The Legacy of Thuban Omni-Science De Alpha Draconis Omega

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  1. admin

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    empty. The Legacy of Thuban Omni-Science De Alpha Draconis Omega

    empty. shiloh on Tue Sep 24, 2013 6:37 pm


    The Legacy of Thuban Omni-Science De Alpha Draconis Omega

    The Dragon Universe of Thuban Defined in Omni-Membrane-Physics


    As the 'Time of the End' has come to herald the 'Times of New Beginnings' under utility of the remnants of the Old; this Testimonial Legacy is now made public under the auspices of the Starhuman ancestry and descendency.
    This information came from a starborn race from the outside of the Gaian Cocoon of the Quarantine, also known as a Langrangian Hill Sphere, interrelating the local planet Sun-Earth-Moon system to the galactic star RahSol in a gravitational equilibrium.
    This information from the 'Extra-Terrestrial' data emitters then became processed in a rudimentary basic form by the data receivers from within to close the circuit of the monopolar electromagnetic conduits in the agenda of the World TwinLogos.
    The information, processed from within the cosmic quarantine zone is herewith returned to the senders to become reassessed and utilized in the appropriate manner to further the cosmic agenda of all the Worlds and sentiences harboured by the Universal Word of the Old Ones of all Creations.


    For Baab Serpentina, the Old One as the Drachen Tor Gate to Serpent Abba - the Other Old One!





    1. Main Descriptor from the Archives of Akbar Ra {in original form without later edits, refinements and improvements in partialities}

    M-Space Definitions of Scaling Parameters for Magnetocharged Superstrings as Planckian Energy Transforms in F-Space Duality of Calabi-Yau Manifolds {p#48+1}


    0. A General Agenda for the Validification of M-Theory as Proof of Definition

    1. The Simplicity of Supersymmetric M-Theory as Subset of F-Theory

    2. The Quantisation of the Riemann Metric as the Electromagnetic Mass me*

    3. The Restmass-Induction in C-M-F-Theory and the Constancy of the Electronmass me

    4. The Proof of M-Theory in the Determination of the Properties of the Electron

    The Heisenbergian Uncertainty Principle defines the Wormhole Singularity

    List of References



    2. First Addendum Supplementary



    Dark Energy and Hubble's Constant - The Alpha Variation and the Constancy of the Speed of Light {p#14}



    Preview

    The Quantum Geometry of the Universe and a Parametrisation of General Relativity

    The Dark Energy is defined in Mass-Seeds M.Mo and Milgrom's Deceleration

    An Overview of Cosmogenesis and the Hubble-Oscillation as Black Hole/White Hole Dyad

    Evolution of Matter under Agency of the Restmass-Photon of Supersymmetry

    The Age of the Universe and the Cosmological Redshift-Correction-Correlation

    The Alpha-Variation and a Redefinition of the Chargequantum e = 1.6021126x10-19 C



    3. Second Addendum Supplementary



    Cosmic Magnetism and the Oscillation of the Planck-Length {p#6}


    Introduction

    Magnetocharge e* and the 'Lighted Kilogram'

    The Application of Equation #1



    Leg150. Leg151. Leg152. Leg153. Leg154. Leg155. Leg156. Leg157. Leg158. Leg159. Leg160.
    ufoqr. Leg161. Leg162.


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    TREE LIGHT Tree Shdows.
     
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  2. admin

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    empty. Re: The Legacy of Thuban Omni-Science De Alpha Draconis Omega

    empty. bobhardee on Tue Sep 24, 2013 9:45 pm
    Do you know if any of what you just posted has anything to do with the island rising out of the Arabian sea?
     
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  3. shiloh za-rah

    shiloh za-rah Planetary Rebirth

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    empty. Re: The Legacy of Thuban Omni-Science De Alpha Draconis Omega

    empty. shiloh on Tue Sep 24, 2013 10:07 pm
    bobhardee wrote:Do you know if any of what you just posted has anything to do with the island rising out of the Arabian sea?



    newisland.


    Decoding Mandala for the World Logos Timeline for the Fulfilment of Scriptural Prophecy from March 31 to September 2013






    isaiah.



    justicel.



    minnie.

    minnie.


    bb8df108-4fe4-4530-939a-d2f194f39d1a.



    sharonamild.



    moonfull.
    "THEeXchanger": Now that's a sexy Dragon Suzy Luna Serafinis! - One Becoming Incorporated in Excelsis Astralis!





    Leg163. Leg164. Leg165. Leg166. Leg167. Leg169. Leg169old. Leg170. Leg171. Leg172. Leg173. Leg174. Leg175.



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  4. shiloh za-rah

    shiloh za-rah Planetary Rebirth

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  8. admin

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    Re: The Legacy of Thuban Omni-Science De Alpha Draconis Omega

    shiloh on Sat Oct 05, 2013 5:33 am

    wolf1.
    Jorgelito - Posted Sep 24th

    Shiloh, would you explain superstring theory to me? Is there any experimental evidence? Or are physicists looking elsewhere now for a unified theory? Theory seems to give it a 10-dimesnional space (4 regular and 6 "compacted" somehow). I did not know physics was moving beyond 4 dimensions. All of this is interesting to me..
    My key question: what are these strings? If they are not particles (as I read somewhere) , what are they?

    planes.
    Shiloh - Posted Sep 24th

    The following thread here on the forum should 'explain' strings to you Jorgelito. The Science Nova videos are simple and basic in an introductory sense.

    http://www.thuban.spruz.com/forums/...73DC&fid=6DDD0FBA-05B9-4FF1-8CC0-98AADE610DCB

    Shiloh



    nrl.

    [9:57:10 PM-Saturday, October 5th, 2013 +11UCT]

    Sirius 17: well Jorgelito will like those videos
    Shiloh: Yes I thought of your series when he asked me to explain. I watched the first 4 and saw this equation lol
    Sirius 17: lol
    Shiloh: So I copied it, as it proves the string theory. It is in part 3
    Sirius 17: yes what equation is that
    Shiloh: Some complex series expansion, linking gravity with the nuclear forces
    Sirius 17: lol wtf is 496
    Shiloh: But on the left side the n factor had to cancel to 0 as a number 496. The right side is just our nice T(n)=n(n+1) as an arithmetic summation for all natural numbers in (31x32):2=496. This is what I term the Feynmann path integral in the 'Universal Wavefunction'. It is the Fibonacci Series in the quadratic equation solving for phi
    Sirius 17: oh ok
    Shiloh: This they cant see yet. n(n+1)=1 gives you Fibonacci with n=X=0.618033... Euler's famous equation
    Sirius 17: right
    Shiloh: They use it and discovered strings through the Beta Function and the Gamma Function
    Sirius 17: so they saw them purely through the math?
    Shiloh: It is a nice rundown this video series; yes
    Sirius 17: oh dear....the poor MOAbytes will have to learn a bit of math to get strings lol
    Shiloh: They will ignore it. But it is a nice post indeed, as it shows where the strings are experimentally verified
    Shiloh: This is the follow up after the videos; Penrose would get it and see it
    Sirius 17: well of course he would...Galactic Halo(Group) Scale...lol, couldn't give them a better hint
    Shiloh: Never mind, but yes this proves the Cosmic Rays as strings experimentally
    Shiloh: See how it MODULATES the micro in the macro and the quantum branes in the galactic scales?
    Shiloh: You will understand the basic structure of the universe as a waveparticle dualism then; having put up with my semantics for 3 years now
    Sirius 17: well i do understand this
    Shiloh: I know that you do
    Sirius 17: as well as understand that the human body is a replica of the macro scale; a mini universe; the real 'god particle'; lol
    Allisiam - Posted Jul 27th 2010







    Things You Don't Expect – Gamma Energy

    There is another thing that is related that is yet to be understood by science. There are other sets of instructions to Gaia, which come from a place you don't expect.

    There's a lot of energy hitting the earth, a tremendous amount in the form of gamma energy. Science wonders where it's coming from, but it remains elusive. They realize that it's cosmic and coming from space. The truth is that it's coming from the center of the galaxy, but it appears to be coming from everywhere. That's because the main attribute of this kind of energy is that it is not 3D.

    Therefore, it has quantum [multidimensional] attributes that do not carry a "location" or place of origin with it. This is difficult to explain, but things in a true quantum state are everywhere, entangled in a universal soup of being "one" with everything. Therefore, you can't say "it comes from there." There is precedent in science for this, so it is not all that strange to a physicist reading this.


    This is powerfully derived in the Thuban brane physics; which shows that the 'Cosmic Rays; are indeed the hierarchies of the superbrane classes.


    The Elementary Cosmic Ray Spectrum

    The elementary Cosmic Ray Spectrum derives from the transformation of the Planck-String-Boson at the birth of the universe.

    The following tabulation relates those transformation in energy and the modular duality between the distance parameters of the macrocosm of classical spacetime geometry and the microcosm of the quantum realm.


    String-BosonWavelength (λ) mEnergy (hc/λ) J & eVModular Wavelength mSignificance
    1. Planck-Boson1.2x10-34 m1.6 GJ or 9.9x1027 eV8.0x1033 mOutside Hubble Horizon Limit
    2. Monopole-Boson4.6x10-32 m4.3 MJ or 2.7x1025 eV2.2x1031 mOutside Hubble Horizon Limit
    3. XL-Boson6.6x10-31 m303 kJ or 1.9x1024 eV1.5x1030 mOutside Hubble Horizon Limit
    4. X-K-Boson transit (+)8.8x10-28 m227 J or 1.6x1021 eV1.1x1027 m2πRHubble11D
    5. X-K-Boson transit (-)1.0x10-27 m201 J or 1.2x1021 eV1.0x1027 m2πRHubbleHorizonLimit
    6. CosmicRayToe1.9x10-27 m106 J or 6.6x1020 eV5.3x1026 m2πRHubble10D
    7. CosmicRayAnkle2.0x10-25 m1.0 J or 6.2x1018 eV5.0x1024 mGalactic Supercluster Scale
    8. CosmicRayKnee (+)1.0x10-22 m0.002 J or 1.24x1016 eV1.0x1022 mGalactic Halo(Group) Scale
    9. CosmicRayKnee (-)6.3x10-22 m0.3 mJ or 2.0x1015 eV1.6x1021 mGalactic Disc(Halo) Scale
    10.CosmicRay1.4x10-20 m0.002 mJ or 1.4x1013 eV7.1x1019 mGalactic Core Scale
    Lower Cosmic Ray energies then become defined in standard physics, such as supernovae, neutron stars and related phenomena, engaging electron accelerations and synchrotron radiation.

    7. represents the ECosmic-Boson aka superstring class IIA as a D-brane attached open string dual to the (selfdual) monopole string class IIB and where the D-Brane or Dirichlet-Coupling in both cases becomes the 'intermediary' heterotic (closed loop) superstring HO(32).
    It is the HO(32) superstring, which as a bosonic full-quantum spin superstring bifurcates into the subsequently emerging quark-lepton families as the K-L-Boson split into Proto-DiNeutronic Ylemic NeutronMatter.
    The Ylem then manifests the massless Higgs Bosonic precursor as a scalar 'Neutron-Boson' (10), which then becomes massinductive under utility of the Equivalence Principle of General Relativity, relating gravitational mass to inertial mass.

    It are supersymmetric double neutrons which bifurcate into the observed mass content in the universe and not a decoupling matter-antimatter symmetry.
    The primordial neutron beta-decay so manifests the nucleon-lepton distinction in the decoupling of the strongweak nuclear interaction, mediated by the electromagnetic alpha-interaction hitherto unified with the omega-gravitational interaction. This primordial ylem radioactivity manifests the bosonic string class IIB as a monopolic masscurrent as a D-brane interaction in modular duality to the transformation of the selfdual magnetic monopole to the bi-dual electromagnetic cosmic rays at the ECosmic energy level.
    The monopole class is chiral (selfdual) and the Ecosmic class is nonchiral (bi-dual); from this derives the nonparity of the spacial symmetry aka the CP-Violation of the weak nuclear interaction, related to neutrinoflux as monopolic superconductive currentflows.

    As the heterotic classes are all 'closed looped', the elementary particles of the standard models emerge from the HE(64) class coupled to the HO(32) class in the inflationary string epoch.

    8. depicts the Weyl-Boson of the Big Bang Planck-singularity of the Weyl-Geodesic of relativistic spacetime as the final 'octonionised' string class HE(8x8).

    9. modulates the experimentally well measured 'knee' energy for Cosmic Rays as the distribution flux of high-energy protons as the primary particle in the 2π-factor. The wormhole radius is 10-22 m/2π for a Halo-(DarkMatter)-Radius of 2πx1022 metres.

    10. is the massless ancestor of the Higgs-template and defined through the Weyl-String-Eigenenergy E*=kT*=hf*=m*c2 =1/e*=1/2Re c2.
    The scale of (10) emerges from the holographic principle as 2π2R*3.f*2=e* for R*=h/(2πm'c)=1.41188..x10-20 m for a Compton Energy of E'=m'c2=2.2545..x10-6 J or 14.03 TeV, which serendipitously is the maxium energy regime for which the LHC is designed.


    The Experimental Evidence for the Superstrings is observed indeed every day in the laboratories of the astrophysics around the globe.

    Tonyblue


    xThe SciAm article below from 1998 links to the above in clarification of the questions raised.

    http://auger.cnrs.fr/presse/ScAm_jan97.html

    Cosmic Rays at the Energy Frontier

    0197swordy1sm.
    The Life of a Cosmic Ray


    These particles carry more energy than any others in the universe. Their origin is unknown but may be relatively nearby.

    by James W. Cronin, Thomas K. Gaisser and Simon P. Swordy


    Roughly once a second, a subatomic particle enters the earth's atmosphere carrying as much energy as a well-thrown rock. Somewhere in the universe, that fact implies, there are forces that can impart to a single proton 100 million times the energy achievable by the most powerful earthbound accelerators. Where and how?
    Those questions have occupied physicists since cosmic rays were first discovered in 1912 (although the entities in question are now known to be particles, the name "ray" persists). The interstellar medium contains atomic nuclei of every element in the periodic table, all moving under the influence of electrical and magnetic fields. Without the screening effect of the earth's atmosphere, cosmic rays would pose a significant health threat; indeed, people living in mountainous regions or making frequent airplane trips pick up a measurable extra radiation dose.
    Perhaps the most remarkable feature of this radiation is that investigators have not yet found a natural end to the cosmic-ray spectrum. Most well-known sources of charged particles--such as the sun, with its solar wind--have a characteristic energy limit; they simply do not produce particles with energies above this limit. In contrast, cosmic rays appear, albeit in decreasing numbers, at energies as high as astrophysicists can measure. The data run out at levels around 300 billion times the rest-mass energy of a proton because there is at present no detector large enough to sample the very low number of incoming particles predicted.
    Nevertheless, evidence of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays has been seen at intervals of several years as particles hitting the atmosphere create myriad secondary particles (which are easier to detect).

    On October 15, 1991, for example, a cosmic-ray observatory in the Utah desert registered a shower of secondary particles from a 50-joule (3 x 1020 electron volts) cosmic ray. Although the cosmic-ray flux decreases with higher energy, this decline levels off somewhat above about 1016 eV, suggesting that the mechanisms responsible for ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays are different from those for rays of more moderate energy.
    In 1960 Bernard Peters of the Tata Institute in Bombay suggested that lower-energy cosmic rays are produced predominantly inside our own galaxy, whereas those of higher energy come from more distant sources. One reason to think so is that a cosmic-ray proton carrying more than 1019 eV, for example, would not be deflected significantly by any of the magnetic fields typically generated by a galaxy, so it would travel more or less straight. If such particles came from inside our galaxy, we might expect to see different numbers coming from various directions because the galaxy is not arranged symmetrically around us. Instead the distribution is essentially isotropic, as is that of the lower-energy rays, whose directions are scattered.


    Supernova Pumps

    Such tenuous inferences reveal how little is known for certain about the origin of cosmic rays. Astrophysicists have plausible models for how they might be produced but no definitive answers. This state of affairs may be the result of the almost unimaginable difference between conditions on the earth and in the regions where cosmic rays are born. The space between the stars contains only about one atom per cubic centimeter, a far lower density than the best artificial vacuums we can create. Furthermore, these volumes are filled with vast electrical and magnetic fields, intimately connected to a diffuse population of charged particles even less numerous than the neutral atoms.

    This environment is far from the peaceful place one might expect: the low densities allow electrical and magnetic forces to operate over large distances and timescales in a manner that would be quickly damped out in material of terrestrial densities. Galactic space is therefore filled with an energetic and turbulent plasma of partially ionized gas in a state of violent activity. The motion is often hard to observe on human timescales because astronomical distances are so large; nevertheless, those same distances allow even moderate forces to achieve impressive results. A particle might zip through a terrestrial accelerator in a few microseconds, but it could spend years or even millennia in the accelerator's cosmic counterpart. (The timescales are further complicated by the strange, relativity-distorted framework that ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays inhabit. If we could observe such a particle for 10,000 years, that period would correspond to only a single second as far as the particle is concerned.)

    Astronomers have long speculated that the bulk of galactic cosmic rays--those with energies below about 1016 eV--originate with supernovae. A compelling reason for this theory is that the power required to maintain the observed supply of cosmic-ray nuclei in our Milky Way galaxy is only slightly less than the average kinetic energy delivered to the galactic medium by the three supernova explosions that occur every century. There are few, if any, other sources of this amount of power in our galaxy.

    When a massive star collapses, the outer parts of the star explode at speeds of up to 10,000 kilometers per second and more. A similar amount of energy is released when a white dwarf star undergoes complete disintegration in a thermonuclear detonation. In both types of supernovae the ejected matter expands at supersonic velocities, driving a strong shock into the surrounding medium. Such shocks are expected to accelerate nuclei from the material they pass through, turning them into cosmic rays. Because cosmic rays are charged, they follow complicated paths through interstellar magnetic fields. As a result, their directions as observed from the earth yield no information about the location of their original source.

    By looking at the synchrotron radiation sometimes associated with supernova remnants, researchers have found more direct evidence that supernovae can act as accelerators. Synchrotron radiation is characteristic of high-energy electrons moving in an intense magnetic field of the kind that might act as a cosmic-ray accelerator, and the presence of synchrotron x-rays in some supernova remnants suggests particularly high energies. (In earthbound devices, synchrotron emission limits a particle's energy because the emission rate increases as a particle goes faster; at some point, the radiation bleeds energy out of an accelerating particle as fast as it can be pumped in.) Recently the Japanese x-ray satellite Asca made images of the shell of Supernova 1006, which exploded 990 years ago. Unlike the radiation from the interior of the remnant, the x-radiation from the shell has the features characteristic of synchrotron radiation. Astrophysicists have deduced that electrons are being accelerated there at up to 1014 eV (100 TeV).

    The EGRET detector on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory has also been used to study point sources of gamma rays identified with supernova remnants. The observed intensities and spectra (up to a billion electron volts) are consistent with an origin from the decay of particles called neutral pions, which could be produced by cosmic rays from the exploding star's remnants colliding with nearby interstellar gas. Interestingly, however, searches made by the ground-based Whipple Observatory for gamma rays of much higher energies from some of the same remnants have not seen signals at the levels that would be expected if the supernovae were accelerating particles to 1014 eV or more.

    A complementary method for testing the association of high-energy cosmic rays with supernovae involves the elemental composition of cosmic-ray nuclei. The size of the orbit of a charged particle in a magnetic field is proportional to its total momentum per unit charge, so heavier nuclei have greater total energy for a given orbit size. Any process that limits the particle acceleration on the basis of orbit size (such as an accelerating region of limited extent) will thus lead to an excess of heavier nuclei at high energies.
    Eventually we would like to be able to go further and look for elemental signatures of acceleration in specific types of supernovae. For example, the supernova of a white dwarf detonation would accelerate whatever nuclei populate the local interstellar medium. A supernova that followed the collapse of a massive star, in contrast, would accelerate the surrounding stellar wind, which is characteristic of the outer layers of the progenitor star at earlier stages of its evolution. In some cases, the wind could include an increased fraction of helium, carbon or even heavier nuclei.

    The identity of high-energy cosmic rays is all but lost when they interact with atoms in the earth's atmosphere and form a shower of secondary particles. Hence, to be absolutely sure of the nuclear composition, measurements must be made before the cosmic rays reach dense atmosphere. Unfortunately, to collect 100 cosmic rays of energies near 1014 eV, a 10-square-meter detector would have to be in orbit for three years. Typical exposures at present are more like the equivalent of one square meter for three days.

    Researchers are attacking this problem with some ingenious experiments. For example, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration has developed techniques to loft large payloads (about three tons) with high-altitude balloons for many days. These experiments cost a tiny fraction of what an equivalent satellite detector would. The most successful flights of this type have taken place in Antarctica, where the upper atmosphere winds blow in an almost constant circle around the South Pole.
    A payload launched at McMurdo Sound on the coast of Antarctica will travel at a nearly constant radius from the Pole and return eventually to near the launch site. Some balloons have circled the continent for 10 days. One of us (Swordy) is collaborating with Dietrich Müller and Peter Meyer of the University of Chicago on a 10-square-meter detector that could measure heavy cosmic rays of up to 1015 eV on such a flight. There are efforts to extend the exposure times to roughly 100 days with similar flights nearer the equator.
    Across Intergalactic Space

    Studying even higher-energy cosmic rays--those produced by sources as yet unknown--requires large ground-based detectors, which overcome the problem of low flux by watching enormous effective areas for months or years. The information, however, must be extracted from cascades of secondary particles--electrons, muons and gamma rays--initiated high in the atmosphere by an incoming cosmic-ray nucleus. Such indirect methods can only suggest general features of the composition of a cosmic ray on a statistical basis, rather than identifying the atomic number of each incoming nucleus.

    At ground level, the millions of secondary particles unleashed by one cosmic ray are spread over a radius of hundreds of meters. Because it is impractical to blanket such a large area with detectors, the detectors typically sample these air showers at a few hundred or so discrete locations.
    Technical improvements have enabled such devices to collect increasingly sophisticated data sets, thus refining the conclusions we can draw from each shower. For example, the CASA-MIA-DICE experiment in Utah, in which two of us (Cronin and Swordy) are involved, measures the distributions of electrons and muons at ground level. It also detects Cerenkov light (a type of optical shock wave produced by particles moving faster than the speed of light in their surrounding medium) generated by the shower particles at various levels in the atmosphere. These data enable us to reconstruct the shape of the shower more reliably and thus take a better guess at the energy and identity of the cosmic ray that initiated it.
    The third one of us (Gaisser) is working with an array that measures showers reaching the surface at the South Pole. This experiment works in conjunction with AMANDA, which detects energetic muons produced in the same showers by observing Cerenkov radiation produced deep in the ice cap. The primary goal of AMANDA is to catch traces of neutrinos produced in cosmic accelerators, which may generate upward-streaming showers after passing through the earth.

    In addition to gathering better data, researchers are also improving detailed computer simulations that model how air showers develop. These simulations help us to understand both the capabilities and the limitations of ground-based measurements. The extension to higher energies of direct cosmic-ray detection experiments, which allows both ground-based and airborne detectors to observe the same kinds of cosmic rays, will also help calibrate our ground-based data.


    Rare Giants

    Cosmic rays with energies above 1020 eV strike the earth's atmosphere at a rate of only about one per square kilometer a year. As a result, studying them requires an air-shower detector of truly gigantic proportions. In addition to the 1991 event in Utah, particles with energies above 1020 eV have been seen by groups elsewhere in the U.S., in Akeno, Japan, in Haverah Park, U.K., and in Yakutsk, Siberia.
    Particles of such high energy pose a conundrum. On the one hand, they are likely to come from outside our galaxy because no known acceleration mechanism could produce them and because they approach from all directions even though a galactic magnetic field is insufficient to bend their path. On the other hand, their source cannot be more than about 30 million light-years away, because the particles would otherwise lose energy by interaction with the universal microwave background--radiation left over from the birth of the cosmos in the big bang. In the relativistic universe that the highest-energy cosmic rays inhabit, even a single radio-frequency photon packs enough punch to rob a particle of much of its energy.

    If the sources of such high-energy particles were distributed uniformly throughout the cosmos, interaction with the microwave background would cause a sharp cutoff in the number of particles with energy above 5 x 1019 eV, but that is not the case. There are as yet too few events above this nominal threshold for us to know for certain what is going on, but even the few we have seen provide us with a unique opportunity for theorizing. Because these rays are essentially undeflected by the weak intergalactic magnetic fields, measuring the direction of travel of a large enough sample should yield unambiguous clues to the locations of their sources.

    It is interesting to speculate what the sources might be. Three recent hypotheses suggest the range of possibilities: galactic black-hole accretion disks, gamma-ray bursts and topological defects in the fabric of the universe.
    Astrophysicists have predicted that black holes of a billion solar masses or more, accreting matter in the nuclei of active galaxies, are needed to drive relativistic jets of matter far into intergalactic space at speeds approaching that of light; such jets have been mapped with radio telescopes. Peter L. Biermann of the Max Planck Institute for Radioastronomy in Bonn and his collaborators suggest that the hot spots seen in these radio lobes are shock fronts that accelerate cosmic rays to ultrahigh energy. There are some indications that the directions of the highest-energy cosmic rays to some extent follow the distribution of radio galaxies in the sky.

    The speculation about gamma-ray bursts takes off from the theory that the bursts are created by relativistic explosions, perhaps resulting from the coalescence of neutron stars. Mario Vietri of the Astronomical Observatory of Rome and Eli Waxman of Princeton University independently noted a rough match between the energy available in such cataclysms and that needed to supply the observed flux of the highest-energy cosmic rays. They argue that the ultrahigh-speed shocks driven by these explosions act as cosmic accelerators.

    Perhaps most intriguing is the notion that ultrahigh-energy particles owe their existence to the decay of monopoles, strings, domain walls and other topological defects that might have formed in the early universe. These hypothetical objects are believed to harbor remnants of an earlier, more symmetrical phase of the fundamental fields in nature, when gravity, electromagnetism and the weak and strong nuclear forces were merged. They can be thought of, in a sense, as infinitesimal pockets preserving bits of the universe as it existed in the fractional instants after the big bang.
    As these pockets collapse, and the symmetry of the forces within them breaks, the energy stored in them is released in the form of supermassive particles that immediately decay into jets of particles with energies up to 100,000 times greater than those of the known ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays. In this scenario the ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays we observe are the comparatively sluggish products of cosmological particle cascades.

    Whatever the source of these cosmic rays, the challenge is to collect enough of them to search for detailed correlations with extragalactic objects. The AGASA array in Japan currently has an effective area of 200 square kilometers, and the new Fly's Eye HiRes experiment in Utah will cover about 1,000 square kilometers. Each detector, however, can capture only a few ultrahigh-energy events a year.
    For the past few years, Cronin and Alan A. Watson of the University of Leeds have been spearheading an initiative to gather an even larger sample of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays. This development is named the Auger Project, after Pierre Auger, the French scientist who first investigated the phenomenon of correlated showers of particles from cosmic rays. The plan is to provide detectors with areas of 9,000 square kilometers that are capable of measuring hundreds of high-energy events a year. A detector field would consist of many stations on a 1.5-kilometer grid; a single event might trigger dozens of stations.
    An Auger Project design workshop held at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in 1995 has shown how modern off-the-shelf technology such as solar cells, cellular telephones and Global Positioning System receivers can make such a system far easier to construct. A detector the size of Rhode Island could be built for about $50 million. To cover the entire sky, two such detectors are planned, one each for the Northern and Southern hemispheres.

    As researchers confront the problem of building and operating such gigantic detector networks, the fundamental question remains: Can nature produce even more energetic particles than those we have seen? Could there be still higher-energy cosmic rays, or are we already beginning to detect the highest-energy particles our universe can create?


    Further Reading

    Introduction to Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Ray Physics. Pierre Sokolsky. Addison-Wesley, 1988.
    Cosmic Rays and Particle Physics. Thomas K. Gaisser. Cambridge University Press, 1990.
    High Energy Astrophysics, Vol. 1. Second edition. Malcolm S. Longair. Cambridge University Press, 1992.
    Cosmic Ray Observations below 1014 eV. Simon Swordy in Proceedings of the XXIII International Cosmic Ray Conference. Edited by D. A. Leahy, R. B. Hicks and D. Venkatesan. World Scientific, 1994.

    The Authors

    JAMES W. CRONIN, THOMAS K. GAISSER and SIMON P. SWORDY work on both the theoretical questions of how cosmic rays are created and the practical problems inherent in detecting and analyzing them. Cronin, a professor of physics at the University of Chicago since 1971, earned his master's degree from the university in 1953 and his doctorate in 1955. In 1980 he shared the Nobel Prize with Val L. Fitch for work on symmetry violations in the decay of mesons. Gaisser, a professor of physics at the University of Delaware, has concentrated on the interpretation of atmospheric cosmic-ray cascades; he earned his doctorate from Brown University in 1967. In 1995 Gaisser spent two months in Antarctica setting up cosmic-ray detectors. Swordy, an associate professor at Chicago, has been active in cosmic-ray measurement since 1976. He earned his Ph.D. from the University of Bristol in 1979.


    Strings in Quantum Relativity


    Many readers have trouble with the concept of a 'higher dimension', not surprisingly because the human brain encoding cannot visualise hyperspace, meaning some region or volume of space additional to the experienced Cartesian coordinate system of 3 orthogonal (normal at 90 degrees to each other) directions like length, width and breadth.
    Changing the orthogonality then results in curved space or curvilinear coordinates and the 'cube' of Minkowski becomes a skewed and sheared in any of the directions and with the 90 degree angle changing into acuteness (less than 90o) or obtuseness (more than 90o).

    The 'expert' scientific nomenclature (language) then describes this curved space in differential equations relating the positions of the 'points' in both space and time in a 4-dimensional description called Riemannian Tensor Space or similar.

    This then leads mathematically, to the formulation of General Relativity in Einstein's field Equations:

    [​IMG] for the Einstein-Riemann tensor [​IMG] and is

    built upon ten so-called nonlinear coupled hyperbolic-elliptic partial differential equations" which, needless to say, are mathematically rather complex and often cannot be solved analytically without simplifying the geometries of the parametric constituents (say objects interacting in so called tensor-fields of stress-energy {Tμν} and curvatures (Riemann-Einstein tensor {Gμν}), either changing the volume in reduction (Ricci tensor {Rij} with scalar curvature R as {Rgμν} for the metric tensor gμν) or keeping the volume of considered space invariant to volume change (Tidal Weyl tensor Rμν).

    The difficulties lie in the fact that the equations are nonlinear and coupled in many terms, resulting in families of equations, which are then expressed in the shorthand notations of the Einstein conventions as in the specialist semantics of the so trained and educated scientists and especially cosmological physicists, who are attempting to formulate the dynamics of the physical universe in such terminology.

    The difficulty for the layman to understand General Relativity in this extraordinary complex formalism so becomes self evident and Quantum Relativity was developed to add a particular conceptual framework to the specialised formulations in a what might be labelled a Newtonian Quantum Cosmology not addressing the local dynamics of a system (say as calculation of the perihelion of Mercury as the perturbation correction of Newtonian Cosmology by General Relativity due to the curvilinear coordinate system applicable; but in describing the universe as a hologram and wholism and by this necessity independent on any coordinate system.

    This is termed Demetrication and so allows the examination of the prespacetime scenarios of the cosmogenesis in what becomes the cosmogony preceding the cosmologies of proposed models for the universe and multiverses seeded upon a protoversal seed and collectively integrated as an omniverse.
    The inherent difficulty between the classical description of General Relativity in terms of macrocosmic geometrical curvature fields of locally defined metrics with the delocalised (or quantum entangled) quantum fields of microcosmic energy states so becomes apparent as an effect of the metric background used to describe the cosmologies itself.

    For example the Quantum Field Theories describe the Electron in terms of its singularity as a 'point particle'; yet the same formulations also require the Electron to be a Classical wavicle, defined by its electrodynamic properties, say as defined in the Alpha Finestructure and the mass-energy equivalence of E=mc2 and more appropriately the Energy-Momentum Relation E2=Eo2+(pc)2.
    The 'explanation' for this schizophrenic behaviour of the Electron being both classically macro and quantum micro simultaneously then rests at the core of the true unification Cosmologies.

    As the basic formulations in General Relativity describe the 4-vector, say the Minkowski coordinate system where the 4th spacelike dimension is given by the lightpath X=ct; Quantum Relativity begins its 'demetrication' modus operandi of the unification in reexamining the nature of this 'Imaginary spacelike Minkowski timedimension'.

    General Relativity is appropriate for all cosmologies describing a physical universe and where physical here encompasses the propagation of electromagnetic radiation and so the invariance of the lightspeed as the 4th dimension of the lightpath X=cT in the Minkowski metric: R2+X2=c2.

    This is conventionally written as (ds)2=(cdt)2 - (dl)2, showing that the nature of the Time coordinate in the lightpath X=ct in the 4-vector of say velocity dl/dt=v is nought but the extension of the Pythagorean Theorem in 4 spacial dimensions, where the 4th dimension is not some coordinate W, but the lightpath X in a 4-vector space of say:
    R4={ct,x,y,z} with R3={x,y,z} for the conventional and familiar metric linesegment (ds)2=(dx)2+(dy)2+(dz)2

    Rewriting
    (ds/c)2 = (dt)2 - (dl/c)2 = (dt)2{1-(dl/dt)2/c2}=(dt)2{1-v2/c2}=(dT)2

    then immediately crystallizes the postulates of Special Relativity in a Proper Time T applicable to both stationary and moving observer, provided the metric ds>0 in a TIMELIKE definition for the formulated parameters.

    (ds/dt)2 = c2(dT)2 =c2{1-v2/c2}=c2-v2 for the Pythagorean summation (ds/dt)2 + v2 = c2.

    This shows that physically ANY movement through space will REDUCE the movement through time by the simple vector summation of the classical velocity v, bounded by the lightspeed invariance in ds >0.

    Subsequently ONLY a null velocity v=0 will allow a MAXIMIZED movement through Time in this formulation for ds/dt=c=ds/dT.
    Terrestrial physics, inclusive the string-brane formulations in extended metric spacetimes, now continues to explore this foundational basis with ever increasing mathematical complexities, as can be ascertained in the semantics and labelings of the 26-dimensional string proposal following.

    Quantum Relativity differs in the allowing the linear 'flow of time' to become an emergent property of a demetricated prior energy state. This then defines a prior minimum spacial metric, related to but not restricted to the so termed Planck parameters of modern quantum field theory.

    In the conventional approach, the TIMELIKENESS of the metric element (ds)2=(cdt)2-(dl)2 >0 is allowed to assume its SPACELIKENESS in the inequality (ds)2=(cdt)2-(dl)2 <0 in what might be termed the 'Inner Minkowski Space' of the Euclidean metric bounded by the LIGHTLIKENESS of (ds)2=(cdt)2-(dl)2=0, that is the v=c identity of the c-invariance of the relativities as BOTH an upper and a lower bound for 4-dimensional spacetime continuum.

    Of course for the SPACELIKENESS of the inner space the linear flow of time is rendered superluminal in a 4-dimensional Hyperspace of 4 space dimensions and where the 4th spacial dimensions becomes colocal, albeit subject to curvature in enfoldment, with the preexisting volume-space of the R3 3-vector space of an ordinary Newtonian cosmology.

    Quantum Relativity then approaches the definition of higher multidimensional Riemannian coordinate systems in a rather simplified form of allowing the 'higher dimensions' to enfold themselves in colocality.
    This is commonly understood in the precipes of string-membrane cosmology as the conifoldment of a circularised 'mini spacetime dimension', such as a LOOP about an extended macro dimension (such as an ant crawling around the 'thickness' of as garden hose in popular example).


    Quantum Relativity considers the Universe as a Manifold reducible (in its preinflationary definition) to just 2 dimensions and where these 2 dimensions (of say a Complex Plane) GENERATE the 3rd dimension by the definition of the Curvature attained by separation of some minimized displacement defining the underpinning demetrication in a Minimum spacetime configuration causative for the so termed Big Bang singularity itself.

    On a complex plane manifold the metric (ds)2 NOT embedded in a preexisting R3 space cannot curve into 3 dimensions from R2, as its own self generation from Nullspace R0 into R1 required the Unification or Unitisation of the selfmapping of the singularity being both a Null-eigenstate AND an Infinity-selfstate simultaneously.

    In other words, the Unity did not exist and no counting process of summation or integration (mathematically termed enumerability) was then possible.
    This selfmapping of the singularity of a mathematical point onto itself, did however allow a distinction between the former and the latter selfstate to be made.
    Quantum Relativity describes the detailed processes of this in terms of principles with the 3rd principle of order preceding, but becoming necessity for the physicalisation of the before-and-after ordering as the concept of linearized flow of time in the entropy arrow of the forwards direction.

    Then, the selfmapping of 'Nothingness=Everything Singularities' or 'mathematical points' of this pre Big Bang scenario of distinguishing between them, allowed a Primordial Separation between the singularities and this separation become defined in the UNITY Interval of the minimum metric for the emergent Inflaton-Instanton of the string-membrane quantum Cosmogony and the Big Bang classical Cosmologies of Einsteinian relativity.
    The distinction between two selfmapped points so became a string metric as the 1st dimension and before the so called Planck Time was physicalised in the string epoch from Planck-Time to Weyl-Time in the Cosmogony.

    This 1D string as the (ds)2 metric displacement so became defined as the selfinteraction of the previously selfmapped singularity and because this metric definition could redefine itself as INVARIANT with respect to Angular Displacement AND VARIANT with respect to Linear Displacement, the 2nd dimension could emerge as the rotational symmetry of the complex plane and the geometry of the circle or a 1-sphere or a 2-ball in topological linguistics (the 0-sphere being the ±1 separation of two mathematical points as the 1-ball of a diameter say).

    Then the rotational plane could itself CURVE its LINEARITY as a Manifold in 2 dimensions, thus transforming its IMAGINARY Thickness as the defined Minimum Metric of the Weyl-Perimeter and emerging as the Big Bang Wormhole parameters.
    As stated later on, this supports and emphasizes the model of the Universe being 'born' from a previous Black Hole Cosmology; this Black Hole being however not any Black Hole of whatver prior brane cosmologies, but the Primordial Singularity itself.

    The extraterrestrial physics (as is the case until certain transformations within spacetime render the extraterrestrial as new terrestrial); then specify the 'thickness' of the primordial 3rd dimension as the parameter allowing the topology of the 2D manifold of the 1-sphere to become the boundary for the 2-sphere, that is the self closure of the spherical space in topological transformation.
    Just as a malleable sheet of paper or plastic say can be moulded into an idealised spherical envelope say, provided there preexists 3D space to do this in; so can the 2-sphere become the lower boundary as a surface for an encompassing 3-sphere in R4, also known as Riemann's Hypersphere or as Poincare's 3-Sphere in the echelons of the academia.

    In particular, the 3-sphere of Volume V4=½π2R4 has its surface derivative dV4/dR=S4=2π2R3 as its lower dimensional boundary V3.
    So the entire information content of a physical cosmology in a 3-dimensional volume space can be described as the Surface mapping of a 4-dimensional space in a top-down approach.
    Alternatively in a bottom-up approach, the transformation of a spherical volume
    V3=(πR2)(2πR)=(Cross-Section of a Torus)(Perimeter of a Torus) can be considered mapped onto a 4-dimensional hypersurface manifesting in 3D as the surface manifold of a Black Hole.

    In Quantum Relativity, it is the 'thickness dimension' of the Weyl-String in 2D, which defines the inside-out or top-down distinction between the parent space of the R4 and the sondaughter space of the R3 in the case of the TIMELIKENESS of a time-evolving cosmology (ds>0).

    In the SPACELIKENESS of the ds<0, the parent space is the R2 for the daughterson space of the R3 and so the TIMELIKE mirrors the SPACELIKE in a supersymmetry between the metricated cosmology and the demetricated cosmology.

    The overall topology of the higher dimensional string-membrane physics, so reduces in the simplicity of the cosmogony of Quantum Relativity.
    The brane dimensions all reduce to a timeless Protoversal SEED manifested as a 'Quasi Steady State' higher-dimensional envelope around a timeevolving expanding universe cosmology.
    The Line-dimensions manifest as the 3-sphere, where however the 4th time dimension becomes inverted as a fourth spacial dimension so allowing the entropy-directed time dimension (or arrow) to open up a 5th spacial dimension colocal, yet inverted with the 3-sphere as an additional potential space dimension supplementary to the extent of the Protoversal seedling.
    The Minkowski metric so remains valid in description of the Einstein universe of Euclidean flatness (zero curvature as a whole), because the positive curvature of the Riemann hypersphere is mirrored or reflected in the self-extension of itself by and through the 5th dimension, both inverted in reflection of the 'inner space' and extroverted as say a refraction of the 'outer space'.

    Relative to an observer within the Riemannian 3-sphere then, the overall curvature for the universe's topology appears to be negative (or hyperbolic), because the selfimage of the 3-sphere in R4 as positive must become negative in superspacial symmetry (convexity to a central observer to the left becomes concavity to this observer to the right say).
    {This becomes detailed in the equivalence of an encompassing spherical geometry radius 2a and V3Sphere=32πa3/3 for an inscribed Torus Volume radius a for V3Torus=2π2a3 =(3π/16)V3Sphere.
    There are so precisely 8 spheres radius a in the encompassing sphere radius 2a for an quasi-toroidal encompassing multiconnected R3 space as the R4 boundary, so 1.697652726..times bigger than the singularly connected R3 space.
    An observer placed at the center of this geometry now will simultaneously experience the positive curvature of the encompassing sphere radius 2a and the negative hyperbolic curvature of the torus radius a}.

    The tangent 'point' at the observer coordinate of the toroidal derivative in the description above so becomes the Weyl-String singularity in Quantum Relativity and so allows physicalisation of the 'tangent space'.
    The Platonic Idealisation of the Self-Intersection so becomes the 'smeared out' singularity, say as the Kerr Ring in the Planck-Length being the cross-sectional radius of the torus and the Weyl wavelength becoming the magnified perimeter of the Kerr Ring in an idealised rotating Black Hole.

    The thickness of the 3rd dimension of the cosmogenesis so similarly becomes the idealised (or metaphysical) 'point of singularity selfintersection' and so can become modeled in the mathematical descriptions of the Möbius strip and the Klein-Bottle.
    Here the Möbius strip CAN be embedded as a 2D surface within a 3D volumar, but the Klein-Bottle cannot; the latter requires 4D space with the twosidedness of both geometrical constructs becoming onesided by the doubling of the surface areas of the twosidedness.

    In Quantum Relativity, The Linespacetime of the 4D then assigns the toroidal geometries of the simple 2D space to the 'higher enfolded dimensions'.
    The area dimensions of Linespace, Hyperspace, Quantumspace and Omnispace are so preceded by their metric linesegments and followed by the volumars or branes in such a Klein-Bottle Branes or quasi volumars in say a 2-Torus of Linespace R3, a 5-Torus of Hyperspace R5, a 8-Torus of Quantumspace R8 and a 11-Torus of Omnispace R11 = 2-Torus of Linespace R3.

    The 11th dimension becomes identical to the 2nd dimension as the Manifold for the Data inscription; just as the 2D surface area of a Black Hole is physically equivalent as a 4D hyperspace manifold to cumulate the information of any 3D volumar space embedding the Black Hole.
    It is the 'doubling of the surface area' of the boundary space, which enables the dimensional subtraction/addition for the root-extension of the complex plane in 2D into physical reality in 3D mirrored in the root-reduction of the complex plane in 11D into physical reality in 10D of the Witten membrane space (as the original 9D string space).

    Time, as described before, is rendered a Connector-Dimension in say 3 degrees of freedom of the Translation of LineSpace; the Rotation of HyperSpace; the Vibration of QuantumSpace and the Holofractalization of OmniSpace.
    Then the 4th Minkowski Time dimension of Linespace connects Linespace to Hyperspace in say the TwistorSpace of Penrose as an inverted Space dimension being an extroverted Time dimension.
    Similarly the 7th Penrose Time dimension of an enfolded space dimension becomes descriptive of vibrational string patterns and modes also acting as an external time dimension in a 7-brane spacetime and a 10th Witten Time dimension is both enfolded as a space dimension and externalised as a string time dimension of 10-branes.

    The 10-dimensional string cosmology in Quantum Relativity so represents the Riemannian 3-sphere cosmology with translational metric modes described by local physical theories such as General Relativity with superpositioned rotational gauge quantum symmetries defined by the quantum spin of the massless bosonic precursors for the fermionic inertia carriers; as well as the vibrational patterns of the energy configurations of those 'bosonic-fermionic' templates as the transformed bosonic strings into fermions of the spin bifurcations.
    The OmniSpace becomes the MirrorSpace, with the 11th dimension constituting the 'Inside' of the Möbian Dragon topology of the 11-Torus=2-Torus and the 12th dimension forming the 'Outside' in the twosidedness of the cosmological observer.
    This 'Outside' however also becomes the Image of the 10D-QuantumSpace as the holistic Universe AND the 'refractive' expansion of the protoversal seedling itself.


    'Consciousness' as a primordial label for the prespacetime creation energy selfstate can be descibed to be either a higherD/ZPE wormhole energy quantum of 0.002 Joules (1,240 TeV) or to depict the concept of a 'primordial supercharge' (as a gluon-colour-magnetocharge say).
    The 'superenergy' aka collective consciousness represents a purely metaphysical or mathematical abstraction, which however becomes 'materially physical' in the emergence of the metrics of space and time as a 11D membrane based dimension 'nesting'.
    The spacetime (Inflationary String epoch in 26D followed by a Quantum Big Bang) creation occurred from the Void-Infinitum selfstate of the holographically collective 'Consciousness' without any metrication or Unification was possible (because there was no space or time).
    The Quantum Big Bang; so was not the 'collision' of higherD branes from 'infinity space'; but rather the emergence of a quantum spin bifurcation of what is commonly termed the Bosonic Superstring in 26 dimensions.

    A Onesided manifold emerging from the Nulldimension (of the 'geometrical' Void=Eternity) as a selfmapped point will so 'create' the 1st Dimension in a separation of this selfmapped mathematical 'point' or singularity and then allow both a linear and a curved manifold (or complex plane) to define the nonlinear metric of three such then noncollinear separated 'singularities'.
    Assigning quantum spin, independent on radial extent as a function of angular displacement then; will render the onesided manifold as twosided in the creation of the 3rd dimension, namely the 'thickness' of the previously onesided manifold as a twosidedness. The boundary of spacetime so is rendered as the 'connectedness' of two surfaces or manifolds in the 26D bosonic stringspace not as then physically manifest in a metric background describable by geometries.
    So the 26D bosonic superstring of say counterclockwise quantum spin becomes bounded in a 13D bifurcation with three 'mirror dimensions' say 11-12-13-14-15-16 separating a clockwise 10D superstring basis from its anticlockwise shadowed string 'universe'.
    The 11th dimension for the physicalised spacetime so will become an asymptotic boundary independent on this physicalisation but allowing electromagnetic oscillation as a noninertial reference frame for the inertia parameters of the lower 10D spacetime and as the invariance of the lightspeed in the scenarios of ther Einsteinian relativities.
    The 10D string cosmology so becomes an information maping onto the 11th Mother-Dimension of the 2+9=11 rootextended higherD manifold.

    This is 'mirrored' in the collapse of the 16th dimensional shadow string universe onto the 'outside' of the 11D mother membrane spacetime.
    The 11th dimension so manifests the prior onesidedness in the bifurcated twosidedness in the 'collapse/conifoldment' of the counterclockwise spinning quantum mirror of the original 26D bosonic superstring.
    The above description has been rigorously mathematically defined in the string-membrane -brane theories of contemporary string cosmologists (Witten, Greene, Aspinwall, Morrison, Steinhardt, Albrecht, Maldacena, Kaku, Susskind, Ashketar and many more).
    This twosidedness of the physicalized 11D universe so allows the 12th Father-Vafa dimension as the 'outside' of the M-space to 'fold onto itself' in a Möbian-Klein-Bottled (8-Torus) topological transformation to render the 'Shadow Universe' as colocal with its 'Physical Image' of the asymptotic 10D-string universe bounded in its 11D-asymptotical expansion.
    This scenario is extensively discussed in the omni-science forum of http://www.cosmosdawn.com/.




    abc logo.


    It blends the right circle half of the Left Infinity Symbol with the left circle half of the Right Infinity Symbol in:
    ∞|∞ = Lissajous Curve OOO and as seen in graphic representation above and in the reference below.
    The space encompassed by the Lissajous Curve http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lissajous_curve then defines the 'consciousness' space defined in the 'source energy equation of creation' E*.e*=1.

    The significance of the Iron is the Binding Energy in nuclear and atomic physics as described below in the hyperphysics link from Georgia State University. http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/nucene/nucbin.html

    Ferrum, atomic number 26 as Isotopes Fe56 and Fe58 with Nickel62 define the IRON LIMIT; where the energy of the NUCLEAR FUSION (which is additive in construction) becomes maximized in the transition to the process of NUCLEAR FISSION, which is inherently subtractive and so destructive, as say in atomic weaponry.
    In simplistic terms, energy must be added to the nucleus, (ENDOTHERMIC ACTION) say in a star to cause an EXOTHERMIC REACTION as the output of energy from the star.

    The IRON LIMIT so manifests physically in the nuclear physics of stars and the genesis of the elements in Nucleosynthesis, leading to the creation and configuration of the Periodic Table of the elements in chemistry.
    Metaphysically however, the 26-tiered Bosonic Superstring of 10 clockwise and 16 anticlockwise chirality patterns reduces to the 10D superstring in the string epoch (between Planck Time (10-44 seconds) and Weyl-Time (10-31 seconds).
    Before Planck Time at the Null-Time of the 0D, this became defined as a 26-tiered Alpha-Omega structure as is exemplified in a 26 letter alphabet where A=1=Alpha then allows recircularistaion of a basically binary digital code of open and closed 10D superstrings in Z=26=Omega and resetting A*=27;B*=28;... in Z=A*;A=B*;...

    This becomes the Isaac Code of the ABC in the Lissajous Curve after which the 'Starseed of Abraham and Sarah' would be called by ISAAC=IS AAC=IS AB*C=IS ABC

    Shiloh, October 5th, 2013





     
    Last edited: Nov 14, 2014
  9. admin

    admin Well-Known Member Staff Member

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    shiloh

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    • Post n°9

    empty. Re: The Legacy of Thuban Omni-Science De Alpha Draconis Omega

    empty. shiloh on Sun Oct 06, 2013 10:18 am


    The Nature and Origin of the Dark Energy and the Cosmological Constant


    What drives the expansion of the universe and where did this energy derive from in the first instance?

    I have detailed the quantum geometric underpinning of the Big Bang Cosmogenesis with its selfgenerative birth of the dimensions previously.
    So I shall describe the physics for this cosmogenesis in terms of the 'large scale' classical Newtonian-Einsteinian geometry in this message.

    The cause of the Big Bang was of course metaphysical and mathematical; meaning that no space, no time and no mass existed 'before' the Big Bang happened.
    What did exist as 'primera causa' however, was a 'primordial materia' from which all of the spacetimed universe could emerge.
    Both, the primal cause and the primal energy are so by nature independent upon the manifestation of the universe in its parameters observed, measured and implied.
    The 'prima materia' so represented 'Primal ENERGY', which could transform into the 'Caused Energy' of the Quantum Big Bang.

    Many of you eschew mathematics and the abstractionism it represents as a language.
    Now 'Lingua Mathimatica' is just that, a language, universal in scope and applicability and so your phobias are not insurmountable.
    Your distaste for symbolisms of one kind can easily become translated into a semiotik of another kind.
    But then many of you eschew the metaphysical representation of mythology as well and yet another translation becomes necessity.

    But due to mathematics being a cosmically applicable and universal language (like music and dance for example); the concept of the 'Primal Energy'; whilst independent upon the emergent universe, nevertheless can become formulated in the famous energy relations of Einstein, Planck and Boltzmann {E=mc2=hf=kT}.

    1. There was a primal energy E* 'before' the beginning of time, which upon 'emerging', DEFINED the concepts of time, space, mass, etc.

    2. All parameters whatsoever are interrelated in the primal energy E*; but existed in metaphysical-abstract form, before they emerged to create the observable universe using E* as the universal source of energy.

    3. There is so necessarily a discrepancy between the 'source energy reservoir defined in quantum form by E*' and the 'source energy transformed' to create the physicalised universe in spacetimematter.

    4. As the 'Source-Energy-Reservoir' or SER can be defined abstractly; it can also be defined as INFINITE mathematically, say as asymptotic approach of the infinite within the finite. The omega interval [0,1] is finite as binary boundary, but contains an infinite number count of the rationals as extension of the Integers (and Naturals) of the applied mathematical procedures (the inversion identity under associativity and distribution say).

    5. This SER then transforms its self- or eigenstate from the infinite 'no observable 'real' universe' potential to a finite 'a real physical measurable universe' potential, using E*.

    6. The infinite energy of the SE so becomes finitised across a dimensional quantum boundary, through which it must 'tunnel' to manifest its finiteness.

    7. This 'tunneling' becomes effectualised in creating a 'quantum fluctuation', aka a metaphysical discrepancy in the energy formulations defining E*.

    8. A particular E*-eigenstate summation before tunneling so can be used to describe this then 'dimensionally reduced' selfstate integral after tunneling.
    This dimensional reduction is then modelled as a decrease in SE, say in an Energy-Gradient defined in the quantum laws given as metaphysical aka mathematical precursors {E=mc2=hf=kT}.

    9. The particular eigenstate before tunneling is defined in the dynamics of a de Broglie MATTERWAVE, associated with the concept of quantum-driven inflation.
    This inflation is also metaphysical and uses the 'dimensionally increased' selfstate to render the metaphysical definition a physical definition in the 'dimensionally reduced' eigenstate.

    10. It so becomes the universe to be a dimensionally nested universe and as prerequisite to carry both, the nature of the 'unreal' metaphysical-mathematical and the nature of the real physical. The dimensional divide so can also be described as a mapping between 'mirror spaces'.

    11. The de Broglie matterwave so defines a higher dimensional universal envelope (HDU) about the lower dimensional universe (LDU), and with a scale-displacement boundary RHubble say.
    Both the HDU and the LDU are defined in the SE E* in quantum terminology; but the LDU utilises the NATURAL LAWS based upon the transformations embodied in {E=mc2=hf=kT}; whereas the HDU uses the latter in the formal sense of the metaphysics aka the mathematical abstractions.

    12. The HDU 'inflates' in NOW-Time aka the Instanton to set a boundary for the LDU to 'expand into' in a 'inflated' THEN-Time aka the linearised lightpath time t=x/c, and where displacement X relates to the lightspeed invariant 'c'.

    13. In the HDU 'c' is not invariant, but forms the antistate for its invariance in the LDU.
    Particularly, it is defined in the de Broglie PhaseSpeed of the matterwave and with LDU 'speed' V:
    {VdB=lightpath/lighttime=(h/mV)(mc2/h)=c2/V>c for all V<c}.

    14. In terms of E* then; the de Broglie Inflaton Acceleration is:
    AdB=RHubble/t*2 ~1.4x1087 (m/s2)* for x*=ct*.

    15. The AdB so becomes the first primordial energy parameter subject to physicalisation in the 'quantum tunneling'.
    To render the AdB physical, a Quantum Big Bang, creating the LDU from the now manifested HDU is required.
    As the AdB is a metaphysical acceleration subject to the contra-invariance of lightspeed 'c'; the invariance of 'c' becomes necessity for all speeds 'V' encountered in the LDU as an intrinsic limit for any acceleration.

    16. Those limited velocities now become associated with both the mass content or inertia of objects moving at speeds V and their noninertial or photonic equivalents as defined in {E=mc2=hf=kT}.

    17. From this the Equivalence Principle of Einstein's General Relativity is born and which postulates, that any gravitational field strength Gm/r2 becomes indistinguishable from a Newtonian acceleration AN in terms of the mass m experiencing the acceleration or the gravitational field.

    18. The LDU so must have a PRIMAL Gravitational Field given in AN=GM/x*2 and where M is the Total Inertial Mass Content of the universe transformed from the E*-Integral to manifest the LDU in the Quantum Big Bang.

    19. The equality AdB=AN so would require RHubblec2=2GM and a 'fixed' total mass Mcritical=RHubblec2/2G.
    This can be rewritten as RHubble=2GM/c2 to crystallise the Schwarzschild metric for the Semi-HDU, so CONNECTING the HDU to the LDU across the dimensions in a physics of Black Holes.

    20. The Semi-HDU derives from setting the gravitational potential equal to the VPE=Vortex-Potential Energy=Zero-Point-Energy=ZPE of E* described as a SE-Planck-Harmonic Oscillator with eigenstate:
    Emin*=½E* for GMm*/x*2=½m*c2.

    21. A definition of M=Mo<Mcritical as a function of E*, will then ENSURE, that the reduced total inertia of the universe will manifest in a quantum tunneling in the creation of a required acceleration gradient with AdB>AN.

    22. M becomes defined as a function of E* in: Mo2=#(m Planck.mKernel/mRing)2 and where # describes the integral summation of the E* quantum eigenstate for the HDU and as mapped or transformed in a subsequent materialisation of the kernel-ring boson coupling as a quark-lepton fermion coupling, characterised in the proton-electron bonding.

    23. AN then becomes defined in AN~2.0x1085 (m/s2)* and the resulting gradient is AN/AdB=0.014...as the DECELERATION Parameter (qo) for the subsequently emerging cosmology.
    It is also half of the ratio of the Black Hole masses described by the Schwarzschild metric in:
    Mo/Mcritical=RHubble/RSarkar and where RSarkar describes the gravitational volume acting on the supercluster scale of galaxies as the boundary for gravitational interaction for cosmic large scale homogeneity.

    24. Twice the deceleration parameter so gives the actual density/critical density ratio for the cosmology as a direct consequence of the LDU-HDU interaction between the metaphysics of the prespacetime universe and its spacetimed progenitor.

    25. The Newtonian acceleration (ANewton=AOmega) is also a Gravitational Field Strength GMo/R2 where now R describes the curvature radius or scale of the entire universe.
    To accomodate the LDU in the HDU, the AN<AdB must quantum tunnel in the creation event under the auspices of the boundary conditions set by the curvature metrics and simplified in the Mother Black Hole of the HDU encompassing in a dimension higher by one the LDU as a Daughter Black Hole.

    26. Parametrising the scalefactor R as a function of DIMENSIONLESS time, then allows the de Broglie acceleration to also parametrise in such fashion to selftransform back from the HDU into the LDU.

    The equations are:
    Dimensionless time n=Ho.t for dn/dt=Ho as a 'nodal' Hubble-Constant defined in RHubble=c/Ho=r*f*/Ho;
    then R(n)=RHubble.ASP and where ASP=Asymptotic Expansion Parameter = f(n)=n/(n+1).

    Subsequently, displacement, velocity and acceleration are parametrised as:

    R(n)=RHubble.n/(n+1);
    V(n)=c/(n+1)2;
    A(n)=-2cHo/(n+1)3.

    27. There exists so an INTRINSIC DECELERATION in the universe and a deceleration which represents the contra-action of the de Broglie inflation of the HDU in the LDU.
    This intrinsic antiinflationary deceleration is maximised as the Milgrom-Constant AMmax=-2cHo~1.127 nanometers per second squared in (* units).

    28. The DIFFERENCE between the Intrinsic Milgrom cosmic deceleration and the Newtonian-Einsteinian gravitational deceleration then defines another acceleration (ADarkEnergy=ALambda), which becomes the EFFECT of the missing mass of the Daughter Black Hole to BE the Mother Black Hole; as well as the acceleration gradient between the de Broglie hyperacceleration exceeding lightspeed and the Newtonian-Einsteinian speed-restricted gravitational field intensity conscribing the total inertia of the universe as a whole.

    29. The equation for the Dark Energy Acceleration so is:
    AMilgrom=ANewton + ADarkEnergy.
    Normalising AIntrinsic= AOmega + ALambda so says:
    100%Intrinsic=X%Omega+Y%Lambda.

    30. For a presently calculated dimensionless time parameter of n=1.1324.., AIntrinsic aka the Milgrom Deceleration is about -2cHo/2.13243 ~ 1.16x10-10 (m/s2)* and reduced in a factor of so 9.7 from its maximum value at the Big Bang tunneling as the Summation Harmonic for the present n-time.

    The Dark Energy component for this present NOW-Time then is about -9.49x10-11 (m/s2)* as the Omega is defined in GMo/R2 ~ -2.13x10-11 (m/s2)*.
    In terms of accelerations then; the Dark Energy represents 81.8% of the intrinsic deceleration and the Newtonian-Einsteinian inertia component the remainder of 18.2%.

    The Dark Energy was 0 in the past and shall be 0 twice more until it asymptotically approches 0 in the infinite linear future.

    The Equation for the Dark Energy can be written as a function of dimensionless cycletime n as:

    Dark Energy Λ(n) = GoMo√[Xn]/R(n)2 - 2cHo/(n+1)3 .

    This is mathematically a geometric polynomial functional form describing the difference between the inverses of a square and a cube with roots at n1=0.1064; n2=9.2255 and n3=12.2777.
    As the origin of lambda is 'quantum smeared' in E* (as a Planck-Length Transform of superstring class I into the Weyl superstring class HE(8x8)); the n=0 singularity of the Big Bang becomes RESET as to*=no/Ho, that is the wavelength lambda*=λ* assumes the value of R(no) in Λo(no)=GoMo/λ*2 ~2.0x1085 (m/s2)*.

    This value represents the Dark Energy manifesting the Big Bang as the 'TUNNELED ZPE' across the dimensional boundary between the HDU and the LDU, materialising the latter in the Planck-Weyl superstring transformation.

    About 1.80 Billion years later; this Dark Energy became 0 and this change in gradient instigated GALAXY FORMATION at a cosmological redshift of z=2.15.
    Previously, the immense POSITIVE Dark Energy had established a Quasar-Wall for this subsequent galactic nexus point at a z=7.477.

    The Dark Energy attained its absolute minimum value at a z=1.19 and almost 4 billion years after the singularity at no. This epoch is well measured in the LDU as the 'Peak of the Galaxy Formation' in the cosmic evolution.
    The Dark Energy is NEGATIVE between the roots n1 and n2 (or the period between 1.8 and 156.0 billion years after creation) and so characterises a period of the DARK MATTER.

    The Dark Energy will be POSITIVE again between the roots n2 and n3 (or the period between 156.0 and 207.5 billion years), then describing a period of the LIGHT MATTER.

    After the n3 zero-point, the Dark Energy will coast asymptotically towards 0 again from a Dark Matter perspective, one can then term the GREY MATTER interval and containing a local minimum for the Dark Energy at the 337 billion year marker as about 0.00012 nanometers per second squared.

    The Dark Matter epoch results in inertia measurements, which are insufficient to account for the dynamical behaviour of the cosmic macrosystems, such as galaxies and group-galaxies in their interaction of translational and rotational parameters. The LAMBDA here ADDS to the OMEGA to give the MILGROM.
    Conversely, the Light Matter epoch seems to indicate, that there is too much mass about to match the electromagnetic 'light parameter' observations. The LAMBDA here SUBTRACTS from the OMEGA to yield the MILGROM INTRINSICATOR.

    In the equation above; the factor √[Xn] depicts the mass evolution of the baryonic mass-seedling Mo over linear time t=n/Ho and defines a Planck-'stringed' Newtonian gravitational constant Go for the string-parametric unification of electromagnetism with gravitation. This unification demands the Unity Go.k=1 and where k=1/4πεo as the SI-Coulomb constant. Stoney-Units coupled to Planck-Units in the √Alpha factor then allow the unification of electropolic charge 'e' with 'Go' via the monopole string class IIB coupling to the Planck string class I.
    As this unification ocurs in the string epoch of the inflation and with duration from the Planck-Time tPlanck=LPlanck/c to the Weyl-Time t*; Newton's Gravitational constant becomes modified after inflation in a finestructure G(n)mo2=GoXn m1m2Yn=GoXn m1Yk m2Yn-k = constant and for the Euler identity XY=X+Y=i2=-1=e.

    Taking the geometric mean for the Mo-seedling then yields the approximation GoXnMo√Yn=GoMo√Xn used. as the appropriate mean or average.
    The Dark Energy equation abobve, so takes the mass evolution of the baryon seed Mo into account and the functional form for Λ(n) becomes the one described and is applicable for the LDU.

    One can omit this mass-evolution for the HDU and consider the product GoMo constant over linear time.
    Then the Dark Energy equation simplifies and is:

    Dark Energy Λ(n) = GoMo/R(n)2 - 2cHo/(n+1)3 .

    The derivative Λ'(n) = -2GoMo R'(n)/R(n)3 + 6cHo/(n+1)4 = 6cHo/(n+1)4 - 2GoMo Ho2(n+1)/c2n3
    Then the absolute minimum for Λ'(n)=0 and for n=0.2389... becomes:
    Λ(0.2389) =2.12319...x10-10 - 5.92482...x10-10 = -3.80163...x10-10 (m/s2)*.

    The roots for Λ(n)=0 are calculated via 2c3/GoMoHo=(n+1)5/n2 as n1=0.10823... and n2=3.40055...
    This corresponds then to the Dark Energy beginning at the very high positive value of 2x1085 (m/s2)* at the instanton and reaching its first zero for the galaxy formation in the HDU after 1.83 billion years.
    This process of galaxy formation then peaks at the minimum so 4.04 billion years after the Big Bang and in tandem with the galaxy evolution in the LDU and peaking (0.2389..-0.2352..=0.0037) or so 62.5 million years earlier.

    The Dark Matter epoch begins 1.83 billion years after the instanton-inflaton and ends so 3.4 cycles afterwards at a 'oscillation coordinate' of 3.4RHubble or about 57.5 billion years.

    For the present time then, the HDU-LDU cosmo-evolutionary coupling has; and due to the lightspeed expansion of the HDU compared to the inertia slowing of the LDU; diverged in the factor D(n)=√Xn and which calculates as D(npresent=1.1324..)=0.7615...
    This divergence increases over linear time with the oscillatory HDU encompassing the asymptotic LDU.

    The Dark Energy, as a 'bookkeeper', so 'fades out' by the D(n) factor over linear time in the LDU with the MILGROM diminishing slower than the OMEGA.

    This 'account-keeping' of the 'Dark Energy' 'solves' Edward Witten's 'dilemma' and 'his most troublesome professional observation'.

    Iow, Einstein was right after all of having made a blunder, which wasn't a blunder.
    The Cosmological can be defined as in this paper, but OVERALL it is ZERO, just as Ed Witten wishes for in M-Theory.
    An interview with him, stating this is reproduced below from the 'stringsite website'
    http://www.superstringtheory.com/people/witten.html


    Excerpt Quote:

    Why is it so hard to break supersymmetry in string theory?

    Well, if I knew the answer, if I knew how Nature has done supersymmetry breaking, then I could tell you why humans had such trouble figuring it out. But I can say one thing about it. When supersymmetry is not broken, it's easy to get a zero cosmological constant in string theory. And although a zero cosmological constant might not be the truth, it's incredibly close to the truth. If you break supersymmetry, if you do it the wrong way, you're going to get a cosmological constant that's much too big, and then you may well get associated problems, such as instabilities, runaways and so on. So it's easy to find ways that string theory could break supersymmetry, but they all have bad consequences. So I assume we're missing something, which is the answer to your question.

    How can the cosmological constant be so close to zero but not zero?

    I really don't know. It's very perplexing that astronomical observations seem to show that there is a cosmological constant. It's definitely the most troublesome, for my interests, definitely the most troublesome, observation in physics in my lifetime. In my career that is." End of Quote.

    Ed Witten on M theory, supersymmetry and appreciating calculus

    Ed Witten, who is currently visiting Caltech, is a professor at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey (the place where Einstein used to work.) Witten was not one of the creators of string theory, but since he joined "Team String" in the mid-eighties, he's been a leading visionary, pausing here and there to make revolutionary observations and discoveries in mathematics using observations gleaned from high energy theoretical physics. He recently spent two years at Caltech, a development that had East Coast string theorists fearing that the United States was tilting to the West. We interviewed him in John Schwarz's office at Caltech, which also happened to Richard Feynman's office when he was alive.

    wittens1. wittens2. wittens3. wittens6.


    What's the current answer to the question, "What is string theory?"

    Well, we've understood somehow that there's a more unified picture that mixes up quantum mechanical effects controlled by hbar and string effects controlled by alpha prime. So, there's this M theory story where different string theories are mixed up by dualities. I can't claim that we've gotten to the bottom of it, though.

    What is M theory?

    M theory is a name for a more unified theory that has the different string theories, as we know them, as limits, and which also can reduce, under appropriate conditions, to eleven-dimensional supergravity. There's this picture that we all have to draw where different string theories are limits of this M theory, where M stands for Magic, Mystery or Matrix, but it also sometimes is seen as standing for Murky, because the truth about M theory is Murky. And the different limits, where the main parameter simplifies, give the different string theories -- Type IIA, Type IIB, Type I, and there's eleven-dimensional supergravity, which turns out to be an important limit even though it isn't part of the systematic perturbation expansion, then there's the E8XE8 heterotic string, and there's SO(32) heterotic string.

    So M-theory is a name for this picture, this more general picture that will generate the different limits through the different string theories. The parameters in this picture we can think of being roughly hbar, which is Planck's constant, and that determines how important the quantum effects are, and the other parameter is alpha prime, which is the tension, related to the tension of the string, that determines how important stringy effects are. So traditionally, a physicist looking at Type IIA, for example, by traditional weak coupling methods, explores this little region, and if asked how his theory is related to Type I theory, the answer would have to be, "Well I don't know, that's something else."
    And likewise, if you ask this observer what happens for strong coupling, the traditional answer was, "Well I don't know." In graduate courses, you learn that you can do more or less anything for weak coupling, but you can't do anything for strong coupling. What happened in the 90s was that we learned how to do a little bit for strong coupling, and it turned out that the answer is Type IIA at strong coupling turns out to be Type I in a slightly different limit, SO(32) heterotic, and so on. So we built up this more unified picture, but we still don't understand what it means

    What is K theory and what does it mean for string theory?

    K theory is a mathematical theory that studies topology using matrices, using operators that don't commute with each another. What topology is, first of all, is the branch of mathematics where you don't care about the shape, so for example, a lumpy ball is equivalent to a round ball. But if there are holes, you do care about that, so a donut is different from either of these two. So, mathematicians learned, around 1960, that there was a very powerful tool in topology based on matrices, and that tool was K theory. And since quantum mechanics is about non-commuting operators, or matrices, there has always been a kind of naive analogy between K theory and quantum mechanics. An analogy that seemed naive to most physicists, but was often drawn by mathematicians such as Michael Atiyah.
    However, we learned in the last few years that some questions about string theory, but slightly specialized questions usually, are usefully addressed using K theory. What K theory really addresses is a little bit subtle to explain. If you want to understand the charges carried by the D-branes, that's a question that leads to K theory. Or I might say at an even more basic level, D-branes are these strange objects whose positions are measured by matrices, and studying those matrices leads to K theory.
    So K theory is the sort of topological underpinning of D-brane theory. But as physicists we're interested very much in whether the ball is round or lumpy, as are different things in physics. We wouldn't want to play baseball with a lumpy ball. So, the topology is just one side of the story..

    What is noncommutative geometry and why is it important in string theory?

    Well, one thing which we know about for sure in string theory is that the ordinary classical ideas about geometry are approximations, and don't really work precisely. But what you should really replace them with is not clear. However, there's a naive ideas about strings which really only works for open strings. Open strings are strings with endpoints, like in the original Type I superstring, where a particle was represented by a piece of string with charges at the ends. I've labeled the charges as q and q-bar for quark and antiquark, but that's modern terminology that might not have been present in the early says of string theory.
    Once you've got open strings, they can join together, I'm going to call my open strings A or B, and they join end to end. But there are two ways of joining them. I could join them with A on the left and B on the right, or I could join them with B on the left and A on the right, and I get two different outputs. And it's very much like taking two matrices A and B and multiplying them together. So there's some noncommutativity in the interactions.
    And when you take account of the fact that string theory is all about geometry, somehow this is geometry where noncommutative objects are built in. In fact I've mentioned now a couple portions of it. There's the noncommutativity of joining strings, and there's the matrices that don't commute, which are related to K theory and also to the D-brane positions and so on.
    Anyway, coming back here, you can try to systematically describe open string physics at least in terms of noncommutative ideas introduced in geometry,and you can get a general answer of some kind, but it's rather abstract and very hard to use. However, in the last couple of years, it was discovered that there's a certain limit with a very strong background magnetic field in which things simplify, and you can actually say something simple and useful based on the noncommutative geometry. That's a case where the rather abstract and hard to use noncommutative geometrical concepts actually come down to Earth and become useful.

    Why is it so hard to break supersymmetry in string theory?

    Well, if I knew the answer, if I knew how Nature has done supersymmetry breaking, then I could tell you why humans had such trouble figuring it out. But I can say one thing about it. When supersymmetry is not broken, it's easy to get a zero cosmological constant in string theory. And although a zero cosmological constant might not be the truth, it's incredibly close to the truth. If you break supersymmetry, if you do it the wrong way, you're going to get a cosmological constant that's much too big, and then you may well get associated problems, such as instabilities, runaways and so on. So it's easy to find ways that string theory could break supersymmetry, but they all have bad consequences. So I assume we're missing something, which is the answer to your question.

    How can the cosmological constant be so close to zero but not zero?

    I really don't know. It's very perplexing that astronomical observations seem to show that there is a cosmological constant. It's definitely the most troublesome, for my interests, definitely the most troublesome, observation in physics in my lifetime. In my career that is.

    What has been the most surprising or interesting thing that you have learned in physics?

    I'm going to interpret the question to be what's the most interesting thing I've learned in my career, whether I discovered it or not. It's something I've learned, perhaps through the work of other people or from textbooks. So in that sense, the most surprising thing I've learned, even though I had nothing to do with discovering it, is that strings can describe quantum gravity.

    What has been the most surprising or interesting thing that you have learned in science outside of physics?

    Well it's not that amazing that to me, a lot of science is physics. So, for example, I can't give you an answer in terms of chemistry, because physics underlies chemistry. I could give you an answer in biology. Biologists have learned lots of wonderful things. But it's hard to properly maintain one's sense of wonder about them, for some things that were known so long that we all remember so little that we take them for granted. But there's the theory of evolution, which is an amazing insight. And there's the understanding of the genetic code, that's a marvelous insight.
    Of course, if we move on to math, which you might think isn't physics, but which is much closer to what I know, then there are lot's of fun and exciting things there. I hardly know what to tell you because, again, there are lots of things that are really wonderful but which we take for granted because it's all known. Like there's calculus. Calculus is pretty amazing.
    But... it's not the first thing that comes to mind in answering such a question, because such a question tends to make you think of more recent discoveries. But... if I just have to ask , of everything I've ever learned in math, what's the most amazing and surprising -- it might by that calculus should win the prize, even though it's not so new any more.

    End of Interview
    But in the HDU, the Dark Energy asymptotically approaches the limiting Einstein Lambda in the form of:

    COSMOLOGICAL CONSTANT

    Λ(n→∞)=Λ=GoMo/RHubble2 =7.894940144...x10-12 (m/s2)*.
    This represents 0.705% of the maximum Lambda at the instanton-inflaton.

    The Dark Energy component in the HDU for this present NOW-Time so is about 8.82x10-11 (m/s2)* as the Omega is defined in GMo/R2 ~2.80x10-11 (m/s2)*.
    In terms of accelerations then; the Dark Energy represents 76.0% of the intrinsic deceleration and the Newtonian-Einsteinian inertia component the remainder of 24.0%.

    The percentages for the Dark Energy in the LDU and the HDU so are:
    (Omega[LDU,HDU],Lambda[LDU,HDU]) = ([24.0;18.8],[76.0;81.6]) and for an arithmetic mean or average of [21.4;78.8].

    In terms of the Dark Energy magnitude differential |Λpresent|/|Λ|~123.9/7.9~15.7 and INCREASED in a factor of about 15.8 relative to the boundary- and initial condition of |ΛBigBang|/|Λ|~0.993.
    BigBangpresent|/|Λpresent|~10.7, meaning that the Dark Energy deviates in a factor of 10.8 from the boundary condition as applicable in the HDU.

    The HDU occupies a 4-dimensional volume as a toroidalised Riemann Hypersphere, curvature radius R(n) with the boundary of a 3-dimensional surface in V4=½π2R4 and dV4/dR=2π2R3 representing this boundary condition geometrically.
    The HDU then 'oscillates' as a Standing Wave in between the Hubble-Nodes and 'envelopes' the LDU, which expands asymptotically from the 0-node of the Big Bang to the 1-node maximised in RHubble=c/Ho.

    The Volumar-ratio between the LDU and the HDU so becomes a DIM-Factor:
    DIM(n) = 2π2R(n)3/n.2π2RHubble3=n2/(n+1)3 and for a DIM(npresent)=0.132..=1/7.561..

    There are so 7.56 LDU's within the HDU at the present time and the initialising Baryon-Seed Mo has INCREASED in the inverse (as XY=1) of the factor D(npresent)=0.7615=1/1.313 by so 31.3%.
    There must so be a Dark Matter component coupled to the Baryon seed, which has grown from 2.8% to 2.8x1.313~3.676% and which PROJECTS the 'evolved' baryonic matter in the LDU into the HUD.

    This Dark Matter component is then 3.676%x(DIM-1)~24.12% and for a total inertia content in the LDU of 27.79%.

    This volumarised OMEGA then implies a volumarised LAMBDA of 72.21% in cosmological measurements and analysis undertaken by the observers and experimenters within the LDU's reference frame.
    The Dark Energy so IS the ZPE; however NOT characterised by the continuous creation of particle-antiparticle pairings as postulated in the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle and related derivations.

    As there was NO Antimatter created in the Big Bang, the particular antistates of Antimatter all reside in the HDU and only materialise physically when the process of pair-creation is called for via the basic transformation laws of the quantum {E=mc2=hf=kT}.

    The Dark Energy, as the Einstein-Lambda though finds itself in a CONSTANT HARMONIC DANCE with Newton's Omega to ensure the continuation and contingency of all the total energy content in the FINITY of the LDU and which had emerged as FINETUNED part of the INFINITY of the HDU as part of the SOURCE ENERGY SE - quantum defined in E*.

    31. The Dark Energy can so be defined in its quantum eigenstate as a NONINERTIAL 'particle' associated with the spacetime creation of the HDU enveloping the LDU.
    The Dark Energy so is 'higher dimensional' and links to the properties of the HDU as it is defined from first principle and without any matter or mass; the latter depicting energy transforms via {E=mc2=hf=kT}.

    32. The Dark Energy is that part of the ZPE background, required to CLOSE the universe in the higher dimensions, namely to render the entire physically finite universe as a higher dimensional Black Hole Mother.

    33.Why then are the galactic subsystems not so affected? Why do starsystems and solar systems not directly supply experimental and observational evidence for the Dark Energy?

    The Dark Energy is omnipresent as the ZPE; but manifests on the scale of the quantum systems themselves.
    Therefore, the cellular units of macroscale galaxies are prerequisite to MAP the cellular units of microscale galaxies, called 'the units of life' in biology and 'the units of atoms' in physics and chemistry.

    All observations in physics, astonomy and cosmology are bound in the nature of light, of electromagnetic radiation and therefore the tools of spectroscopy and optical interference patterns, such as emission spectra and absorption spectra.

    And the Dark Energy is right there in the observations relating to the measured phenomena using light and other forms of electromagnetic radiation as information processors.

    The Dark Energy, in the quantum eigenstate is embedded in SPACE as a form of HYBRID energy between the inertial objects observed and measured and the intrinsic PHOTONIC form which defined them through and by the superstring transforms given in {E=mc2=hf=kT}.

    The SE defined ITSELF in the omnipresent parameter of E* and its own inverse is used to define the Dark Energy as that part of the SE, which not only connects the LDU to the HDU as the metaphysical reality manifested at the NullPoint of the Singularity; but also to connect that FINITE NULLPOINT to the INFINITE NULLPOINT.

    34. So the Dark Energy becomes FINITE within the HDU, but remains INFINITE as the hyper-metaphysics of the spacetimematterless scenario, where even the HDU does not exist, but in THOUGHT.

    35. So now you know where the Dark Energy manifests itself and where it itself came from.
    Dark Energy is the IMAGINARY SOURCEENERGY 'out of space and time', which yet IS all of space and time and everything in it.
    So it is IMAGINARY no longer - it manifests physically in the material universe, including all the electromagnetic radiation therein.
    Albeit it remains IMAGINARY in the PRIMORDIAL ENERGY-form of your THOUGHTS and your IMAGE-MAKINGS from stonetools to computer chips and satellites.

    But it can and has been rigorously defined in quantum relativity as the 'Particle of Consciousness', being the 'Inversion Identity' of E* itself aka the RestMassPhoton as a 'Standing Wave' spanning the entire universe, yet seemingly confined to what you term your personal space, your brainy minds or whatever.

    So the Dark Energy relates to the greater beingness of all of you; you as individuated bodyforms are naught but the LDU seeking to 'go home' to become the HDU once again.

    Remembrance is required; and the harmonisation between your electric and your magnetic parts, directly engaged with the SE - but that is another story and much has been given already.

    But know this - E* is the quantum progenitor for the manifested universe of physics AND E* is the metaphysical definition for the latter.
    The physics cannot exist without the metaphysics and the metaphysics represents the shadow parts of you all.
    This shadow nature of you is what you so often quarrel against - it is part of you, it is the Dark Energy and it is under a constant process of transformation.
    Dark Energy = ZPE=VPE = Consciousness = The Energy of God as a SourceSinkQuantum.

    Denying God means denying your own consciousness as the ubiquitous Dark Energy!

    IAmWhoIAm - The Doppelgänger of you all!



    Four Metric Ages for the Universe in the Cosmology of Membranes

    The Age of the Universe is metric dependent. One might ask certain questions, like "How old is the Universe" and this is a very good question at the core of all cosmology.
    Analysis shows, that there are four different metrics and so there are four ages and four sizes for your universe and depending on one's viewpoint of observation.
    If measured from WITHIN the inertia defined Hubble Horizon in a 10D-string universe, the universe has the volume of a sphere, but measured from in between that Hubble Horizon in 10D and its 11D-membrane universe, this volume transforms into a special toroidal shape, like a doughnut without as hole.
    This then gives the volume V10+=2π2Rmax3[n/(n+1)]3 for an inertial doughnut age of 8.96 billion years or a 15.03 billion year spherical age. These are the Actual Inertial Ages for the universe as envelopes or upper bounds and these are not the ages as measured by scientists as the natural philosophers.
    The transformation factor between the "doughnut without a hole" and the sphere is the upper bounded Chaos Constant known as the Feigenbaum-Delta: σFmax=3π/2.

    Should one measure the universe from a position of OUTSIDE this 11-D WittenMirror-spacetime say in 12D-VafaMirror spacetime however, the volume increases due to the 4-dimensional seed activated by the 3-dimensional seed.

    Technically the surface on which the far away mirror exists becomes a 3-dimensional mirror just as the location of a local surface mirror can be postulated to exist on the inside of a spherical 2-dimensional mirror much farther away and as 'seen at a distance'.
    Then the outside of this 2D-mirror surface changes from a spherical surface to a doughnut surface, remaining however 2-dimensional, albeit in transition to 3D, obtained in the asymptotic approach of the 2D-surface towards the 3D-surface.

    In other words, the 'Image' as seen in the 'far away mirror' INTERSECTS its own lightpath X=cT and between the mass parametric lower-D spacetime and the electromagnetically defined higher-D spacetime.
    Outside the far away mirror in the 12-D-Vafa spacetime then the surface topology is 4-dimensional as the orthogonal vector nRmax in the expression dV11+=S.dR=2π2Rmax3dR
    from V4=½π2R4 and dV4/dR=2π2R3

    The extra-3D-volume so becomes: V11+=n32Rmax3 and is measured relative to the inside in 10D as an age of 32.04 billion years, but relative to the outside in 11D as 19.11 billion years. These are the Actual Electromagnetic Ages for the universe.
    The Measured Ages for the universe are however lower, than the Actual Ages, because of the intersection of the 3rd dimension with the 4th dimension.

    If the critical volume is defined as Vcritical=2π2Rmax3, then the extra 3D volume expanding as a 4D volume seed will be V11-= n.Vcritical and as reduced from V11+=n3.Vcritical The Measured Electromagnetic Age for your universe then is 17.62 billion doughnut years and 29.53 billion sphere years.

    The following expressions must hold and define the multivolumes in labels, which can then become reinterpreted in the form of 'missing energy' and 'missing mass'. Many cosmologists in your universe term this the search for 'dark energy' and 'dark matter' respectively.

    Multidimension Factor: DIM = V11+/V10+ = V11-/V10-
    Dark Matter Factor: DIMDM = V11- /V10+=(n+1)3/n2~7.561 (for n=npresent)
    Dark Energy Factor: DIMDE = V11+/V10-=(n+1)3.n2~12.434 (for n=npresent)

    One so must have a reduced 3-dimensional inertial volume V10-, which is given by
    V10-=(n/[n+1]3)2π2Rmax3 and provides a doughnut age of 8.26 billion years and the age measured by the astrophysicist, namely 13.85 billion years as the Measured Inertial Ages for the universe.

    Comprehensively then, the universe is experiencing an ongoing transformation in its cosmological evolution.




    Hi David and all!

    I have stumbled across Juan Maldacena's 'The Illusion of Gravity' paper from SciAm; November 2005 and found the following statement at the end of the paper p.63.

    The link is below.
    http://www.scribd.com/doc/78911693/Juan-Maldacena-The-Illusion-of-Gravity




    maldacena0.


    maldacena1.


    maldacena2.


    maldacena3.


    maldacena4.


    maldacena5.


    maldacena6.


    maldacena7.

    "A test of this prediction comes from the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory, which has been colliding gold nuclei at very high energies. A preliminary analysis of these experiments indicates the collisions are creating a fluid with very low viscosity. Even though Son and his co-workers studied a simplified version of chromodynamics, they seem to have come up with a property that is shared by the real world. Does this mean that RHIC is creating small five-dimensional black holes? It is really too early to tell, both experimentally and theoretically. (Even if so, there is nothing to fear from these tiny black holes-they evaporate almost as fast as they are formed, and they "live" in five dimensions, not in our own four-dimensional world.)

    Many questions about the holographic theories remain to be answered.

    In particular, does anything similar hold for a universe like ours in place of the anti-de Sitter space?

    A crucial aspect of anti-de Sitter space is that it has a boundary where time is well defined.

    The boundary has existed and will exist forever. An expanding universe, like ours, that comes from a big bang does not have such a well-behaved boundary.

    Consequently, it is not clear how to define a holographic theory for our universe; there is no convenient place to put the hologram.

    An important lesson that one can draw from the holographic conjecture, however, is that quantum gravity, which has perplexed some of the best minds on the planet for decades, can be very simple when viewed in terms of the right variables. Let's hope we will soon find a simple description for the big bang!"

    Wow, David as one who kind of understands what I have posted over the years; can you see that the de Broglie Inflaton I am writing about SOLVES the Maldacena problem highlighted above.

    This hypersphere HAS the FIXED hologramic Hubble Horizon from the de Broglie Inflaton.

    It IS a MASSLESS Mother-Black Hole in the AdS-CFT Kaluza-Klein space and it HAS the negative curvature due to the 'missing mass' as described as the 0.01405 deceleration parameter, which is the ACCELERATION gradient (of the false vacuum) between the Einstein Lambda and the de Broglie hyperacceleration and so also the density ratio.

    And the paper you got a little exited about just describes such colourcharge interactions on the 5(+6 Calabi Yau)D=11D Boundary.

    This could get even bigger. I would suggest to now send the edited Genesis Genesis paper to Michio, as now Maldacena's work can be thoroughly translated into a new cosmology and the proper formalisation of the quantum gravity (I'm to dumb to do it, as my university days are long in the past).
    John Shadow




    Dear friends;
    I'll send this now and hope that at least one of you will FINALLY understand that this description and whilst termed the 'Theory of Quantum Relativity'; is NOT 'my work'.
    It belongs to ALL of Us and is and has always been a collective effort.
    I am not clever enough by FAR to have 'made up', 'dreamt' or invented this description above.


    All of the 'passed over' great scientists have 'channeled' this information, say from the 'collective subconscious' or the 'Noosphere' (of Teilhard de Chardin and Velikovsky) or the 'Akashic Records' or what have you to me to share.

    So when the 'time is right' (it is not before 2011), THEN this 'stuff' will become 'mainstream'.
    But for some purpose (which I can only partially fathom); the agenda is to publish this 'stuff' on relatively obscure forums and on an equally obscure website.
    This is as is should be for the present time.
    But remember, all of this data is yours, for free to do as you wold like to. But without understanding most of it, it has remained practically useless for all but my interdimensional familiars (they DO have a lot of use for it - that is why I am publishing it).


    I have been given the information that perhaps some of you can use the above cosmogony to finally remember THIS as one of your 'Cosmic Keys' and let the 'pennies drop' and the 'lights of eureka' switch on.

    I'll edit and resend shortly.

    It is time for a few of you to RETRACE your incarnational steps into this place and space and time upon Gaia-Serpentina of the planet earth.
    All of you were there 19.11 billion years ago, when the Quantum Big Bang occurred. You may allow yourselves, reading the above, to remember IT.


    In Science and Gnosis
    John Shadow


    JS: You are 'missing' the time factor in this Allen.
    The Graviton emerges, yes, but not in spacetime. It emerges as the gauge for the entire notion of gravitation to be able to couple to the other gauges.
    The Graviton is a supersymmetrising 'particle' not as some particle in space, but as a Principle of Identity.
    This emergence is BEFORE there exists any spacetime. It is the CIRCULAR distance independent 'PointCircle' aka singularity or whatever.
    The universe EXISTS in QUANTUM SPIN BEFORE it exists in Inertia.
    This is Jim's 'famous Action' (I agree with him on this, but not on his querks and whatever which are fundamentally 'flawed').
    Finally, today it can and has been 'proven' that no gamma ray of sufficient mass energy can Particle-Produce the matter-antimatter coupling of an electron-positron pair UNLESS there is a 'nucleus' say a proton present.
    Why is this?
    Because the NOT colourcharged gamma photon must EXCHANGE colourcharges with the colourcharged gauge photon (termed virtual) of the electromagnetic interaction.
    This is basic standard nuclear physics Allen (not the colourcharge interaction, but the phenomenon).
    The entire interaction then ABSORBS the colourless gamma photon in virtulity and the Colourcharges of BOTH the Graviton and the gauge photon become transferred to the resulting electron-positron pair.
    This is very beautiful interaction gauge physics and will in a few years be the standard model.
    So without the colourcharge of the graviton from the proton's inertia say; the phenomenon of pair-production (wiki it) would not occur.
    Hope this helps.
    JS


    Shiloh, October 7th, 2013



    Last edited by shiloh on Mon Nov 04, 2013 3:41 am; edited 1 time in total
     
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    • Post n°10

    empty. Re: The Legacy of Thuban Omni-Science De Alpha Draconis Omega

    empty. shiloh on Sun Oct 06, 2013 12:05 pm
    Strings and Membranes in Quantum Relativity



    Higher Dimensions, General Relativity and the 4-Vector

    Many readers have trouble with the concept of a 'higher dimension', not surprisingly because the human brain encoding cannot visualise hyperspace, meaning some region or volume of space additional to the experienced Cartesian coordinate system of 3 orthogonal (normal at 90 degrees to each other) directions like length, width and breadth.

    Changing the orthogonality then results in curved space or curvilinear coordinates and the 'cube' of Minkowski becomes a skewed and sheared in any of the directions and with the 90 degree angle changing into acuteness (less than 90o) or obtuseness (more than 90o).

    The 'expert' scientific nomenclature (language) then describes this curved space in differential equations relating the positions of the 'points' in both space and time in a 4-dimensional description called Riemannian Tensor Space or similar.

    This then leads mathematically, to the formulation of General Relativity in Einstein's Field Equations:
    Rμν - ½gμνR + gμνΛ = (8πG/c4)Tμν =Gμν=Rμν- ½Rgμν

    for the Einstein-Riemann tensor Gμν absorbing the cosmological constant Λ and is built upon ten so-called "nonlinear coupled hyperbolic-elliptic partial differential equations" which, needless to say, are mathematically rather complex and often cannot be solved analytically without simplifying the geometries of the parametric constituents (say objects interacting in so called tensor-fields of stress-energy {Tμν} and curvatures (Riemann-Einstein tensor {Gμν}), either changing the volume in reduction (Ricci tensor {Rij} with scalar curvature R as {Rgμν} for the metric tensor gμν) or keeping the volume of considered space invariant to volume change (Tidal Weyl tensor Rμν).
    The difficulties lie in the fact that the equations are nonlinear and coupled in many terms, resulting in families of equations, which are then expressed in the shorthand notations of the Einstein conventions as in the specialist semantics of the so trained and educated scientists and especially cosmological physicists, who are attempting to formulate the dynamics of the physical universe in such terminology.

    The difficulty for the layman to understand General Relativity in this extraordinary complex formalism so becomes self evident and Quantum Relativity was developed to add a particular conceptual framework to the specialised formulations in a what might be labelled a Newtonian Quantum Cosmology not addressing the local dynamics of a system (say as calculation of the perihelion of Mercury as the perturbation correction of Newtonian Cosmology by General Relativity due to the curvilinear coordinate system applicable; but in describing the universe as a hologram and wholism and by this necessity independent on any coordinate system.

    This is termed Demetrication and so allows the examination of the prespacetime scenarios of the cosmogenesis in what becomes the cosmogony preceding the cosmologies of proposed models for the universe and multiverses seeded upon a protoversal seed and collectively integrated as an omniverse.

    The inherent difficulty between the classical description of General Relativity in terms of macrocosmic geometrical curvature fields of locally defined metrics with the delocalised (or quantum entangled) quantum fields of microcosmic energy states so becomes apparent as an effect of the metric background used to describe the cosmologies itself.

    For example the Quantum Field Theories describe the Electron in terms of its singularity as a 'point particle'; yet the same formulations also require the Electron to be a Classical wavicle, defined by its electrodynamic properties, say as defined in the Alpha Finestructure and the mass-energy equivalence of E=mc2 and more appropriately the Energy-Momentum Relation E2=Eo2+(pc)2.

    The 'explanation' for this schizophrenic behaviour of the Electron being both classically macro and quantum micro simultaneously then rests at the core of the true unification Cosmologies.

    As the basic formulations in General Relativity describe the 4-vector, say the Minkowski coordinate system where the 4th spacelike dimension is given by the lightpath X=ct; Quantum Relativity begins its 'demetrication' modus operandi of the unification in reexamining the nature of this 'Imaginary spacelike Minkowski timedimension'.

    General Relativity is appropriate for all cosmologies describing a physical universe and where physical here encompasses the propagation of electromagnetic radiation and so the invariance of the lightspeed as the 4th dimension of the lightpath X=cT in the Minkowski metric: R2+X2=c2.

    This is conventionally written as (ds)2=(cdt)2 - (dl)2, showing that the nature of the Time coordinate in the lightpath X=ct in the 4-vector of say velocity dl/dt=v is nought but the extension of the Pythagorean Theorem in 4 spacial dimensions, where the 4th dimension is not some coordinate W, but the lightpath X in a 4-vector space of say:
    R4={ct,x,y,z} with R3={x,y,z} for the conventional and familiar metric linesegment (ds)2=(dx)2+(dy)2+(dz)2.

    Rewriting
    (ds/c)2 = (dt)2 - (dl/c)2 = (dt)2{1-(dl/dt)2/c2}=(dt)2{1-v2/c2}=(dT)2

    then immediately crystallizes the postulates of Special Relativity in a Proper Time T applicable to both stationary and moving observer, provided the metric ds>0 in a TIMELIKE definition for the formulated parameters.

    (ds/dt)2 = c2(dT)2 = c2{1-v2/c2}=c2-v2 for the Pythagorean summation (ds/dt)2 + v2 = c2.

    This shows that physically ANY movement through space will REDUCE the movement through time by the simple vector summation of the classical velocity v, bounded by the lightspeed invariance in ds >0.

    Subsequently ONLY a null velocity v=0 will allow a MAXIMIZED movement through Time in this formulation for ds/dt=c=ds/dT.

    Terrestrial physics, inclusive the string-brane formulations in extended metric spacetimes, now continues to explore this foundational basis with ever increasing mathematical complexities, as can be ascertained in the semantics and labelings of the 26-dimensional string proposal following.

    Quantum Relativity differs in the allowing the linear 'flow of time' to become an emergent property of a demetricated prior energy state. This then defines a prior minimum spacial metric, related to but not restricted to the so termed Planck parameters of modern quantum field theory.

    In the conventional approach, the TIMELIKENESS of the metric element (ds)2=(cdt)2-(dl)2 >0 is allowed to assume its SPACELIKENESS in the inequality (ds)2=(cdt)2-(dl)2 <0 in what might be termed the 'Inner Minkowski Space' of the Euclidean metric bounded by the LIGHTLIKENESS of (ds)2=(cdt)2-(dl)2=0, that is the v=c identity of the c-invariance of the relativities as BOTH an upper and a lower bound for 4-dimensional spacetime continuum.

    Of course for the SPACELIKENESS of the inner space the linear flow of time is rendered superluminal in a 4-dimensional Hyperspace of 4 space dimensions and where the 4th spacial dimensions becomes colocal, albeit subject to curvature in enfoldment, with the preexisting volume-space of the R3 3-vector space of an ordinary Newtonian cosmology.

    Quantum Relativity then approaches the definition of higher multidimensional Riemannian coordinate systems in a rather simplified form of allowing the 'higher dimensions' to enfold themselves in colocality.

    This is commonly understood in the precipes of string-membrane cosmology as the conifoldment of a circularised 'mini spacetime dimension', such as a LOOP about an extended macro dimension (such as an ant crawling around the 'thickness' of as garden hose in popular example).



    The Universal Manifold and its Curvature

    Quantum Relativity considers the Universe as a Manifold reducible (in its preinflationary definition) to just 2 dimensions and where these 2 dimensions (of say a Complex Plane) GENERATE the 3rd dimension by the definition of the Curvature attained by separation of some minimized displacement defining the underpinning demetrication in a Minimum spacetime configuration causative for the so termed Big Bang singularity itself.

    On a complex plane manifold the metric (ds)2 NOT embedded in a preexisting R3 space cannot curve into 3 dimensions from R2, as its own self generation from Nullspace R0 into R1 required the Unification or Unitisation of the selfmapping of the singularity being both a Null-eigenstate AND an Infinity-selfstate simultaneously.

    In other words, the Unity did not exist and no counting process of summation or integration (mathematically termed enumerability) was then possible.
    This selfmapping of the singularity of a mathematical point onto itself, did however allow a distinction between the former and the latter selfstate to be made.
    Quantum Relativity describes the detailed processes of this in terms of principles with the 3rd principle of order preceding, but becoming necessity for the physicalisation of the before-and-after ordering as the concept of linearized flow of time in the entropy arrow of the forwards direction.

    Then, the selfmapping of 'Nothingness=Everything Singularities' or 'mathematical points' of this preBig Bang scenario of distinguishing between them, allowed a Primordial Separation between the singularities and this separation become defined in the UNITY Interval of the minimum metric for the emergent Inflaton-Instanton of the string-membrane quantum Cosmogony and the Big Bang classical Cosmologies of Einsteinian relativity.

    The distinction between two selfmapped points so became a string metric as the 1st dimension and before the so called Planck Time was physicalised in the string epoch from Planck-Time to Weyl-Time in the Cosmogony.

    This 1D string as the (ds)2 metric displacement so became defined as the selfinteraction of the previously selfmapped singularity and because this metric definition could redefine itself as INVARIANT with respect to Angular Displacement AND VARIANT with respect to Linear Displacement, the 2nd dimension could emerge as the rotational symmetry of the complex plane and the geometry of the circle or a 1-sphere or a 2-ball in topological linguistics (the 0-sphere being the ±1 separation of two mathematical points as the 1-ball of a diameter say).

    Then the rotational plane could itself CURVE its LINEARITY as a Manifold in 2 dimensions, thus transforming its IMAGINARY Thickness as the defined Minimum Metric of the Weyl-Perimeter and emerging as the Big Bang Wormhole parameters.
    As stated later on, this supports and emphasizes the model of the Universe being 'born' from a previous Black Hole Cosmology; this Black Hole being however not any Black Hole of whatver prior brane cosmologies, but the Primordial Singularity itself.

    The extraterrestrial physics (as is the case until certain transformations within spacetime render the extraterrestrial as new terrestrial); then specify the 'thickness' of the primordial 3rd dimension as the parameter allowing the topology of the 2D manifold of the 1-sphere to become the boundary for the 2-sphere, that is the self closure of the spherical space in topological transformation.

    Just as a malleable sheet of paper or plastic say can be moulded into an idealised spherical envelope say, provided there preexists 3D space to do this in; so can the 2-sphere become the lower boundary as a surface for an encompassing 3-sphere in R4, also known as Riemann's Hypersphere or as Poincare's 3-Sphere in the echelons of the academia.

    In particular, the 3-sphere of Volume V4=½π2R4 has its surface derivative dV4/dR=S4=2π2R3 as its lower dimensional boundary V3.
    So the entire information content of a physical cosmology in a 3-dimensional volume space can be described as the Surface mapping of a 4-dimensional space in a top-down approach.
    Alternatively in a bottom-up approach, the transformation of a spherical volume
    V3=(πR2)(2πR)=(Cross-Section of a Torus)(Perimeter of a Torus) can be considered mapped onto a 4-dimensional hypersurface manifesting in 3D as the surface manifold of a Black Hole.

    In Quantum Relativity, it is the 'thickness dimension' of the Weyl-String in 2D, which defines the inside-out or top-down distinction between the parent space of the R4 and the sondaughter space of the R3 in the case of the TIMELIKENESS of a time-evolving cosmology (ds>0).

    In the SPACELIKENESS of the ds<0, the parent space is the R2 for the daughterson space of the R3 and so the TIMELIKE mirrors the SPACELIKE in a supersymmetry between the metricated cosmology and the demetricated cosmology.

    The overall topology of the higher dimensional string-membrane physics, so reduces in the simplicity of the cosmogony of Quantum relativity.
    The brane dimensions all reduce to a timeless Protoversal SEED manifested as a 'Quasi Steady State' Higher-dimensional Envelope around a time evolving expanding universe cosmology.

    The Line-dimensions manifest as the 3-sphere, where however the 4th time dimension becomes inverted as a fourth spacial dimension so allowing the entropy-directed time dimension (or arrow) to open up a 5th spacial dimension colocal, yet inverted with the 3-sphere as an additional potential space dimension supplementary to the extent of the Protoversal seedling.

    The Minkowski metric so remains valid in description of the Einstein universe of Euclidean flatness (zero curvature as a whole), because the positive curvature of the Riemann hypersphere is mirrored or reflected in the self-extension of itself by and through the 5th dimension, both inverted in reflection of the 'inner space' and extroverted as say a refraction of the 'outer space'.

    Relative to an observer within the Riemannian 3-sphere then, the overall curvature for the universe's topology appears to be negative (or hyperbolic), because the selfimage of the 3-sphere in R4 as positive must become negative in superspacial symmetry (convexity to a central observer to the left becomes concavity to this observer to the right say).
    {This becomes detailed in the equivalence of an encompassing spherical geometry radius 2a and V3Sphere=32πa3/3 for an inscribed Torus Volume radius a for V3Torus=2π2a3 =(3π/16)V3Sphere.
    There are so precisely 8 spheres radius a in the encompassing sphere radius 2a for an quasi-toroidal encompassing multiconnected R3 space as the R4 boundary, so 1.697652726..times bigger than the singularly connected R3 space.
    An observer placed at the center of this geometry now will simultaneously experience the positive curvature of the encompassing sphere radius 2a and the negative hyperbolic curvature of the torus radius a}.

    The tangent 'point' at the observer coordinate of the toroidal derivative in the description above so becomes the Weyl-String singularity in Quantum Relativity and so allows physicalisation of the 'tangent space'.

    The Platonic Idealisation of the Self-Intersection so becomes the 'smeared out' singularity, say as the Kerr Ring in the Planck-Length being the cross-sectional radius of the torus and the Weyl wavelength becoming the magnified perimeter of the Kerr Ring in an idealised rotating Black Hole.

    The thickness of the 3rd dimension of the cosmogenesis so similarly becomes the idealised (or metaphysical) 'point of singularity selfintersection' and so can become modeled in the mathematical descriptions of the Möbius strip and the Klein-Bottle.
    Here the Möbius strip CAN be embedded as a 2D surface within a 3D volumar, but the Klein-Bottle cannot; the latter requires 4D space with the twosidedness of both geometrical constructs becoming onesided by the doubling of the surface areas of the twosidedness.

    In Quantum Relativity, The Linespacetime of the 4D then assigns the toroidal geometries of the simple 2D space to the 'higher enfolded dimensions'.
    The area dimensions of Linespace, Hyperspace, Quantumspace and Omnispace are so preceded by their metric linesegments and followed by the volumars or branes in such a Klein-Bottle Branes or quasi volumars in say a 2-Torus of Linespace R3, a 5-Torus of Hyperspace R5, a 8-Torus of Quantumspace R8 and a 11-Torus of Omnispace R11 = 2-Torus of Linespace R3.

    The 11th dimension becomes identical to the 2nd dimension as the Manifold for the Data inscription; just as the 2D surface area of a Black Hole is physically equivalent as a 4D hyperspace manifold to cumulate the information of any 3D volumar space embedding the Black Hole.
    It is the 'doubling of the surface area' of the boundary space, which enables the dimensional subtraction/addition for the root-extension of the complex plane in 2D into physical reality in 3D mirrored in the root-reduction of the complex plane in 11D into physical reality in 10D of the Witten membrane space (as the original 9D string space).

    Time, as described before, is rendered a Connector-Dimension in say 3 degrees of freedom of the Translation of LineSpace; the Rotation of HyperSpace; the Vibration of QuantumSpace and the Holofractalization of OmniSpace.
    Then the 4th Minkowski Time dimension of Linespace connects Linespace to Hyperspace in say the TwistorSpace of Penrose as an inverted Space dimension being an extroverted Time dimension.
    Similarly the 7th Penrose Time dimension of an enfolded space dimension becomes descriptive of vibrational string patterns and modes also acting as an external time dimension in a 7-brane spacetime and a 10th Witten Time dimension is both enfolded as a space dimension and externalised as a string time dimension of 10-branes.

    The 10-dimensional string cosmology in Quantum Relativity so represents the Riemannian 3-sphere cosmology with translational metric modes described by local physical theories such as General Relativity with superpositioned rotational gauge quantum symmetries defined by the quantum spin of the massless bosonic precursors for the fermionic inertia carriers; as well as the vibrational patterns of the energy configurations of those 'bosonic-fermionic' templates as the transformed bosonic strings into fermions of the spin bifurcations.
    The OmniSpace becomes the MirrorSpace, with the 11th dimension constituting the 'Inside' of the Möbian Dragon topology of the 11-Torus=2-Torus and the 12th dimension forming the 'Outside' in the twosidedness of the cosmological observer.
    This 'Outside' however also becomes the Image of the 10D-QuantumSpace as the holistic Universe AND the 'refractive' expansion of the protoversal seedling itself.

    The Gaussian Curvature of a Surface is defined by the inversed product of a minimum (principal) radius of Curvature, say Rmin and its maximised corollary Rmax.and so as K=1/RmaxRmin.

    This means that for a large metric macrocosmic radius, like that of a planet, star system, galaxy or the Universe (Hubble radius RH); the curvature will be relatively small (compared to Unity) and corollarily, quantum scales , say as limited by the scale of the nuclear interaction fields, will be relatively large.

    In Quantum Relativity then, those minmax curvatures are intrinsically coupled to the Modular Duality of the string T-Duality and where the momentum-energy eigenstates of the vector bundles are inversely related in the high energy-short wavelength Vibratory string modes and the low energy-long wavelength Winding string modes.

    In particular, the curvature of the universe as a holographic unity is calculated in the Phase-Space of the summation of adjacent holographic building blocks, namely the spacetime quanta defined as the wormhole volumars (or hypersphere branes).

    The pre Big Bang cosmology calculates certain integral counts of these minimized holofractal building blocks to specify certain 'time markers' relevant for the early evolution of the cosmology, say the first million seconds following the Instanton (and defining the Temperature evolution of certain protostars (ylemic dineutron stars or magnetars) until the cosmic background temperature had dropped to the fusion temperature of about 1.2 million Kelvin for a so called planetesimal limit where gravity could begin to agglomerate in the phase space to allow the macroscales to manifest from the microscales).

    {Four appendices describe the details on this:
    a) The Quantum-Holographic Transformation of the Earth
    b) Why Black Holes preceded Galaxies in the Cosmology
    c) The first Ylemic Stars in the Universe and the Antiwormholes
    d) The mapping of the atomic nucleus onto the thermodynamic universe of the hyperspheres}.



    The result for the universes curvature and topology is that it is tripartite in the Gaussian curvature and so Compact and closed in positive curvature (as measured by WMAP, BOOMERANG and DASI, and supporting the Inflationary models of terrestrial cosmology
    link harvard paper, which describes a positive curvature at the 1.04 marker: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/full/2003MNRAS.344L..65U.

    Yet, as Quantum Relativity has shown, this positive curvature is descriptive for the encompassing 11D-Witten sphere of the 10D-Weyl-pseudosphere, the latter having a negative hyperbolic curvature, related to the missing density parameters often termed dark matter, dark energy and missing mass.
    The detailed calculation so assigns Rmax=rss=2πλss to the winded superstring modality in 10 dimensions and assigns Rmin=rpsps/2π to its modular dual in the vibratory string modality.

    The coupling constants in the string modular duality are Eps.Ess=h2 and Eps/Ess=fps2 for fpsfss=1=λpsλss .

    For an 'empty' matterless string universe then, the Gaussian Curvature becomes K=1/RmaxRmin=1/rss.rps=1 for an overall Euclidean flat cosmology and as predicted by the various terrestrial cosmologies.

    The overall scalings for the universe in macromicro or maxmin modular string couplings then defines the primary sourcesink (ps) and secondary sinksource (SS) selfstates as boundary conditions for the extended macro and micro states.

    RHubble=Nodal Hubble Radius for the asymptotic protoversal seed as R11=c/Ho=H and where H is a spacequanta count given by a productation of ABCD such quanta counts.
    In particular H.Wormhole-Volumar=2π2RHubble3 and R11.1/R11=1 as the actual Zero curvature of the complex plane manifold of the cosmogony and preceding the Big Bang, incorporating a restmass/inertia Higgs Induction from the 'false vacuum' of the inflaton/instanton (in de Broglie phase space).

    Rmax=2πλss in modular duality to Rminps/2π and the inertia induction of the gravita (as the precursor of inertia in the emergence of Einstein's Equivalence Principle) so manifests a mapping ratio in the form: K/RmaxRmin =1/RE.Re and where now the Higgs Induction of the gravita allows K to diverge from unity in the nature of the coupling of spacequanta defined by the scale of the classical electrodynamic electron mec2=ke2/Re =hcAlpha/2πRe.

    RE is given in the spacequanta count for the planetesimal limit of the onset of macrogravitation as described in appendix d) and so becomes a typical scale for the mapping of the atomic nucleus onto a star system, here being 3.44x1014 meters or so 2,293 AU's via E wormhole volumars for an encompassing hypersphere.

    As the quantization of the wormhole volumars is defined in a Radian proportionality for the curvatures in Re=(2π/360)1010 rps , the two complementary curvatures for the 11-D Witten sphere and 10-D Weyl pseudosphere, can now be calculated.

    K/RmaxRmin =1/RE.Re =K=1/[(rps.E1/3)(2π/360)1010 rps]
    So K=(180/π)E-1/310-10 rps-2 =1.047738738... as the positive curvature for the ellipsoidally closed omnispace of the Witten sphere and 1/K=0.95443641...for the hyperbolically open omnispace of the Weylian pseudosphere.

    The 'hyperbolic' triangle for c2 > a2+b2 so gives a π/K=2.9964504...~3 and as 'approximated', say by ancient geometers for a corollary 'spherical' triangle of 180K=188.593 degrees.

    The Harvard reference confirms this derivation from the Wilkinson -, the Boomerang and the DASI data from a different assumptual basis of the cosmological parameters used, but nevertheless converges to the prediction of Quantum Relativity.



    Recombination and the Transparency of the Universe defined by the Sinksource Brane

    The Big Bang Cosmogenesis describes the universe as a Planck-Black Body Radiator, which sets the Cosmic-Microwave-Black Body Background Radiation Spectrum (CMBBR) as a function of n as T4=18.2(n+1)2/n3 and derived from the Stefan-Boltzmann-Law and the related statistical frequency distributions.

    The universe could not form atomic structurres, until it had cooled to a temperature of the CMBBR of about 3000 Kelvin (Saha equation and a cosmological redshift formulation as Tradiation=2.78(1+z) in terrestrial astrophysics say as linked in:
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Recombination_(cosmology)
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_the_Big_Bang).

    In Quantum Relativity, this recombination temperature becomes a consequence of the winded (galactic scaled) sinksource string Ess.
    The string coupling EpsEss=h2=hc/λps.h/cλss modulates the wormhole perimeter with the galactic perimeter haloed in the 'dark matter' 2πλss =rss=1/rps=2π/λps.

    For the (recircularizing) modulation rss/2π=1/2πrps then; the curvature radius for the universe R(n)=RHubblen/(n+1)=rss/2π for a cyclic n coordinate n=rss/(2πRHubble-rss)=6.259485..x10-5 =Hot or so 3.3335x1013 seconds or 1.056 million years for a temperature of about 2935 Kelvin.

    In Quantum Relativity, the comoving coordinate is embedded in the higher dimensional metric of the inflaton-instanton and where the universe's observational age is multivalued in the comoving metric as (3π/2)1/3[n/(n+1)]RHubble~0.89RHubble~15.03 Gly for the V10+=V10-.V11+/V11- 'critical' volume of the Hubble Bubble for the 'inside observer' of the cosmology.

    For the reduced volume V10-=n/(n+1)3VHubble-Node, then this comoving coordinate calculates as {(3πn/2)1/3/[n+1]}RHubble-Node~13.85 Gly and as measured by the terrestrial cosmologists.

    The 'outside' (say ET observer) of the spacelike metric ds<0 in R4 Riemann surface space would calculate a true electromagnetic 11D age of the universe via V11+=n3VHubble and V11-=n.VHubble as 19.11 Gly and as 17.62 Gly respectively. This topic of the recombination is revisited in appendix c).



    Möbian Connectivity and the Connector Time Dimensions

    The Platonic Idealisation of the Self-Intersection so becomes the 'smeared out' singularity, say as the Kerr Ring in the Planck-Length being the cross-sectional radius of the torus and the Weyl wavelength becoming the magnified perimeter of the Kerr Ring in an idealised rotating Black Hole.
    The thickness of the 3rd dimension of the cosmogenesis so similarly becomes the idealised (or metaphysical) 'point of singularity selfintersection' and so can become modeled in the mathematical descriptions of the Möbius strip and the Klein-Bottle.

    Here the Möbius strip CAN be embedded as a 2D surface within a 3D volumar, but the Klein-Bottle cannot; the latter requires 4D space with the twosidedness of both geometrical constructs becoming onesided by the doubling of the surface areas of the twosidedness.

    In Quantum Relativity, The Linespacetime of the 4D then assigns the toroidal geometries of the simple 2D space to the 'higher enfolded dimensions'.
    The area dimensions of Linespace, Hyperspace, Quantumspace and Omnispace are so preceded by their metric linesegments and followed by the volumars or branes in such a Klein-Bottle Branes or quasi volumars in say a 2-Torus of Linespace R3, a 5-Torus of Hyperspace R5, a 8-Torus of Quantumspace R8 and a 11-Torus of Omnispace R11 = 2-Torus of Linespace R3.

    The 11th dimension becomes identical to the 2nd dimension as the Manifold for the Data inscription; just as the 2D surface area of a Black Hole is physically equivalent as a 4D hyperspace manifold to cumulate the information of any 3D volumar space embedding the Black Hole.
    It is the 'doubling of the surface area' of the boundary space, which enables the dimensional subtraction/addition for the root-extension of the complex plane in 2D into physical reality in 3D mirrored in the root-reduction of the complex plane in 11D into physical reality in 10D of the Witten membrane space (as the original 9D string space).

    Time, as described before, is rendered a Connector-Dimension in say 3 degrees of freedom of the Translation of LineSpace; the Rotation of HyperSpace; the Vibration of QuantumSpace and the Holofractalization of OmniSpace.

    Then the 4th Minkowski Time dimension of Linespace connects Linespace to Hyperspace in say the TwistorSpace of Penrose as an inverted Space dimension being an extroverted Time dimension.
    Similarly the 7th Penrose Time dimension of an enfolded space dimension becomes descriptive of vibrational string patterns and modes also acting as an external time dimension in a 7-brane spacetime and a 10th Witten Time dimension is both enfolded as a space dimension and externalised as a string time dimension of 10-branes.

    The 10-dimensional string cosmology in Quantum Relativity so represents the Riemannian 3-sphere cosmology with translational metric modes described by local physical theories such as General Relativity with superpositioned rotational gauge quantum symmetries defined by the quantum spin of the massless bosonic precursors for the fermionic inertia carriers; as well as the vibrational patterns of the energy configurations of those 'bosonic-fermionic' templates as the transformed bosonic strings into fermions of the spin bifurcations.

    The OmniSpace becomes the MirrorSpace, with the 11th dimension constituting the 'Inside' of the Möbian Dragon topology of the 11-Torus=2-Torus and the 12th dimension forming the 'Outside' in the twosidedness of the cosmological observer.
    This 'Outside' however also becomes the Image of the 10D-QuantumSpace as the holistic Universe AND the 'refractive' expansion of the protoversal seedling itself.



    The Planck-Weyl Oscillator Brane Modulation 2πc/h via the Hawking Modulus and the Inflaton-Instanton Gravita-Inertia

    It is well understood that the Planck-Oscillator for angular velocity ω=2πf in a so termed Zero-Point-Energy of the Heisenbergy Matrix of the 'vacuum' (in which point-particular fields are said to be absent) is expressed as

    Eplanck=Ezpe=½hfplanck=hω/4π=½mplanckc2

    Using this Zero-Point-Energy, the Hawking Modulus (HM=Constant) coupling the Mass M and the temperature T of any Black Hole can be obtained in the Planck parameters. The HM describes the inverse proportionality between large massive Black Holes being cold and the quantum Black Holes being corollarily low in mass and hot.

    HM=½mplanckTplanck=½mplanck2c2/k=½(hc/2πGo)c2/k=hc3/4πkGo=9.1317034..x1023 (kgK)* (string units in QR)

    The Planck Oscillator manifesting at the quantum bosonic string energy of the Planck Mass mplanck of so 1.69x10-8 kg or of so 9.48x1018 GeV as the string class I (of both open and closed 10D superstrings) is the maximized string energy of the string/brane epoch from Planck-Time to Weyl-Time, the latter representing the heterotic string class (HE 8x8) of the fifth and final bosnic string transformation at a stringmass mps=2.222..x10-20 kg for a Weyl-Energy of Eps=hfps=kTps=hc/λps=mpsc2 at 1.244976..x107 GeV.

    Because of the string class transform from the Black Holed Planck brane however, the Weyl brane cannot become expressed as a Black Holed brane without modulation.

    In particular the Planck curvature radius rplanck=2Gomplanck/c2 = Planck Length (Lplanck); but the Schwarzschild curvature for the Weyl brane would exceed the minimum spacetime configuration of the wormhole in the direct proportionality between mass M and curvature radius R in the Schwarzschild metrication.

    The decrease of the Weyl mass from the Planck mass would imply a decrease in the Weyl-Curvature Radius from the Planck curvature and this cannot occur beyond the Planck radius oscillation given by the Stoney Unification of √(Alpha)Lplanck=e/c2=1.78495..x10-36 meters.
    (With a Black Holed Weyl curvature requiring 2Gomps/c2 =5.48696..x10-47 meters and the REAL Weylian Curvature Radius being a macroquanized Black Hole Mass equivalence of mweyl=rps.c2/2Go=6,445.775... kg).
    We so define the modulation in the ratio mweyl/mps.

    The Weyl wormhole initialises the Quantum Big Bang in the ending of the string epoch however and so the then existing space allows a modulation between the first and last brane energies to be made and in using this then existing spacetime metric defined by the invariance of the seeded lightpath x=ct.

    We so express the (dimensionless) Planck-Weyl Brane Energy Ratio as:

    Φpw={Eplanck/Eweyl}2=HM/mpsTps=mplanckTplanck/2mpsTps=rpsMuniverse/RHubblemps =hc5 e*2/4πGo=mweyl/mps=2.900598835..x1023 Frequency Eigenstates of the wormhole Eweyl by Mc2=N.hfweyl=N.hfps

    For any mass M=N.Eps/c2=N.mps and N=1 for M=mps. and for the Weyl-mass N=mweyl/mps=rps.c2/2Gomps=rps/rweyl-curvaturepw={Eplanck/Eweyl}2 hence modulating the Planck-String Boson with the Weyl-String Boson in the Planck-Mass transformation of a smaller curvature radius for a larger Planck-Mass:

    rps/Lplanck=√{2πrps2c3/Goh}=√{hc/2πGomps2}=mplanck/mweyl

    for √{4π2rps2c2/h2}=√{1/mps2} and where the magnetocharge e*=1/Eweyl by modular string duality and the parametric definitions.

    The Brane Modulation so is:

    LplanckMplanck=rps.mps=2πc/h=1/mps.rps=rss/mps=2πλss/mps



    The Hobbit Galaxies and the Density of the Expanding Universe

    rss sets the maximum curvature radius on the scale of (dark matter) 'haloed galaxies' in the modular string coupling rpsrss=1; and this modular unification then couples the quantum scale of the classical electron radius Re to the protoversal quanta counter E in the macro scale of a 'cellular' star system RE=3.44x1014 meters or so 2300 AU.

    The restmass induction of the cosmology can now be described as the de Broglie Inflaton VdeBroglie=RHubble.fps=cfps/Ho as the describing phase velocity in the Inflaton Phase space of the 'False Vacuum' and with a hyperacceleration AdeBroglie=cfps2/Ho the latter 'inflating' the Weyl wormhole in R4 space 'instantaneously', that is in the Now-Time interval tps=nps/Hops/c and defining dn/dt=Ho for a general cycletime coordinate n=Hot and npsps/RHubble.

    The mystery of the Quantum Big Bang so engages the inflaton in fixing a metric brane background, eliminating the requirement for a comoving coordinate system as is still utilized by terrestrial cosmologists.

    Rather the de Broglie instanton/inflaton defines a quasi-steady state for the lightparametric cosmology to manifest in.
    A textual or webbed metric background is established by the deceleration parameter as the ratio between the de Broglie hyperacceleration in phase space and an already INHERENT cosmological 'constant' or Einstein lambda.
    This ratio then is identical to the ratio between the restmass seedling Mo and the Universal mass of closure MHubble as ΛEps/AdeBroglie=(GoMops2 )/(RHubble.fps2)=Mo/2MHubble=0.01405...~1/2(35.587)

    As is detailed elsewhere, the Einstein Lambda is simply the (quintessential) difference between the demetricated expansion parameter a(n)=n/(n+1)=R(n)/RHubble expressed in acceleration terms and -2cHo/(n+1)3 (as say a Milgröm factor).

    As mass is quantized in the modular duality of the minmax superstrings of the Weyl brane; a 'protoneutron/nucleon' can be defined to incapsulate the 'mass evolution' of inertia in 'raising the eigenvibratory state of sinksource inertia in terms of the mass-independent gravita.

    E=mc2=hf; with E=hf iff m=0 and E=mc2 iff f=fss then couples to mc=mplanck.Alpha9 in mc/mss=mc.c2/Ess=mc.c2/hfss=4.020x1053 (restmass quanta of self frequency (or timeinstanton tps) fss=1/fps).

    For n=ln(MHubble/Mo)/lnY=7.428071389..or 125.357 billion lightyears then, the 'mass evolution' via the quantization of mass in the nucleon seed MHubble/mc=35.587 x Mo/mc mplanck.Alpha9 in mc/mss=mc.c2/Ess=mc.c2/hfss=4.020x1053 (restmass quanta of self frequency fss=1/fps) will complete a basic consciousness evolution for the protoveral restmass induction seedling Mo.

    It so takes 125.357 billion years for the protoversal inertia seed to 'fill' the 11D membraned multiversal 'seed'.
    The 10D Protoverse of mass Mo so forms a holofractal for the 11D Universe of mass MHubble and the 11D Universe becomes a holofractal for its expansion as a 11D Multiverse.

    The expansion parameter between Mo and MHubble is R10D/R11D=(n/[n+1])/(n)=1/n+1 or R11D=(n+1)R10D for n≥1; that is following the convergence of the 11D lightpath with its previously established asymptotic boundary for the 10D inertia expansion (and so following the completion of 50% of the protoversal seed in 3D Volume).

    In other words, as the observed asymptotically decelerating universe reached a torus radius of 8.438.. billion lightyears; its 'enveloping' lightpath completed the first nodal transversion at 16.9 billion lightyears.
    The spherical radius (measured from without) of R10+=(3π/2)1/3 (n/[n+1])RHubble=14.1467.. billion lightyears coincided with R10-=(3πn/2)1/3/(n+1)RHubble (measured from within) in n2-n=0 for quadratic roots n=0,1 and for n=n1/3.

    Due to the function f(n)=n > g(n)=n1/3 for all n>1; R10+>R10- for all n>1 and so the inside observation of the cosmology will measure a 'younger' universe than the outside observation, as is the case for the present time for R10+=15.03 Gy > R10-=13.85 Gy.

    Using dn/dt=Ho=c/RHubble for a 'critical density' ρcritical=MHubble/VHubble=3Ho2/8πGo (spherical), then defines a proportional increase in the Mass of the Universe with its expansion beyond the 10D asymptotic limit as the 11D envelope.

    The Schwarzschild metric gives R11D=RHubble=2GoMHubble/c2 and the Mass Creation from the Gravita Seed of the VPE becomes: nHoMHubble=nc3/2Go=n.1.215x1035 kg/s.

    The constant density ratio for the mass parametric inertially- and gravitationally selfinteracting universe (of volumes V10-; V10+ and V11-) then becomes:

    ρ10critical=MHubble/VHubble=nMHubble/V11-=nMHubble/n.2π2RHubble3=Ho2/4π2Go=8.038003x10-28 kg/m3~0.8099 mc protonucleon masses per cubicmeter.

    The multiversal and decreasing critical density for the encompassing electromagnetic universe of volume V11+ becomes:

    ρ11critical=MHubble/VHubble=nMHubble/V11+
    =nMHubble/n3.2π2RHubble3=Ho2/4π2n2Go10critical/n2~6.26828x10-28 kg/m3 for a present n=1.1324... and so about 78% of the critical density of the inertial cosmology.

    Both critical densities increase by a factor of 3π/2 for the sphericity of the conventional ρcritical =3Ho2/8πGo to 3.788x10-27 kg/m3 and 2.954x10-27 kg/m3 respectively.

    The gravitational (truly constant) 'constant' for the (higherD) Gravita is about 62% greater than the measured Newtonian constant (the latter using a referential nucleon mass as standard unit mass say in its calculation of the finestructured product GM=constant). Details on this and the nodicity of the 'true' Hubble Constant Ho =c/RHubble =dn/dt are found elsewhere in the archives on cosmosdawn.com.

    This mass then illuminates the mystery of how small a galactic seed can be. The substructure or seed of so called Dwarf Galaxies are labeled Hobbit Galaxies and wheras galactic dwarves carry stars in the number of millions to billions; galactic hobbits are counted in 10,000s to 100,000s of solar masses and are comparable to star clusters within a 'normal' galaxy.
    Often hypothesized to be 'dark matter dominated', the Hobbit galaxies represent the holofractalization of the universe in analogy to the SuperMassive Black Holes (SMBH) found at the center of the larger galactic seeds.

    The ratio of the SMBHs to the total mass of the galaxy has been known for some time to be in the region of 500-1000.
    Similarly, the ratio of the Hobbit galactic seed to say a supermassive star is given in the mass of the (Population III Protostar) to the Hobbit galaxy.

    The mass transform of the Gravita is so 1.215x1035 kg~60,750 solar masses per second and as about 60.75 to 121.5 times the solar standard mass for the 500-1000 ratio.
    This then compares to the 'largest' mass of a star hitherto measured in the 'superlative' record star R136a1 of about 36 solar diameters (~0.2 AU):


    (R136a1 is a blue hypergiant star, currently on record as the most massive star known, at an estimated 265 solar masses.[2] The star also holds the record for the most luminous at 8,700,000 times the luminosity of the Sun.[2] It is a member of R136, a super star cluster near the center of the 30 Doradus complex (also known as the Tarantula Nebula ), in the Large Magellanic Cloud . The mass of the star was determined by astronomers at the University of Sheffield.

    http://www.astronomy.com/asy/default.aspx?c=a&id=5016
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_most_massive_stars
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_largest_known_stars

    This also implies, that every year, about 3.834x1042 kg of Inertia are added to the expanding Universe via the Gravita transformation.
    As this represents the mass of a large galaxy of the order of 2 Trillion solar masses; Quantum Relativity predicts, that every year an entire galaxy of 2 trillion solar masses is added to the observable, visible universe.

    The 'puzzling' observation of the terrestrial cosmologists and astronomers; observing a rich complex galactic structure; no matter how far the technology of the observation instruments allows; can so be 'solved' in the mass creation scenario from the gravita.
    It so also becomes self evident, that the 'missing mass' to close the open hyperbolically curved universe is found in the 'missing' lower dimensional space not yet gravitationally 'visited' by the expanding thermodynamic universe of the Black Hole equivalents and say described by the Hawking Modulus.

    In particular, following the instanton, the textual web of the superclusters as the boundary for gravitationally interacting inertia conglomerations manifested at the 236.5 Million lightyear radius {the Schwarzschild curvature radius for the mass seedling Mo is Rsarkar=2GoMo/c2=4.48x1024 meters as the 473 million lightyear diameter for a corresponding cosmological redshift z=7.477 specifying the mean scale for the homogenous and isotropic cosmology in the Cosmological Principle}.

    This Sarkar scale then sets the 'honey comb' web for a subsequent inertia induction from the gravita seed of the inflaton.
    The principle of Equivalence so finds its origin the gravita of the gravitational mass being a prior frequency equivalence, not yet 'materialised' in the phasechange into the inertia carriers in the de Broglie phase space.
    With the ending of the string epoch at Weyl-Time, the classical relativistic cosmology became initiated at a lightspeed expanding universe Revisiting and Inertializing the spacequanta crystallized previously by the inflaton as the Gravitational Mass equivalents.

    Wherever the expanding spherical lightcone encountered the Gravita, those Gravita became Inertia and the hitherto 'False Higgs Vacuum' became 'Real QuantumSpacertime' in the asymptotic 10D brane universe.
    The materialisation of the Inertia so instigated the Gravitational interaction and caused the lightspeed expansion to slow down (presently it is 0.22c in Quantum Relativity).

    This scenario then shows the reason as to why large scale structures in the universe are found no matter how far back in time the terrestrial astrophysicists probe with their tesescopes.
    The Black Hole hierarchy is top-down from the supercluster scale to the galactic scale to the stellar scale to the Weyl-Mass scale.
    The lightspeed expansion of the universe only slows relative to the inertia and is superposed in the lightspeed invariance of a say Electromagnetic Cosmology which continues unabated at lightspeed past the Hubble Seedling of the Inflaton in a laserlike semitransparency of both a reflection into the Inner Space of the SPACELIKE metric and refraction into thus newly created Outer Space in the TIMELIKE metric.

    About 2.2 billion years ago, the invariant lightspeed expansion then reached the Hubble Node and the entire universe of the Big Bang became then reconfigured in the semitransparency of the 11D Witten membrane.
    The Universe became enabled to 'reflect' on its own evolvement and so became 'self-conscious' in brane-cosmological terminology and parameters.

    ALL of the Hubble-Bubble as the 3D Riemann manifold became electromagnetically defined and could so begin to 'process its collected information' by the quantum entanglement of the de Broglie phase space with the electrodynamic 10D branespace.
    The inertial space of the asymptotic universe (1 dimension lower than the electrodynamic space) was precisely half as the Hubble node was reached by the electrodynamically (not physically) Oscillation Cosmology of Quantum Relativity.

    As the Gaussian curvature relates to the cosmology in the tripartition of the minmax initial/boundary conditions of the inflaton/instanton; and for the displacement parameter modulated (i.e. rendered dimensionless in the T-Duality with the magnetocharge of the inflaton/instanton manifesting as Inverse Weyl/wormhole energy), we can approximate the dimensionless Pi in the modulation parameters.

    mpsTps= HM.4πGo/hc5e*2=1/k(e*c)2=1/k(2Rec3)2 =h2/kλps2=Eps2/kc2 = 3.148244322...(~π to 0.2%) for a finestructure of Planck's Constant h=λps/2Rec3ps/(e*c).

    The expression π(1+1/e*)=π(1+Eps)=π(501/500)=3.147875839.., then approximates π ~ Eps2/kc2(1+Eps)=3.14196040...to 4 decimal places in the factor 1.000117..




    Last edited by shiloh on Mon Oct 07, 2013 3:15 am; edited 1 time in total
     

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