The Factuals versus the OABS (Old Age BullShit)

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    CULCULCAN The Final Synthesis - isbn 978-0-9939480-0-8 Staff Member


    Largely because of its haunting beauty, the Mandelbrot set has become the most famous object in modern mathematics. It is also the breeding ground for the world's most famous fractals. Since 1980, the set has provided an inspiration for artists, a source of wonder for schoolchildren, and a fertile testing ground for the science of linear dynamics.
    The set itself is a mathematical artifact—an odd-shaped infinite swarm of points clustered on what is known as the "complex number plane." Let's try to visualize it.

    To make them tangible, we imagine real numbers like 1, 2, 3... as spaced out along a number line. Because complex numbers have two parts to them—called their "real" and "imaginary" parts—making complex numbers tangible requires two lines, or axes, which means a plane. Picture the plane dotted by complex numbers as a computer screen, which is just where the visual form of the Mandelbrot set was discovered.
    Like the screen of your television set, a computer screen is covered with a host of very tiny, evenly spaced points, called pixels. The moving image on the screen is made when patterns of pixels are excited (made to glow) by a fast-moving scanning beam of electrons. Think of each pixel as a complex number. The pixels in any neighborhood are numerically close to each other, just as 3 and 4 are numerically close to each other on the real number line. Pixels (numbers) are made to glow by applying an iterative equation to them.
    In the late 1970s and early 1980s Benoit Mandelbrot, the inventor of fractal geometry, and several others were using simple iterative equations to explore the behavior of numbers on the complex plane. [Read an interview with Mandelbrot.] A very simple way to view the operation of an iterative equation is as follows:
    Start with one of the numbers on the complex plane and put its value in the "Fixed Number" slot of the equation. In the "Changing Number" slot put zero. Now calculate the equation, take the "Result," and slip it into the "Changing Number" slot. Repeat the whole operation again (in other words, recalculate and "iterate" the equation) and watch what happens to the "Result." Does it hover around a fixed value, does it spiral toward infinity quickly, or does it stagger upward by a slower expansion?

    When iterative equations are applied to points in a certain region of the complex plane, the results are spectacular. By treating the pixels on computer screens as points on the plane, even nonmathematicians can now admire this marvel. In fact, without computers, only the most intuitive mathematicians could have glimpsed what was there. With the computer it works like this:
    Starting with the value of a point (or pixel) and applying the equation to it, iterate the equation perhaps 1,000 times. If the "Result" remains stable, color the pixel black. If the number heads at one speed or another toward infinity, paint it a different color, assigning colors for each rate of movement. The points (pixels) representing the fastest-expanding numbers might be colored red, slightly slower ones magenta, very slow ones blue—whatever color scheme the fractal explorer decides. Now move on to the next pixel and do the same thing with the color palette until all the pixels on the screen have been colored.
    Artists and the public have been attracted by the set's haunting beauty.
    When all the pixels (or points representing complex numbers) have been iterated by the equation, a pattern emerges. The pattern that Mandelbrot and others discovered in one region of the complex plane was a long-proboscidean insect shape of stable points—the Mandelbrot set itself, usually shown in black—surrounded by a flaming boundary of filigreed detail that includes miniature, slightly distorted replicas of the insect shape, and layer upon layer of self-similar forms.

    The boundary area of the set is infinitely complex, therefore fractal, because it is possible to bring out finer and finer detail. Computer graphics artists call the process of unfolding the detail "zooming in" on the set's boundary or "magnifying" it. It's fairly easy to grasp what this means.
    On the real-number line we routinely imagine that between the numbers 1 and 2 are other numbers, 1.5, for example, or 1.6. (We encounter this every time we pick up a ruler.) Of course, between those numbers are still more numbers—1.53 and 1.54, for example—and so on, indefinitely. The same is true for the numbers on the complex plane. Between any two of them are many more, and between those many more are many more still, ad infinitum. These numbers between numbers allow us to use the computer like a microscope to dive into increasingly deeper detail. [Dive in yourself with A Sense of Scale.]
    To extend our analogy, if the numbers we were examining on the complex plane were all like the numbers at the level of, say, 1, 2, 3, etc., on a ruler, then we would be examining the largest scale of numbers. But we could also go to a smaller scale and examine the numbers at the level of 1.5, 1.6. Between those will be yet a smaller scale (including the numbers 1.53 and 1.54, for example), and so in any region of the complex plane we could move downward (or inward) to smaller and smaller scales.
    Similarly, explorers of the Mandelbrot set can zoom in to study finer and finer detail as they examine the ever smaller scales of numbers between numbers on the complex plane. Indeed, a home computer can examine numbers out to 15 decimal points. To complete the microscope analogy, if the numbers 1 and 2 were the equivalent of objects the size of human beings and trees, a number 15 decimal points smaller would be an object tinier than an atom. More powerful computers can go into even finer (or deeper) detail. In addition, different styles of iterative equations can act as prisms to display varying facets of the behavior of the complex numbers around the set.
    Applying zoom-ins and different iterative prisms to the numbers in the boundary area of the Mandelbrot set has revealed that this region is a mathematical strange attractor. The "strange attractor" name here applies to the set because it is self-similar at many scales, is infinitely detailed, and attracts points (numbers) to certain recurrent behavior. Scientists study the set for insights into the nonlinear (chaotic) dynamics of real systems. For example, the wildly different behavior exhibited when two numbers with almost the same starting value and lying next to each other in the set's boundary are iterated is similar to the behavior of systems like the weather undergoing dynamic flux because of its "sensitive dependence on initial conditions."

    But a major importance of the set may be that it has become a strange attractor for scientists, artists, and the public, though each may be drawn to it for quite different reasons. Scientists have found themselves attracted—often with childlike delight—to a new aesthetic that involves the artistic choices of color and detail they must make when exploring the set. Artists and the public have been attracted by the set's haunting beauty and the idea of abstract mathematics turned into tangible pleasures. [Make your own tangible pleasures—see Design a Fractal.]
    Homer Smith, cofounder of an independent research group based at Cornell University, produces fractal images with the aim of attracting young children to mathematics. [See some of Smith's stunning images in A Radical Mind.] "We hope that fractals show up in early classrooms, to get kids interested in mathematics very early," Smith says, "because it really opens the eyes of children who haven't been turned off by education... We hope by the time they get up to the tenth grade, they'll have seen these things and say, 'There's something here in math, science, and computers that I want to learn.'" [​IMG]


    In this detail of the Mandelbrot set, the set itself appears in black, with the fractal boundary alive with color.


    Because an infinite number of points exist between any two points on the number plane, the Mandelbrot set's detail is infinite. This image is a tiny part of the previous image magnified many thousands of times over.


    "A flaming boundary of filigreed detail" is how Briggs aptly describes the border of the Mandelbrot set.


    The "self-similar" nature of fractals means that particular elements, such as the Mandelbrot set, reappear over and over again, no matter how "deep" one goes into the image through magnification.

    John Briggs is author of Fractals: The Patterns of Chaos (Simon & Schuster, 1992), from which this article was excerpted with kind permission of the author and publisher.

    CULCULCAN The Final Synthesis - isbn 978-0-9939480-0-8 Staff Member

    ukraine1. ukraine2.

    CULCULCAN The Final Synthesis - isbn 978-0-9939480-0-8 Staff Member

    ukraine3. ukraine3.

    CULCULCAN The Final Synthesis - isbn 978-0-9939480-0-8 Staff Member


    CULCULCAN The Final Synthesis - isbn 978-0-9939480-0-8 Staff Member

    Previous 2 posts from
    Chris West

    5 hrs ·

    Now that we know about Operation Paperclip......
    Operation Paperclip was a secret program
    of the Joint Intelligence Objectives Agency (JIOA)
    largely carried out by Special Agents of Army CIC,
    in which more than 1,600 German scientists, engineers,
    and technicians, such as Wernher von Braun and his V-2 rocket team,
    were taken from Germany to America for U.S. government employment,
    primarily between 1945 and 1959.

    Many were former members, and some were former leaders, of the Nazi Party.

    The Soviet Union also had their own operation,
    to bring these guys into the Soviet Union, also....
    Called Operation Osoaviakhim during one night on October 22, 1946.

    The Soviet Union was more aggressive in forcibly recruiting more than 2,200 German specialists—a total of more than 6,000 people including family members
    with Operation Osoaviakhim.

    This article is eerie, because we do know our country was invaded by the Third Reich.

    And it looks like the government was telling Americans, all along.

    Chris West

    CULCULCAN The Final Synthesis - isbn 978-0-9939480-0-8 Staff Member

    List of genocides by death toll - Wikipedia
    List of genocides

    Listed in descending order of lowest estimate.
    Proportion of group killed
    The Holocaust[N 1]German-occupied Europe194119455,750,000
    Around 2/3 of the Jewish population of Europe.[5]
    Generalplan Ost[N 1]German-occupied Europe194119454,500,000
    13.7% of the Soviet Union's population died during WWII
    Deaths include 1.3 million Jews, which are included in the deaths of 6 million Jews during the Holocaust,[4] as well as the deaths of more than 3 million Soviet POWs.[4]
    Holodomor (Голодомор)[N 2]
    (Ukrainian genocide which is part of greater Soviet famine of 1932–33)
    Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic193219331,800,000
    Genocide of Ukrainians through artificial starvation by the Soviet regime.[28] At least 10% of Ukraine's population perished.[29] Its characterization as a genocide is disputed by some historians.[30][31][32]
    Nazi genocide of Poles[N 1]German-occupied Europe193919451,800,000
    17% of Poland's population was killed or died during World War II
    Mongol conquest of Western Xia[N 3]Western Xia120512271,500,0001,500,0001,500,000 killed in the genocide after the conquest (Half[39] the population of Western Xia (3 million)[40][41][42] was exterminated)
    Cambodian genocide[N 4]Democratic Kampuchea197519791,386,734
    10–33% of total population of Cambodia killed[54][55] including:
    100% of Cambodian Viets
    50% of Cambodian Chinese and Cham
    40% of Cambodian Lao and Thai
    25% of Urban Khmer
    16% of Rural Khmer
    Kazakh genocide during the Soviet famine of 1932–33[N 5]Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic193119331,300,000
    Some historians assume that 42% of the entire Kazakh population died in the famine.[57] The two Soviet census show that the number of the Kazakhs in Kazakhstan dropped from 3,637,612 in 1926 to 2,181,520 in 1937.[58]
    Armenian genocide Մեծ Եղեռն (Medz Yeghern, "Great Crime")[N 6]Ottoman Empire
    (territories of present-day Turkey, Syria and Iraq)
    At least 50% of Armenians in Turkey killed[59]
    Indonesian genocide[N 7]Indonesia19651966500,000
    Some scholars now argue that the Indonesian massacres constitute genocide by the legal definition.[72][62][66][73][74]
    Rwandan genocide[N 8]Rwanda19941994500,000
    70% of Tutsis in Rwanda killed
    1/3 of Twa in Rwanda killed
    20% of Rwanda's total population killed
    Greek genocide including the Pontic genocide[N 9]Ottoman Empire
    (territories of present-day Turkey)
    [77][full citation needed]
    Zunghar genocide 准噶尔灭族 in the Zunghar Khanate[N 10]Qing Dynasty (Dzungaria)17551758480,000
    80% of 600,000 Zungharian Oirats killed
    Circassian genocide[N 11]Circassia, Caucasus18641867400,000
    90% to 97% of total Circassian population perished or deported by the Russian forces.[96][97][98]
    Genocide by the Ustaše including the Serbian genocide[N 12]Independent State of Croatia (territories of present-day Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbian Syrmia)19411945320,000
    13% to 21% of the Serbian population within the NDH was killed.[103]
    Genocide in Bangladesh[N 13]East Pakistan19711971300,0003,000,000
    2%[103] to 4%[107][108] [109]Over 20% of Bengali Hindus killed[110]
    (Using 1 to 3 million deaths figures)
    Pacification of Algeria[N 14]French Algeria



    10%[121] to 1/3[122][120] of Algeria's population died during the period
    Genocide of indigenous peoples in Brazil[N 15]Brazil

    87 out of 230 Brazilian tribes went extinct during the period[131]
    Albigensian Crusade
    (Cathar genocide)[N 16]
    Languedoc, France12091229200,000
    Assyrian genocide ܣܝܦܐ (Seyfo, "Sword")[N 17]Ottoman Empire
    (territories of present-day Turkey, Syria and Iraq)
    Irish genocide[N 18]Ireland16491653200,000
    20–40% of the population of Ireland perished during the Cromwellian conquest[141][142]
    Wu Hu genocide[N 19]Northern China350351200,000
    [143][full citation needed]
    Genocide of the Tencteri and Usipetes[N 20]Germania55 BC55 BC150,000
    Battle of Carthage
    (Punic genocide)
    [N 21]
    Carthage (territories of present-day Tunis, Tunisia)146 BC146 BC150,000
    150,000Population reduced from 500,000 to 55,000. 150,000 died in the fall of Carthage.[155]
    Romani genocide[N 22]German-occupied Europe1935[160]1945130,000
    25% of Romani people in Europe killed
    Polish Operation of the NKVD (Polish genocide)[N 23]Soviet Union19371938111,091
    22% of the Polish population of the USSR was "sentenced" by the operation (140,000 people)[175]
    Aardakh[N 24]
    (Soviet deportation of Chechens and other Vainakh populations)
    Soviet Union, North Caucasus19441948100,000
    23.5% to almost 50% of total Chechen population killed[184]
    [176][page needed][177][178][185]
    Darfur genocide[N 25]Darfur, Sudan

    Kurdish genocide[N 26]Iraq1977199187,500388,1008% of the Kurdish population of Iraq was killed.[103]
    East Timor genocide[N 27]East Timor1975199985,320
    13% to 44% of East Timor's total population killed
    (See death toll of East Timor genocide)
    1972 Genocide of Burundian Hutus[N 28]Burundi1972197280,000
    5% of Burundi's population was killed in the 1972 genocide.[103]
    As much as 10% to 15% of the Hutu population of Burundi killed[213]
    Libyan genocide[N 29]Italian Libya1923193280,000
    25% of Cyrenaican population killed[218]
    Bambuti genocide[N 30]North Kivu, Democratic Republic of the Congo2002200360,000
    40% of the Eastern Congo's Pygmy population killed[N 31]
    Massacres of Poles in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia[N 32]Eastern part of pre-war Poland1943194550,000
    4% to 20% of the pre-war (1931) Second Polish Republic's total Polish population of Voivodeships: stanisławowskie, tarnopolskie and wołyńskie[237][238] where killed.
    Genocide of Isaaqs[N 33]Somalia1988199150,000
    Genocidal crimes against Bosniaks and Croats by the Chetniks[N 34]Independent State of Croatia (territories of present-day Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Sandžak)1941194547,000
    Deportation of the Crimean Tatars[N 35]Crimean Peninsula, Soviet Union1944194834,000
    The deportation and following exile reduced the Crimean Tatar population by between 18%[266] and 46%.[268]
    Genocide in German South West Africa[N 36]German South-West Africa1904190834,000
    60% (24,000 out of 40,000[269]) to 81.25% (65,000[272][273] out of 80,000[274]) of total Herero and 50%[269] of Nama population killed.
    Guatemalan genocide[N 37]Guatemala1962199632,632
    40% of the Maya population (24,000 people) of Guatemala's Ixil and Rabinal regions where killed[103]
    Jewish genocide during the Russian White Terror[N 38]what is now Ukraine and Russia1918192330,000
    1993 Genocide of Burundian Tutsis[N 28]Burundi1993199325,000
    Genocide of Jews in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth by Cossack insurgents[N 39]Zaporozhian Cossacks insurgents on territory of Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Ukraine and Belarus1648165718,000
    [291][292][293][294] [295]
    45–50% of the Jewish population of Ukraine was killed.[290]
    Latvian Operation of the NKVD
    (Latvian genocide)[N 40]
    Soviet Union1937193816,573
    Persecution of Sikhs by India-(1984 anti-Sikh riots & Operation Woodrose)[N 41]Punjab, India1984199015,350
    [N 42]
    [N 42]
    California genocide[N 43]California


    9,492 - 16,094

    Amerindian population in California declined by 80% during the period
    Queensland Aboriginal genocide[N 44]Queensland, Australia

    3.3% to over 50% of the aboriginal population was killed
    (10,000[322] to 65,180[323] killed out of 125,600 [324] 300,000[324] people)
    Rohingya genocide[N 45]Myanmar


    9,000 - 13,700

    Decossackization[N 46]Former Russian Empire


    1,000s - 10,000+

    Bosnian genocide[N 47]Bosnia and Herzegovina199219958,373
    31,107 - 39,199
    More than 3% of the Bosniak population of Bosnia and Herzegovina perished during the Bosnian War.[349]
    Chittagong Hill Tracts genocide[N 48]Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh197719974,406
    Selk'nam genocide[N 49]Chile, Tierra del FuegoLate 19th centuryEarly 20th century2,500
    The genocide reduced their numbers from around 3,000 to about 500 people. (Now pure Selk'nam are considered extinct.[360][361]
    Genocide of Yazidis by ISIL[N 50]northern Iraq and Syria2014Present2,100 - 4,400
    Genocide of the Moriori[N 51]Chatham Islands, New Zealand183518631,900
    1,90095% of the Moriori population was eradicated by the invasion from Taranaki, a group of Ngāti Mutunga and Ngāti Tama people from the Māori tribe.[369][370] All were enslaved and many were cannibalized.[371] They were not permitted to mix with their race.[372] The Moriori language is now extinct.[366][373] There are no Moriori of unmixed ancestry left.[368]
    Conquest of the Desert and Mapuche decline[N 52]Patagonia, modern day Argentina

    Mapuche population reduced from 250,000 to 25,000.[375]
    Black War
    (Genocide of Aboriginal Tasmanians)[N 53]
    Tasmania, AustraliaMid 1820s1832400

    CULCULCAN The Final Synthesis - isbn 978-0-9939480-0-8 Staff Member


    CULCULCAN The Final Synthesis - isbn 978-0-9939480-0-8 Staff Member

    [bcolor=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0)][bcolor=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0)][bcolor=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0)]
    [bcolor=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0)][bcolor=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0)][bcolor=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0)][color=#ffffff]Nazis murdered a quarter of Europe’s Roma, but history still overlooks this genocide [/color][/bcolor][/bcolor]
    January 24, 2020 4.59am EST[/bcolor]​

    [bcolor=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0)]
    [bcolor=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0)]
    [bcolor=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0)][bcolor=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0)][bcolor=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0)]
    Nazis murdered a quarter of Europe’s Roma, ​
    [bcolor=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0)][bcolor=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0)]
    but history still overlooks this genocide​
    [bcolor=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0)]
    Nazis murdered a quarter of Europe’s Roma, ​
    [bcolor=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0)]
    but history still overlooks this genocide​

    The murder of around 500,000 of Europe’s Roma and Sinti by the Nazis and their collaborators during the second world war is a little-known aspect of the atrocities committed during this period.
    [bcolor=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0)]In the immediate postwar period, war crimes against Roma were not prosecuted. Survivors struggled to get recognition and compensation for the persecution they experienced. Roma victims were also not acknowledged in monuments commemorating the Nazis’ victims.[/bcolor]
    [bcolor=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0)]Although there is now a greater awareness of the atrocities committed against the Roma, the struggle for recognition continues. The genocide against the Roma is described by Professor Eve Rosenhaft, a historian of modern Germany, as “the forgotten Holocaust”.[/bcolor]
    [bcolor=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0)]As curator of The Wiener Holocaust Library’s current exhibition, Forgotten Victims: The Nazi Genocide of the Roma and Sinti, I aimed to explore this often over-looked history.[/bcolor]
    [bcolor=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0)][bcolor=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0)] file-20200121-117958-1gr0l4d.?ixlib=rb-1.1. [/bcolor]
    [bcolor=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.6)] [/bcolor]
    [bcolor=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0)]Unpublished accounts collected in the 1950s as part of The Wiener Library’s project to gather eyewitness accounts of the Holocaust. Wiener Holocaust Library Collections, Author provided[/bcolor][/bcolor]​

    [bcolor=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0)]The Library is the world’s oldest archive of material on the Nazi era and the Holocaust, and has gathered evidence and information about the experiences of Roma Nazi oppression since the 1950s.[/bcolor]
    [bcolor=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0)]It includes materials collected by academic researcher Donald Kenrick and activist and researcher Grattan Puxon in the late 1960s as part of the first attempt to systematically document the genocide against the Roma.[/bcolor]
    [bcolor=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0)]Forced labour and incarceration[/bcolor]

    [bcolor=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0)]One story featured in the exhibition is that of Hans Braun, a German Sinti man.[/bcolor]
    [bcolor=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0)][bcolor=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0)] file-20200121-117917-1nxg79u.?ixlib=rb-1.1. [/bcolor]
    [bcolor=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.6)] [/bcolor]
    [bcolor=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0)]Hans Braun’s certificate of incarceration in Auschwitz & Flossenbürg, 1950. 1101269562 © International Tracing Service Digital Archive, Wiener Holocaust Library Collections, Author provided[/bcolor][/bcolor]​

    [bcolor=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0)]Braun survived forced labour service and incarceration in Auschwitz. In the 1980s, he gave a testimony of his experiences, a copy of which is held by the Library.[/bcolor]
    [bcolor=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0)]Other documents in the archive show that Braun’s first attempt to gain compensation failed, probably on the spurious grounds that he was held by the Nazis because he was a criminal, rather than for “racial” reasons.[/bcolor]
    [bcolor=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0)]In the early years following the war, compensation was often denied to Roma and Sinti victims on this basis, despite extensive evidence that they were in fact persecuted as part of a campaign of targeted and ultimately genocidal racism.[/bcolor]
    [bcolor=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0)]Nazi racial ideology[/bcolor]

    [bcolor=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0)]By the late 1930s, Nazi racial ideology had been extended to encompass the notion that, like Jews, Roma were also of “alien blood” and a threat to the racial strength of the “Aryan master race”.[/bcolor]
    [bcolor=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0)][bcolor=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0)] file-20200121-117954-13jxlby.?ixlib=rb-1.1. [/bcolor]
    [bcolor=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.6)] [/bcolor]
    [bcolor=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0)]Margarete Kraus, a Czech Roma, photographed after the war. Her Auschwitz tattoo is visible on her left arm. Wiener Holocaust Library Collections, Author provided[/bcolor][/bcolor]​

    [bcolor=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0)]As part of the development of these ideas, Roma were subject to a massive programme of pseudo-scientific investigation.[/bcolor]
    [bcolor=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0)]They were also targeted for forced sterilisation and forced medical experiments.[/bcolor]
    [bcolor=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0)]Margarete Kraus, (in the photograph to the left), a Czech Roma survivor of Auschwitz, was a victim of forced medical experiments.[/bcolor]
    [bcolor=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0)]In this post-war image, taken by German journalist Reimar Gilsenbach in the 1950s, her camp number tattoo is just visible on her left forearm.[/bcolor]
    [bcolor=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0)]The “Gypsy” camp[/bcolor]

    [bcolor=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0)]The exhibition also features eyewitness accounts detailing the so-called “Gypsy” camp in Auschwitz. Julius Hodosi, a Roma man from Burgenland in Austria who survived Auschwitz, recounted his children’s death from starvation in the camp. A number of Jewish survivors, including Hermann Langbein, described witnessing horrific conditions in the “Gypsy” camp. He said:[/bcolor]
    [bcolor=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0)][bcolor=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0)]The conditions were worse than in other camps … the route between the huts was ankle deep in mud and dirt. The gypsies were still using the clothes that they had been given upon arrival … footwear was missing … The latrines were built in such a way that they were practically unusable for the gypsy children. The infirmary was a pathetic sight.[/bcolor][/bcolor]
    [bcolor=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0)]Another witness, Dr Max Benjamin, a Jewish man from Cologne who was a doctor at the “Gypsy” hospital in Auschwitz, gave an account to the Library of the “liquidation” of the “Gypsy” camp in August 1944: “[In] one fell swoop every single one of the gypsies who represented the population of this camp was chased into the gas chambers.”[/bcolor]
    [bcolor=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0)]Of the 23,000 people who passed through the “Gypsy” camp at Auschwitz, 21,000 died – of starvation, ill-health or were murdered in the gas chambers or by other means.[/bcolor]
    [bcolor=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0)]In the 1950s, Hermine Horvath, an Austrian Roma woman, gave the Library an extensive account of her experiences of persecution after the German takeover of Austria in 1938. She was forced into labour service and later survived the camps. She herself experienced sexual violence perpetrated by an SS man, and later witnessed sexual violence committed against Roma girls in Auschwitz by members of the SS.[/bcolor]
    [bcolor=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0)][bcolor=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0)] file-20200121-117933-4n6ora.?ixlib=rb-1.1. [/bcolor]
    [bcolor=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0)]August (centre), a Sinti boy with relatives in Germany. August died in Auschwitz as almost certainly did the other children in the photograph. University of Liverpool GLS Add GA, Author provided[/bcolor][/bcolor]

    [bcolor=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0)]But while the Library’s collections on the persecution of and genocide against the Roma contain a great deal of valuable evidence and testimony, it does not tell the entire story. Most of these documents relate to events in Germany, Austria and central Europe, as well as the situation in the camps and ghettos in German-occupied Poland.[/bcolor]
    [bcolor=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0)]But both the Jewish Holocaust and the genocide against the Roma also involved mass shootings carried out by the Nazis and their collaborators in Eastern Europe and in Soviet territories. In other places, such as Croatia, regimes supportive of the Nazis, carried out their own atrocities against the Roma.[/bcolor]
    [bcolor=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0)]The genocide against the Roma and Sinti affected people across Europe from communities in France to those in Ukraine and Greece. Yet this terrible history is frequently overlooked and Europe’s Roma continue to experience extensive discrimination and violence across the continent.[/bcolor]
    [bcolor=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0)]It is hoped this exhibition will help to shine a light on the history of the Roma in Europe, and warn where discrimination and prejudice can lead.[/bcolor]
    [bcolor=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0)] [/bcolor]
    [bcolor=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0)][/bcolor]

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