Warren Field - The Beginning of Time? LUNAR CALENDAR - ABERDEENSHIRE, SCOTLAND - 10,000 + YEARS OLD

Discussion in 'Ancient, Indigenous, & Tribal Calendars' started by Susan Lynne Schwenger, Oct 17, 2014.

  1. Susan Lynne Schwenger

    Susan Lynne Schwenger The Final Synthesis - isbn 978-0-9939480-0-8 Staff Member

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    Warren Field

    - The Beginning of Time?





    from: youtube.com/watch?v=yPIdaaAow_0

    University of Birmingham experts have discovered what they believe
    to be the world's oldest 'calendar', created by hunter-gatherer societies
    and dating back to around 8,000 BC.

    The Mesolithic monument was originally excavated in Aberdeenshire, Scotland,
    by the National Trust for Scotland in 2004.

    Now analysis by a team led by the University of Birmingham, published today (July 15, 2013)
    in the journal Internet Archaeology, sheds remarkable new light on the luni-solar device,
    which pre-dates the first formal time-measuring devices known to Man,
    found in the Near East, by nearly 5,000 years.

    More information: www.birmingham.ac.uk/research/our/news/items/beginning-of-time.aspx

    (NOTHING on the link above - however, we will research this)
     
  2. Susan Lynne Schwenger

    Susan Lynne Schwenger The Final Synthesis - isbn 978-0-9939480-0-8 Staff Member

    Messages:
    6,104
  3. Susan Lynne Schwenger

    Susan Lynne Schwenger The Final Synthesis - isbn 978-0-9939480-0-8 Staff Member

    Messages:
    6,104
    WARREN FIELD

    Warren Field is the location of a mesolithic calendar monument built about 8,000 BCE.[1]

    It includes 12 pits believed to correlate with phases of the Moon and used as a lunar calendar.[1]

    It is near Crathes Castle, in the Aberdeenshire region of Scotland, in the United Kingdom.
    It was originally discovered from the air as anomalous terrain by the Royal Commission
    on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland
    .[1]

    It was first excavated in 2004.
    The pits align on the south east horizon and a prominent topographic point associated with sunrise
    on the midwinter solstice(thus providing an annual astronomical correction concerning the passage of time
    as indicated by the Moon, the asynchronous solar year and the associated seasons).[2]

    The Aberdeenshire time reckoner predates the Mesopotamiancalendars by nearly 5,000 years.[2]

    It was also interpreted as a seasonal calendar because the local prehistoric communities,
    which relied on hunting migrating animals needed to carefully note the seasons to be prepared
    for a particular food source.[3]

    The Warren Field site is particularly significant for its very early date and the fact that it was created by Hunter-gatherer peoples, rather than sedentary farmers usually associated with monument building.

    References

    1. "'World's oldest calendar' discovered in Scottish field". BBC. 14 July 2013. Retrieved 15 July 2013.
    2. V. Gaffney et al. "Time and a Place: A luni-solar 'time-reckoner' from 8th millennium BC Scotland".
    3. Internet Archaeology. Retrieved 16 July 2013. "The Beginning of Time?". University of Birmingham. 15 July 2013. Retrieved 16 July 2013.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Warren_Field
     
    Last edited: Oct 17, 2014
  4. Susan Lynne Schwenger

    Susan Lynne Schwenger The Final Synthesis - isbn 978-0-9939480-0-8 Staff Member

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    Crathes Castle

    Crathes Castle is a 16th-century castle near Banchory in the Aberdeenshire region of Scotland.

    This harled castle was built by the Burnetts of Leys and was held in that family for almost 400 years.

    The castle and grounds are presently owned and Managed by the National Trust for Scotland and are open to the public.

    Crathes sits on land given as a gift to the Burnett of Leys family by KingRobert the Bruce in 1323.[1]
    In the 14th and 15th century the Burnett of Leys built a fortress of timbers on an island they made in the middle of a nearby bog. This method of fortification, known as a crannog, was common in the Late Middle Ages. Construction of the current tower house of Crathes Castle was begun in 1553[2]
    but delayed several times during its construction due to political problems
    during the reign of Mary, Queen of Scots.
    220px-Crathes_Castle_from_garden.

    Crathes castle


    It was completed in 1596 by Alexander Burnett of Leys, and an additional wing added in the 18th century.
    Alexander Burnett, who completed the construction of Crathes, began a new project, the early 17th-century reconstruction of nearby Muchalls Castle.


    That endeavour was completed by his son, Sir Thomas Burnett.

    Crathes Castle served as the ancestral seat of the Burnetts of Leys until given to the National Trust
    for Scotland by the 13th Baronet of Leys, Sir James Burnett in 1951.[3]


    A fire damaged portions of the castle (in particular the Queen Anne wing) in 1966.

    Another historically important structure in this region linked to the Burnett of Leys family is Monboddo House.

    Interior

    The castle contains a significant collection of portraits,

    and intriguing original Scottish renaissance painted ceilings

    survive in several Jacobean rooms:[4]



    the Chamber of the Muses, the Chamber of Nine Worthies


    and the Green Lady's Room.

    The last of these is said to be haunted by a green lady.[5]

    A green smoke or mist is said to have been seen by visitors.

    The ancient jewelled ivory residing in the great hall

    above the fireplace, was given to the Burnetts by the king

    along with the castle grounds in 1323.

    Garden and grounds:

    The castle estate contains 530 acres (2.1 km²) of woodlands and fields,
    including nearly four acres (16,000 m²) of walled garden.[6]


    Within the walled garden are gravel paths with surrounding specimen plants
    mostly in herbaceous borders.



    Many of the plants are labelled with taxonomic descriptions.

    There is also a grass croquet court at a higher terraced level within the walled garden.
    Ancient topiary hedges of Irish yew dating from 1702 separate the gardens into eight themed areas.[7]


    Crathes and its grounds are open to tourists throughout the year.
    A visitors centre provides information about the castle and its surroundings.
    There is a tea shop on site and a car park for any size of car.
    220px-Crathes_castle_1991.

    Crathes Castle

    Mesolithic calendar

    During 2004 excavations uncovered a series of pits

    believed to date from about 10,000 years ago.

    The find was only analysed in 2013 and is believed to be

    the world's oldest known lunar calendar.

    It is believed that it was used from 8,000 BC to about 4,000 BC.[8]

    It is believed to pre-date by up to five thousand years [8]

    previously known time-measuring monuments in Mesopotamia.[9]


    The site in Warren Field was discovered from the air when unusual crop marks were seen by the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland.[9]

    References[edit]

    1. Palmer, Eddie (March 2007). Scottish Canoe Classics: Twenty Five Great Canoe and Kayak Trips. Pesda Press. p. 46.ISBN 978-0-9547061-9-7.
    2. Gomme, Andor; Maguire, Alison (2008). Design and Plan in the Country House: From Castle Donjons to Palladian Boxes. Yale University Press. p. 31. ISBN 0-300-12645-X.
    3. Black, Jonathan (15 July 2011). The Face of Courage: Eric Kennington, Portraiture and the Second World War. Philip Wilson Publishers. p. 144. ISBN 978-0-85667-705-2.
    4. Scottish Renaissance interiors. Moubray House Press in association with the National Trust for Scotland and the Historic Houses Association for Scotland. 1987. p. 19.
    5. "Crathes Castle". Aboutaberdeen.com. Retrieved 14 April 2014.
    6. "Crathes Castle". Britainirelandcastles.com. Retrieved 14 April 2014.
    7. Goulty, Sheena MacKellar (2 September 2003). Heritage Gardens: Care, Conservation, Management. Routledge. p. 23.ISBN 978-1-134-90478-5.
    8. "'WORLD'S OLDEST CALENDAR' DISCOVERED IN SCOTTISH FIELD". Yahoo7. 15 July 2013. Retrieved 15 July 2013.
    9. "'World's oldest calendar' discovered in Scottish field". BBC. 15 July 2013. Retrieved 15 July 2013.
     
  5. Susan Lynne Schwenger

    Susan Lynne Schwenger The Final Synthesis - isbn 978-0-9939480-0-8 Staff Member

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    World's Oldest Calendar Discovered in U.K.

    A series of large pits were dug by Mesolithic people

    to track the cycle of the moon.


    http://news.nationalgeographic.com/...alendar-lunar-cycle-pits-mesolithic-scotland/

    oldest-calendar-pits-discovered-scotland_69352_990x742.
    This animation of a virtual model shows the midwinter solstice viewed from a newly described pit calendar.
    ILLUSTRATION COURTESY EUGENE CH'NG, ELEANOR RAMSEY, AND VINCENT GAFFNEY
    Roff Smith
    for National Geographic
    PUBLISHED JULY 15, 2013

    Archaeologists working in Scotland have uncovered what they believe to be
    the world's oldest lunar calendara series of 12 large, specially shaped pits
    that were designed to mimic the various phases of the moon.

    The pits aligned perfectly on the midwinter solstice in a way that would have helped
    the hunter-gathers of Mesolithic Britain keep accurate track of the passage
    of the seasons and the lunar cycle

    At nearly 10,000 years old, these curious lunar-cycle-marking pits in Aberdeenshire are by far
    the oldest "calendar" ever discovered, pre-dating by several thousand years the Bronze Age
    monuments in Mesopotamia that until now had had that distinction.

    (Related: "Scientists Try to Crack Stonehenge's Prehistoric Puzzles.")

    "What we are looking at here is a very important step in humanity's earliest formal construction of time,
    even the start of history itself," said Vincent Gaffney, professor of landscape archaeology
    at Birmingham University, who led the team that analyzed the pits and revealed their purpose.

    The pits were dug in the shapes of various phases of the moon.
    "Waxing, waning, crescents, and gibbous, they're all there and arranged in a 50-meter-long (164-foot) arc,"
    said Gaffney.

    "The one representing the full moon is big and circular, about two meters (roughly seven feet) across
    and right in the center."

    Intriguingly, this arc is aligned perfectly with a notch in the landscape where the sun
    would have risen on the day of the midwinter solstice 10,000 years ago.

    This was important, says Gaffney, because not only does this give further compelling evidence
    for the purpose of the moon-shaped pits, but also because without some form of calibration
    with the solar year a calendar based on 12 lunar months would soon be out of sync
    with the sun and become meaningless.

    "Positioning their calendar in the landscape the way they did would have allowed the people
    who built it to 'recalibrate' the lunar months every winter to bring their calendar in line with the solar year."

    And this is something they appear to have done, since the geophysical evidence suggests the pits
    had been maintained and periodically reshaped many dozens, perhaps even hundreds,
    of times over the succeeding millennia until at last the calendar-monument seemed to fall out of use
    around 4,000 years ago.

    Keeping track of time and the seasons would have had enormous significance for the hunter-gatherer societies of Mesolithic Britain for both cultural and economic reasons, whether it was enhancing the perceived power
    of shamans and their ability to predict or "make happen" certain astronomical events, or knowing
    when the game would start to migrate or the salmon begin their run up the Dee River.

    "The Dee Valley, where these pits are located, was an important crossroads and meeting area for a very long time," said Simon Fitch, a Mesolithic archaeologist who was involved with the discovery.

    The pits themselves were first discovered by aerial photography in 2004, but it was only recently
    —using the latest-generation remote-sensing technology and specially developed software
    that worked out the positions of sunrises and sunsets in the landscape 10,000 years ago
    —that their significance was recognized.

    "It shows that Stone Age society was far more sophisticated than we have previously believed,
    particularly up north, which until lately has been kind of a blank page for us," said Richard Bates,
    a geophysicist from University of St. Andrews who did much of the remote-sensing work for the project.

    "This shows us that the people up here had the means and the need to be able to track time across the years
    and the seasons, and the knowledge that they would need to correct their lunar calendar with the solar year,"
    said Bates. "It is an important step in the history of time."


    http://news.nationalgeographic.com/...alendar-lunar-cycle-pits-mesolithic-scotland/
     
  6. Susan Lynne Schwenger

    Susan Lynne Schwenger The Final Synthesis - isbn 978-0-9939480-0-8 Staff Member

    Messages:
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    Martin Lewis
    Jul 27, 2013


    What a exciting and lovely theory ! - BUT -
    Note that pits 13 and 21 have been ignored to establish a row of 12 pits.

    They do not line up with the midwinter sunrise as the dip in the horizon is to the right of the sunrise.

    Also why were they were full of charcoal ?

    A more mundane explanation of them might be fire pits
    - 8000 years BC fire must have been difficult to make and a pit of glowing coals burning 24 hours a day
    would be a very valuable asset (see Wikipedia 'making fire') Plus they could be cooked and baked in.

    http://news.nationalgeographic.com/...alendar-lunar-cycle-pits-mesolithic-scotland/


    Susan Lynne Schwengers says...my sense is this is NOT 10,000 years old, but, 100,000 years old !!!
     
  7. Susan Lynne Schwenger

    Susan Lynne Schwenger The Final Synthesis - isbn 978-0-9939480-0-8 Staff Member

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    CLICK on THIS LINK below to see the video:

    http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-scotland-north-east-orkney-shetland-23286928

    'World's oldest calendar' discovered in Scottish field


    Professor Vince Gaffney, an expert in landscape archaeology, explains what the pits appear to show
    Archaeologists believe they have discovered the world's oldest lunar "calendar" in an Aberdeenshire field.

    Excavations of a field at Crathes Castle found a series of 12 pits which appear to mimic the phases of the moon
    and track lunar months.

    A team led by the University of Birmingham suggests the ancient monument was created by hunter-gatherers about 10,000 years ago.

    The pit alignment, at Warren Field, was first excavated in 2004.

    The experts who analysed the pits said they may have contained a wooden post.

    The Mesolithic "calendar" is thousands of years older than previous known formal time-measuring monuments
    created in Mesopotamia.

    "It is remarkable to think that our aerial survey may have helped to find the place
    where time itself was invented”
    Dave Cowley RCAHMS

    The analysis has been published in the journal, Internet Archaeology.
    The pit alignment also aligns on the Midwinter sunrise to provided the hunter-gatherers
    with an annual "astronomic correction" in order to better follow the passage of time and changing seasons.

    Vince Gaffney, Professor of Landscape Archaeology at Birmingham, led the analysis project.

    He said: "The evidence suggests that hunter-gatherer societies in Scotland
    had both the need and sophistication to track time across the years,
    to correct for seasonal drift of the lunar year
    and that this occurred nearly 5,000 years before the first formal calendars known in the Near East.
    "In doing so, this illustrates one important step towards the formal construction of time and therefore history itself."

    _68712858_warren-field-2.
    An illustration of how the pits would have worked

    The universities of St Andrews, Leicester and Bradford were also involved.

    Dr Richard Bates, of the University of St Andrews, said the discovery provided "exciting new evidence"
    of the early Mesolithic Scotland.

    He added: "This is the earliest example of such a structure and there is no known comparable site in Britain
    or Europe for several thousands of years after the monument at Warren Field was constructed."

    The Warren Field site was first discovered as unusual crop marks spotted from the air
    by the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland (RCAHMS).

    Dave Cowley, aerial survey projects manager at RCAHMS, said: "We have been taking photographs of the Scottish landscape for nearly 40 years, recording thousands of archaeological sites that would never have been detected
    from the ground."

    "Warren Field stands out as something special, however.
    It is remarkable to think that our aerial survey may have helped to find the place where time itself was invented."

    Prof Vince Gaffney led the project to analyse the pits at Warren Field
    Crathes Castle and its estate is in the care of the National Trust for Scotland (NTS).
    From 2004 to 2006, trust staff and Murray Archaeological Services excavated the site.

    NTS archaeologist Dr Shannon Fraser said: "This is a remarkable monument, which is so far unique in Britain.

    "Our excavations revealed a fascinating glimpse into the cultural lives of people some 10,000 years ago
    - and now this latest discovery further enriches our understanding of their relationship with time and the heavens."
    http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-scotland-north-east-orkney-shetland-23286928

    CLICK on THIS LINK below to see the video:

    http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-scotland-north-east-orkney-shetland-23286928
     
  8. Susan Lynne Schwenger

    Susan Lynne Schwenger The Final Synthesis - isbn 978-0-9939480-0-8 Staff Member

    Messages:
    6,104
  9. Susan Lynne Schwenger

    Susan Lynne Schwenger The Final Synthesis - isbn 978-0-9939480-0-8 Staff Member

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    Ancient Astronomical Calendar Discovered (this thread under edit)

    in Scotland Predates Stonehenge by 6,000 Years...


    (and, it fits right in with:

    The Original Discovery of Susan Lynne Schwenger,
    occurred back in 1984, when she was 25 years old.

    She stated, that: "The Grand Cycle would change at sunrise,
    on the last full moon in December, in the year of 2013,
    with The End Date falling at sunset, on the day before the last full moon,
    which would be: 16th December 2013, and,
    with The Start Date occurring at sunrise on 17th December 2013.
    In alignment with the ancient calendar of Three Hundred and Sixty (360) Days,
    which is the length of the ancient year.


    This format was used by:
    The Aboriginal Tribes of Australia,
    The Anishinabek People & Tribes of North America,
    The Aztec Tribes,
    The Assyrian Tribes,
    The Chaldean Tribes,
    The Carthaginian Tribes,
    The Celtic People,
    The Chinese People,
    The Chaldean People,
    The Etruscan People,
    The Egyptian People,
    The Gaelic People,



    The Greek People, namely:
    The Attic, Boeotian, Creatan, Delphic, Epirotic, Laconian, Macedonian, Rhodian, Sicilian

    The Gypsy Tribes, namely:
    Banjara, Nomadic People of South Asia
    Dom People, South Asia
    Domba People, an Ethic Group of People in India
    Indigenous Norwegian Travellers, a traditionally itinerant group, mostly of Norwegian Origin
    Irish Travellers, a traditionally itinerant group, mostly of British & Irish Origin
    Lom People, an Ethic Group of People in Armenia and Turkey
    Lyuli, an Ethic Group of People in Central Asia
    Romani People, a traditionally Nomandic Ethnic Group of People of South Asian Origin
    Scottish Travellers, a number of diverse, unrelated communities in Scotland,
    mostly of British or Scottish origin
    Sea Gypsies, Nomadic Group of People living on houseboats in South East Asia Sri Lankan Gypsy People, an Ethnic Group of People from Sri Lanka of South Asian Origin
    Yeniche people, a traditionally nomadic group in Western and Central Europe,
    mostly of Swiss/German/French origin


    The Haudenosaunee Tribes ,
    The Hebrew Tribes,
    The Hindi (Hindu) People,
    The Iceni Tribe


    The Maori Tribe of New Zealand (NZ),
    The Monguls (Mongalian) People,
    The Olmec Tribes of Turtle Island,
    The Meso-American Tribes of Turtle Island,
    The Metis People and Tribes of Turtle Island,
    The Original People and Tribes of Turtle Island,
    The Pagan People,
    The Persian People,
    The Phoenician People,
    The Sumerian People, of Sumer
    The Teuton People,
    who all utilized the ancient calendars that utilized
    The Three Hundred and Sixty aka 360 Ancient Day Calendars.


    This calendar is known as: The Six (6) Season Calendar
    which runs through Six (6) Seasons x Sixty (60) Ancient Days.


    These three hundred and sixty (360) ancient days,
    flows through six (6) seasons, known as:
    winter, spring, break-up, summer, fall & freeze-up.


    This same ancient year, is also known as:
    The Thirteen (13) Moon Calendar, which is comprised of:
    13 Full Moons, and, 12 complete cycles of full moon to full moon
    aka The Ancient Three Hundred and Sixty (360) Ancient Day Calendar Round


    stars028.
    Gerizim-Ebal367.
    aka The Eight Event Calendar
    banner-sabbats.
    aka The Wheel of The Year



    The Eight (8) Spoked Wheel - represents The Sun

    124px-Eight-spoked_wheel.svg.


    The common calendar & holidays of Heathenism
    (black: main names; gray: alternative names; purple: minor common holidays).

    1024px-Heathen_holidays.


    which would
    when she stated that The Grand Cycle would change on the 17th December, 2013& Tony Bermanseder
    -The End of The Macha & Pacha Grand Cycle of 16th December 2013 at sunset,
    and, The Start of The Pacha iNTi Grand Cycle of 17th December 2013 at sunrise.

    Susan Lynne Schwenger was the first person to identify
    The Grand Cycle change in 1984, as The Last Full Moon in 2013 - 17 DEC 2013.

    The Aztec, Mayan, Maori, Aboriginal, First Nations, Metis & Native American Tribes
    had ancient daily cycles of:
    1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 13, 18, 20, 52, 60, 180, 260, 360, 360+5, 360+1+5, 23,400,
    26,000, 26,001, 52,000, 52,002, 144,000, 180,000, 1,872,000 & 9,360,000 ancient days
    in alignment with The Full Moon Cycles...
    The Six (6) Season Calendar aka The Thirteen (13) Moon Calendar aka The Ancient Year of 360 days begins on the last full moon of December, each and every year.


    ~who discovered The Grand Cycle of Macha & Pacha
    End Date of The 16th December 2013 (16 DEC 2013)

    ~who discovered The Grand Cycle of Pacha iNTi
    Start Date of The 17th December 2013 (17 DEC 2013)
    as, The Second (2nd) Full Moon in December,
    which starts The Winter Cycle, on The Six (6) Season Calendar
    (6 Seasons x 60 days = 360 days)
    aka The Ancient Year Calendar of (6x60=360 days)
    aka The Thirteen (13) Moon Calendar (12 cycles - Full Moon to eve of day b4 full moon)
    aka The Six (6) Event Calendar of The Celts, Druids, Pict - Pictish
    back in 1984.

    Tony Bermanseder & Susan Lynne Schwenger have successfully aligned
    & calibrated all the ancient calendars:
    The Maya - Mayan Cholq'ij aka Tzolk'in aka Tzolkin Calendar of 260 days
    to The Current Civil Calendar aka The Gregorian Calendar
    through 9,360,360 days, which equals:
    (5 great cycles x 13 cycles x 144,000 days=9,360,000
    + (6 cycles x 60 days=360)=9,360,000 + 360 = 9,360,360/360=26,001 Ancient Years
    utilizing cosmology, mathematics, and science,
    with the backup of The New Moon and The Full Moon Cycles.

    http://www.thuban.spruz.com/forums/?page=post&fid=&lastp=1&id=0265D780-C9C1-46C1-80A1-A15795198653

    Tony Bermanseder & Susan Lynne Schwenger have also aligned the following calendars:
    The Maya aka The Mayan Tzolk'in aka Tzolkin Calendar of 260 Days
    The Aztec Tonalpohualli Calendar of 260 Days
    The First Nations of Canada aka The Turtle Island Calendar of 260 Days
    which came from previous calendars of The Aztec, Meso-American & Olmec Tribes,
    which also dovetails into the ancient calendar works of:
    The First Nation Tribes of Turtle Island, now known as Canada,
    mainly, The Cree, Ojibwa-Ojibway-Ojibwe, Algonquin, Mi'Kmaq aka MicMac,
    Chippewa aka Chipewyna, Chippewa Ojibway, Woodland Cree, Nipissing,
    Odawa of Ottawa, Potawatomi, Saulteaux, Missississagua, Tingit, Tahitan, Tagish,
    Kaska, Han, Innu of Labrador, Maliseet, Passamaquoddy, Haudenosaunee aka Iroquois,
    Cayuga, Mohawk, Onedia, Onondaga, Seneca, Tuscaronia, Wyandot aka Huron,
    Tli Cho, Slavey, Haida, Sahtu, Yellowknifes, Dunneza, Gwich'in, Dene, Nakoda,
    Yakama, Blackfoot~Kainai aka Blood, North Peigan & Siksika, Coast Salsih, etc.etc.etc.,
    (there are just too many different tribes to mention all of them).
    The Metis of Canada aka The Turtle Island Calendar of 260 Days
    The Native American of USA aka The Turtle Island Calendar of 260 Days
    (too many tribes to mention, since, all of them use this ancient calendar)
    mainly, The Catawba, Cherokee, Chippewa-Ojibway, Ojibwa-Ojibway-Ojibwe,
    Dakota, Lakota, Nakota Tribes etc.etc.etc.,
    (there are just too many tribes to mention all of them).
    The Cherokee Calendar of 260 Days
    The Maori of New Zealand Calendar of 260 Days
    The Aborigine aka The Aboriginal of Australia Calendar of 260 Days

    All 260 Day calendars have cycles of 13 cycles x 20 days = 260 Days

    20 days = Four (4) weeks of Five (5) days = 4x5 = 20

    260 Days is The Gestation Period of a baby in its mothers womb

    The Six (6) Season or The Six (6) Event Calendar of 360 days = 6 Cycles or Seasons x 60 days)
    9,360,000 Days/180 Cycle = (52,000 Cycles/2=26,000 Ancient Years)

    The Mayan Mucmuchumil (52 Days), aligned to 9,360,000/52=180,000 Cycles

    The Mayan Tzolkin aka Tzolk"in aka Cholq'ij = 260 days

    The Mayan Momtun =180 days x 2 Cycles = 360 days

    9,360,360 Days/180 Cycle = 52,002 cycles/2=26,001 Ancient Years

    The Mayan TUN = 360 days
    9,360,000 Days/360 Cycle = 26,000 Ancient Years
    9,360,360 Days/360 Cycle = 26,001 Ancient Years

    The Mayan IK TUN MOON
    - The Difference between The New Moon & The Full Moon Cycle in Days

    The Mayan Mucmuchumil (52 Days)
    aligned to 9,360,000/52 day cycles=180,000 cycles

    The Mayan Kit Jeb (400 Days)
    aligned to 9,360,000/400 day cycles=23,400 cycles

    The 360 Day Ancient Calendars of The Maori of New Zealand,
    and, The 360 Day Ancient Calendars of The Aboriginal of Australia.

    The Grand Cycle of Macha is 9,360,000 days
    (5 major cycles x 13 minor cycles) =
    65 cycles x 144,000 days=9,360,000 days
    + The Grand Cycle of Pacha is 360 days
    (6 seasons x 60 days = 360)=9,360,360 days
    9,360,360/360 Days=26,001 Ancient Years
    9,360,000/360 Days=26,000 Ancient Years
    360/360 Days=One (1) Ancient Year

    360 = 1 degree precessional advancement per day
    x 360 Days= 1 (One) Ancient Year
    which is, now modified to:
    The Gregorian Calendar which consists of:
    (3 years X 365 days )+ (1 leap year X 365) + (1 day)= 1461 days or 4 Gregorian Years

    There are also yearly cycles:
    The Mayan Chol Tun (260 Years),
    aligned to 9,360,000/360=26000/260=100 Cycles

    The Mayan Kutan (520 Years),
    aligned to 9,360,000/360=26000/260=52 Cycles

    The Mayan Ajau Tun (20 Years),
    aligned to 9,360,000/360=26000/20=1300 Cycles

    The Mayan Ekomal Jun (520 Years),
    aligned to 9,360,000/360=26000/520=50 Cycles.

    The Mayan Ox Lajuj Baktun (5200 Years),
    aligned to 9,360,000/360=26000/5200=5 Cycles.

    The Mayan Tikitun
    22 Cycles of 52 Years = (9 x 52 = 468) Darkness-Hell
    + (13 x 52 = 676) Light-Heaven

    The Mayan Bolon Tiki = 9 x 52 =
    468 Years of Darkness-Hell

    The Mayan Oxala Juj Tiki = 13 x 52 =
    676 Years of Light-Heaven
    (468 YEARS+676 YEARS=1144 YEARS=
    ( 9 Darkness/Hell x 13 Light/Heaven) =
    22 cycles x 52 YEARS)
    also Fits into The Greater Cycle of:
    26,000 Ancient Years/500 cycles = 52 Years
    500 cycles x 52 Ancient years = 26,000

    The HAAB (360 + 5 DAYS)
    The Five "Dead" or "Unlucky" Days occur two times per year,
    - the middle of the year
    & 27 Dec, 28 Dec, 29 Dec, 30 Dec & 31 December




    The Aztec, Mayan, Maori, Aboriginal, First Nations, Metis & Native American Tribes
    also followed the ancient yearly cycles of three hundred and sixty (360) ancient days

    Susan Lynne Schwenger was the first one to align The Celtic Calendar,
    The Metonic Calendar, The Ancient Egyptian Calendar, The Chinese 60-year Calendar Cycle, etc.,
    The Bermanseder Bible Codes & The Bermanseder Pyramid Formula (which closes the 12 pointed star)
    can also be aligned to these calendars: http://www.thuban.spruz.com/forums/?page=post&fid=&lastp=1&id=0265D780-C9C1-46C1-80A1-A15795198653
     

    Attached Files:

    Last edited: Oct 17, 2014
  10. Susan Lynne Schwenger

    Susan Lynne Schwenger The Final Synthesis - isbn 978-0-9939480-0-8 Staff Member

    Messages:
    6,104
    Ancient Astronomical Calendar Discovered

    in Scotland Predates Stonehenge by 6,000 Years...

    Posted Sep 11th 2013

    by David Dickinson on August 7, 2013

    A team from the University of Birmingham recently announced an astronomical discovery in Scotland
    marking the beginnings of recorded time.
    Announced last month in the Journal of Internet Archaeology,
    the Mesolithic monument consists of a series of pits near Aberdeenshire, Scotland.
    Estimated to date from 8,000 B.C., this 10,000 year old structure would pre-date
    calendars discovered in the Fertile Crescent region of the Middle East by over 5,000 years.
    But this is NO ordinary wall calendar.
    Originally unearthed by the National Trust for Scotland in 2004,
    the site is designated as Warren Field near the town of Crathes.
    It consists of 12 pits in an arc 54 metres long that seem to correspond with 12 lunar months,
    plus an added correction to bring the calendar back into sync
    with the solar year on the date of the winter solstice.
    warren-field-2-580x433.
    A diagram of the Warren Field site, showing the 12 pits (below) and the alignment with the phases of the Moon plus the rising of the winter solstice Sun. Note: the scale should read “0-10 metres.” (Credit: The University of Birmingham).
    "Which would make the span of the arc 54 metres, and, instead o fthe kilometres marking on the above drawing/photograph, it should state 10 metres in the legend"
    - Susan Lynne Schwenger & Tony Bermanseder
    “The evidence suggests that hunter-gatherer societies in Scotland
    had both the need and sophistication to track time across the years,
    to correct for seasonal drift of the lunar year”
    said team leader and professor of Landscape Archaeology at the University of Birmingham
    Vince Gaffney.
    We talked last week about the necessity of timekeeping as cultures moved
    from a hunter-gatherer to agrarian lifestyle.
    Such abilities as marking the passage of the lunar cycles or the heliacal rising of The Star Sirius
    gave cultures the edge needed to dominate in their day.

    View: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yPIdaaAow_0

    For context, the pyramids on the plains of Giza date from around 2500 B.C.,
    The Ice Man on display in Bolzano Italy dates from 3,300 B.C.,
    and the end of the last Ice Age was around 20,000 to 10,000 years ago,
    about the time that the calendar was constructed.
    “We have been taking photographs of the Scottish landscape
    for nearly 40 years, recording thousands of archaeological sites
    that would never have been detected from the ground,” said manager of Aerial projects
    of the Royal Commission of Aerial Survey Projects Dave Cowley.
    “It’s remarkable to think that our aerial survey may have helped to find the place where time was invented.”
    The site at Warren Field was initially discovered during an aerial survey of the region.

    warren-field-1b-580x386.
    Vince Gaffney, professor of Landscape and Archaeology at University of Birmingham in Warren Field,
    Crathes, Aberdeenshire where the discovery was made. (Credit: The University of Birmingham).

    The use of such a complex calendar by an ancient society also came as a revelation to researchers.

    Emeritus Professor of Archaeoastronomy at the University of Leicester Clive Ruggles notes that the site
    “represents a combination of several different cycles which can be used to track time symbolically and practically.”

    The lunar synodic period, or the span of time that it takes for the Moon to return to the same phase
    (i.e., New-to-New, Full-to-Full, etc) is approximately 29.5 days. Many cultures used a strictly lunar-based calendar composed of 12 synodic months.

    The Islamic calendar is an example of this sort of timekeeping still in use today.

    However, a 12 month lunar calendar also falls out of sync with our modern Gregorian calendar
    by 11 days (12 on leap years) per year.

    The familiar Gregorian calendar is at the other extreme, a calendar that is strictly solar-based.

    The Gregorian calendar was introduced in 1582 and is still in use today.

    This reconciled the 11 minute per year difference between the Julian calendar and the mean solar year,
    which by the time of Pope Gregory’s reform had already caused the calendar to “drift”
    by 10 days since the 1st Council of Nicaea 325 AD.
    warren-field-4-580x270.
    Artist’s conception of the Warren Field site during the winter solstice.
    (Credit: The University of Birmingham).
    Credit: The University of Birmingham

    Surprisingly, the calendar discovered at Warren Field may be of a third and more complex variety,
    a luni-solar calendar.

    This employs the use of intercalary periods, also known as embolismic months to bring
    the lunar and solar calendar back into sync.

    The modern Jewish calendar is an example of a luni-solar hybrid,
    which adds an extra month (known as the 2nd Adar or Adar Sheni) every 2-3 years.
    This will next occur in March 2014.

    The Greek astronomer Meton of Athens noted in 5th century B.C. that 235 synodic periods
    very nearly add up to 19 years, to within a few hours.

    Today, this period bears his name, and is known as a metonic cycle.

    The Babylonian astronomers were aware of this as well, and with the discovery at Warren Field,
    it seems that ancient astronomers in Scotland may have been moving in this direction of advanced understanding as well.

    It’s interesting to note that the site at Warren Field also predates Stonehenge, the most famous ancient structure in the United Kingdom by about 6,000 years. 10,000 years ago would have also seen the Earth’s rotational north celestial pole pointed near the +3.9th magnitude star Rukbalgethi Shemali (Tau Herculis) in the modern day constellation of Hercules. This is due to the 26,000 year wobble of our planet’s axis known as the precession of the equinoxes.
    600px-Precession_N-580x580.
    The precession of the north celestial pole over millennia.

    (Credit: Wikimedia Commons graphic under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Generic license. Author: Tau’olunga).

    The Full Moon nearest the winter solstice also marks the “Long Nights Moon,”
    when the Full Moon occupies a space where the Sun resides during the summer months
    and rides high above the horizon for northern observers all night.

    The ancients knew of the five degree tilt that our Moon has in relation to the ecliptic
    and how it can ride exceptionally high in the sky every 18.6 years.
    We’re currently headed towards a ‘shallow year’ in 2015,
    where the Moon rides low in relation to the ecliptic.
    From there, the Moon’s path in the sky will get progressively higher each year,
    peaking again in 2024.

    Who built the Warren Field ruins along the scenic Dee Valley of Scotland?
    What other surprises are in store as researchers excavate the site?
    One thing is for certain: the ancients were astute students of the sky.
    It’s fascinating to realize how much of our own history has yet to be told!
    About David Dickinson

    David Dickinson is an Earth science teacher, freelance science writer,
    retired USAF veteran & backyard astronomer. He currently writes and ponders the universe
    from Tampa Bay, Florida.

    http://www.universetoday.com/103967...n-scotland-predates-stonehenge-by-6000-years/

    Tagged as: ancient astronomy, Archaeoastronomy, crathes, ecliptic,embolismic month, gregorian calendar, intercalculary month, julian calendar, long nights moon, lunar calendar, oldest calendar, warren field,
    susan lynne schwenger, tony bermanseder, The Ancient Year (360 day) Calendar,
    The Thirteen (13) Moon Calendar, Grand Cycle, 16 Dec 2013, 17 Dec 2013,
    16th December 2013, 17th December 2013,
     

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