURE=hRmax/kλps=7.544808988..x1037 and FREQUENCY=Rmaxps=1.59767545..x1048

This becomes the 'Atomic-Mass-Unit' in 12D-F-Space in using one protonucleon mc=Alpha9Lplanck for every one of the 12 monopolar current loops in the Unified Field of Quantum Relativity (UFoQR).
A first Eps-Coefficient in the Expansion Series of the fundamental priciples from the SEps algorithm then crystallizes the 'Counter for matter' in Avogadro's Constant for Molarity:
MASS(20/33)/12mc = Navogadro = 6.02242143x1023 1/mol*

N=npsps/Rmax in REAL Time relative to the Quantum Big Bang to be created following the string epoch and relating to IMAGINARY TIME relative to this selfsame creation in the Cosmogony of the Genesis Boson of the Abba-Baab 11-dimensional supermembrane. This UNREAL Quantum Relative Time then is the Hubble-FREQUENCY Ho=c/Rmax in proportionality to the Source Frequency of the Eps-Gauge Photon fps=c/λps in the expression HoRmax=c=λps.fps

N then becomes the Nulltime for the initialisation of the string/supermembrane-serpent modular duality in the De Broglie phasespeed initialisation, beginning with the Oscillation (or Bounce) of the Planck-Length and specifies the Instantenuity of Now-Cycle-Time nps=Hotps=Ho/tss as the Time Instanton tps=1/fps=fss and the Inflaton Rmax=RHubble=c/Ho with de Broglie Phasespeed Vdebroglie=Rmax.fps=Rmax.c/λps=c/nps as the 'Heartbeat of the Cosmic Mother Black Hole' frequency of the oscillating cosmos in the Cosmology of QR and in the imaginary F-Space Time of NHo generalised in the Real Time n=Hot for any time in the evolving Cosmology and minimised in nps=Hotps.

L(nps,T(nps) = 6π2λps2.σ.T4 = 2.6711043034x1096 Watts*, where σ = Stefan's Constant = 2π5k4/15h3c2 and as a product of the defined 'master constants' k, h, c2, π and 'e'.

L(n,T) = 3HoMo.c2/550n and for Temperature T(nps)
T(nps) = 2.93515511x1036 Kelvin*.

This manifests as a 'false vacuum' and as a temperature gradient, as a causation of the Big Bang Instanton on physical grounds.
The metaphysical ground is the symmetry breaking from the source parity violation described in the birth and necessity of the Graviton to resymmetrize the UFoQR.