The Coding Of Chartres - Notre Dame Cathedral, France - 5 Trees In Paradise - Duality Beoming As One

Discussion in 'Ancient and Original Native and Tribal Prophecies' started by Susan Lynne Schwenger, Oct 8, 2014.

  1. Susan Lynne Schwenger

    Susan Lynne Schwenger The Final Synthesis - isbn 978-0-9939480-0-8 Staff Member

    Messages:
    6,333
    Chartres Cathedral, also known as the Cathedral of Our Lady of Chartres (French: Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Chartres),
    is a Roman Catholic church in Chartres, France,
    about 80 km (50 miles) southwest of Paris.

    Mostly constructed between 1194 and 1220,
    it stands at the site of at least five cathedrals that have occupied the site since Chartres became a bishopric in the 4th century.

    It is in the Gothic and Romanesque styles.

    It is designated a World Heritage Site by UNESCO,
    which calls it "the high point of French Gothic art" and a "masterpiece".[2]

    The cathedral has been well preserved.

    The majority of the original stained glass windows survive intact,
    while the architecture has seen only minor changes
    since the early 13th century.

    The building's exterior is dominated by heavy flying buttresses
    which allowed the architects to increase the window size significantly,
    while the west end is dominated by two contrasting spires
    – a 105-metre (349 ft) plain pyramid completed around 1160
    and a 113-metre (377 ft) early 16th-century Flamboyant spire
    on top of an older tower.

    Equally notable are the three great façades,
    each adorned with hundreds of sculpted figures
    illustrating key theological themes and narratives.

    Since at least the 12th century the cathedral
    has been an important destination for travelers.

    It remains so to the present, attracting large numbers of Christian pilgrims,
    many of whom come to venerate its famous relic,
    the Sancta Camisa, said to be the tunic worn
    by the Virgin Mary at Christ's birth,
    as well as large numbers of secular tourists
    who come to admire the cathedral's architecture and historical merit.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chartres_Cathedral

    800px-Chartres_Cathedral.

    320px-Chartres_-_cath%C3%A9drale_-_ND_de_la_belle_verri%C3%A8re.
    Notre-Dame de la Belle-Verrière » (c.1180 and 1225)

    1024px-Triforium_Chartres.
    The western bays on the south side of the nave, showing the top of the arcade, the triforium and the clerestory windows

    North transept rose window, c. 1235 800px-Chartres_-_cath%C3%A9drale_-_rosace_nord.

    North transept rose window, c. 1235

    800px-The_south_transept_rose_at_Notre-Dame_de_Chartres.

    South transept rose window, c. 1221–1230

    800px-Cath%C3%A9drale_de_Chartres_-_Chapelle_de_Vend%C3%B4me.
    Window of the Vendôme Chapel, c.1415

    1280px-Chartres.
    The west façade (Portail royal)

    Chartres2006_076.
    Gothic statues in the Portail royal

    Chartres2006_093.
    Central portal

    1280px-Chartres_Cathedral_North_Porch_NW_2007_08_31.
    North transept porch with a window of the sacristy (c.1310) in the background

    Pythagore-chartres.
    Pythagoras on one of the archivolts
    over the right door of the west portal at Chartres




    Cosmogenesis - Words from The Ancients of Thuban

    SUSAN LYNNE SCHWENGER
    aka THE eXchanger
    aka THE13THBRIDGE
    - Posted Sep 11th 2013 at 6:21 pm

    chartres.

    The Coding of 'Chartres' - 5 Trees in Paradise - Duality becoming as One



    The Coding of "Chartres"
    ~ The Templars
    ~ Aquarius Gemini Pisces
    '5 trees in paradise',
    which describes a duality
    becoming as one in a cosmic twinship.

    The Harmonisation of an Old Astrology
    in the Elemental Qualities

    I received new data about the '5 trees in paradise'
    and how this relates to us here.

    I shall give preliminaries to try to make this very clear.

    It is rather important and will explain many things here
    and the occurrences of the last 2 years or so.

    It is a beautiful harmony,
    but I shall take this slowly,
    so you all can understand this.

    Preliminaries:

    The old and modern astrology knows about elements and 'qualities'.

    There are 4 elements Fire-Earth-Air-Water

    and there are 3 qualities distributed as 3 x 4=12 in the elements.

    So each element has 3 qualities in 3 star signs.

    For example in the Fire element:
    Aries=Cardinal=1
    Leo=Fixed=5
    Sagittarius=Mutable=9
    Always 4 signs apart.

    In the Earth:
    Taurus=Fixed=2
    Virgo=Mutable=6
    Capricorn=Cardinal=10

    In the Air:
    Gemini=Mutable=3
    Libra=Cardinal=7
    Aquarius=Fixed=11

    In the Water:
    Cancer=Cardinal=4
    Scorpio=Fixed=8
    Pisces=Mutable=12

    Now the cosmic encoding is very very precise
    as to how those 12 signs
    relate to the rebirth of the old world
    as a new world.

    I will describe this later.

    So now to the '5 trees in paradise',
    which describes a duality
    becoming as one in a cosmic twinship.

    The very simple sequence is this:
    1-2-{3=Cosmic Twin}-4-5...

    This is like an ASCENT and relates to ascending signs,
    the local birth time at sunrise in a geographical location of the natal birth.

    This Cosmic Twin is however also in a DESCENT
    with a 'transformation' of the 'qualities' in
    10=1+0=1 and 11=1+1=2 and 12=1+2=3.

    So you can write the descending of the harmonisation as
    10-11-{12=3}-4-5

    This in most basic form defines the Cosmic Twinship as Pisces-Gemini.

    This is the secret code at Chartres for example,
    where the Knight Templars placed all 10 starsigns
    on one side of the cathedral
    except Pisces and Gemini,
    which they then placed opposite,
    indicating a certain significance and symbolism for this placement.

    So in terms of starsigns
    ALL qualities ALWAYS harmonise in opposites.

    So Aries=1 as Fire requires the Air of Libra=7 to 'breathe' and exist.

    The opposites are always 6 signs or 180° apart.

    So Taurus Dry Earth harmonises Scorpio Wet Water
    as the necessity for water to fertilise a dry earth in 2-8
    and Gemini Cold Air harmonises Sagittarius Hot Fire as 3-9 and so on.

    BUT this places Fire and Water into cosmic opposition
    as it does for Earth and Air.

    The Grand Cosmic Reconfiguration redefines
    or better said ADDS to this scenario in the '5 trees'.

    Because the Earth of the Father in Saturn's Capricorn
    is naturally harmonised
    by the Water of the Full Moon Cancer Mother as 4-10;
    the transformation of Capricornian Earth
    into the Fire of Aries
    will allow many new developments in this rebirth.

    IOW the series 5-4-{3=12}-2-1 = 5-4-{12=3}-11-10

    This is important and a key of keys.

    In terms of starsigns then the DESCENT of IMs
    (Immanuel Melchisedecs say as encoded in scriptures)
    and also as the 'Dead Alive Ones' or 'passed over lovers',
    requires 3 'individualisations' to manifest in the 'alive dead ones',
    who are the quantum waves 'collapsed' in bodies as the complements
    for the 'quantum bodies' 'dying' or collapsing
    to reattain their status as 'living waves'.

    The alive dead ones are here in the above coded as:

    5-4-{twinship}-2-1 with 1 blending
    with 10 and 2 blending with 11 or
    Leo-Cancer-{Cosmic Twinship}-Taurus/Aquarius-Aries/Capricorn

    This is perfect symmetry in the astrological metamorphosis hitherto.

    There is much to follow,
    but the coring of Capricornian Father
    with Cancerian Mother in CARDINALITY is EXPANDED
    and encompassed by a New Fire-Water harmonisation in Aries-Cancer.

    This is followed by an 5-11 Leo-Aquarius Fire-Air quality
    as the second twinship of the hexacore in FIXIDITY.

    The MUTABILITY becomes a New Cosmic Blueprint
    in the nature of the {Cosmic Twinship}.

    Now before elucidating on this, another preliminary:

    About 2 thousand years ago, the Great (precessional)
    Age of Aries ended to begin the Age of Pisces.

    And in 1998 the Age of Pisces ended
    in the galactic synchronisation
    to start the Age of Aquarius.

    This for example was decoded by Edgar Cayce,
    specifying 1998 as the birth of the 'New Avatar',
    he called 'John the Beloved'.

    The astrophysics also determined that the galactic synchronisation
    of the ecliptic with the galactic centre occurred somewhere
    in the first few months of 1998;

    (Mees, says April-May 1998, for example).

    But here the deeper codes are the order of the star signs
    and many 'allegories' in scripture,

    such as the 12th apostle Judas being the 'betrayer'

    and making way or breaking the circle for the 12 star signs
    =apostles to expand in more and more circles.

    This is termed the 'gospel to the gentiles' in the NT.

    So the 12th starsign is part of the twinship of course
    and encoded as Benjamin or Benoni in Genesis.

    Paul as the often despised 'apostle to the gentiles'
    and 'founder of contemporary ecclesiastical Christianity'
    also was of the 'tribe of Benjamin'
    meaning he took the place of Pisces from Judas
    in the allegory and archetypology.

    So adding Jesus as the Piscean Transformer
    to the Old Age of Aries is harmonised
    in subtracting Jesus in the Aquarian Transformer,
    encoded as the 'water carrier' at the 'Last Supper' in the New Testament.

    This is called ascension and descension in many forms of semantics.

    The key is however to understand that Jesus ascending
    and Jesus descending becomes the Cosmic Twinship
    using the 3=12 status with the 'brotherhood'
    between 2 and 3 and therefore 11 and 3.

    This is the Female decent of the Fixed Aquarius
    manifested in this core
    by James as the Jacob and the 'Brother of the Lord';
    'James the Just' was the first 'Bishop of Jerusalem'
    in the decades after 31 AD.

    Gospel of Thomas (Lambdin):

    (11) Jesus said,
    "This heaven will pass away, and the one above it will pass away.
    The dead are not alive, and the living will not die.
    In the days when you consumed what is dead, you made it what is alive.

    When you come to dwell in the light, what will you do?

    On the day when you were one you became two.

    But when you become two, what will you do?"

    (12) The disciples said to Jesus,
    "We know that you will depart from us.

    Who is to be our leader?"

    Jesus said to them,
    "Wherever you are, you are to go to James the righteous,
    for whose sake heaven and earth came into being."

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_the_Just

    The decisive code for the starsign 'twinships'
    is in Genesis and the 'blessings' for each star sign.

    There it says, that 2=Taurus and 3=Gemini
    are 'brethren' and undividiable 'twins'
    by association and adjacency of the 'birthright',
    meaning the 'ordering of the ''Sons of Jacob'
    and also the ordering or 'naming' of the apostles.

    This shows you then that the Cosmic Twinship {3=12}
    will be mirrored in itself as the descent=ascent of JCCJ
    with CJ being the Virgo Earth of the Mutability harmonising
    in the Water of 12=Pisces

    JC=IM=Pisces=Right Jesus Christ entwined
    with CJ=MI=Virgo=Mary Magdalene
    = Left Christ Jesus etc etc.

    Certain developments from the subconscious soul energy,
    where the Old Eves wish to manifest this 'Virgo'
    might now become apparent and understandable
    by the waking consciousness of the human incarnates.

    So the Pisces Symbol becomes the VESICA PISCES
    as this Cosmic Twinship entwining Gemini=3
    with Aquarius=11 via the '3 gods' of {3+12+11}.

    I give you the codes now:

    The 'Dreamer of Dreams' is Joseph Aquarius
    carrying the 'Coat of Many Colours'
    and his 'selling into Egyptian slavery' relates to many codes,
    but is here used to indicate the 'Blessing of Jacob's Sons'
    and in particular reference to the Simeon-Taurus Levi-Gemini brotherhood
    (Simeon was left as the ransom in Egypt in the absence of Benjamin,
    when Joseph became a 'administrator' at pharaoh's court
    and was unbeknown by his brothers,
    who sold him into slavery for jealousy
    as to his apparent favouritism from their father Jacob).

    The 'scattering of the 'holy people' in Jacob and Israel
    relates to the dragon prophecy encoded in Isaiah and in Daniel
    and is interwoven in the entire 'encoding program'
    describing the cosmic metamorphosis or 'rebirth'.

    Overall the archetypolgy describes a 'old brotherhood',
    say as symbolised by duos such as Cain-Abel,
    Enki-Enlil, Osiris-Set, Esau-Jacob,
    Pharez-Zarah, Manasseh-Ephraim or Zeus-Hades
    in divers fashions and permutations.

    Renamings or relabellings
    such as Abram-Abraham with Sarai-Sarah
    and Jacob-Israel also relate to such decipherments.

    Genesis.49.5-7:

    5 Simeon and Levi are brethren;
    instruments of cruelty are in their habitations.

    6 O my soul, come not thou into their secret; unto their assembly,
    mine honour, be not thou united: for in their anger they slew a man,
    and in their selfwill they digged down a wall.

    7 Cursed be their anger, for it was fierce; and their wrath,
    for it was cruel: I will divide them in Jacob, and scatter them in Israel.

    Genesis.37.16-24:

    15 And a certain man found him, and, behold,
    he was wandering in the field:
    and the man asked him, saying, What seekest thou?

    16 And he said, I seek my brethren: tell me, I pray thee,
    where they feed their flocks.

    17 And the man said, They are departed hence;
    for I heard them say,
    Let us go to Dothan.
    And Joseph went after his brethren,
    and found them in Dothan.

    18 And when they saw him afar off,
    even before he came near unto them,
    they conspired against him to slay him.

    19 And they said one to another, Behold, this dreamer cometh.

    20 Come now therefore, and let us slay him, and cast him into some pit,
    and we will say, Some evil beast hath devoured him:
    and we shall see what will become of his dreams.

    21 And Reuben heard it, and he delivered him out of their hands;
    and said,
    Let us not kill him.

    22 And Reuben said unto them, Shed no blood,
    but cast him into this pit that is in the wilderness,
    and lay no hand upon him; that he might rid him out of their hands,
    to deliver him to his father again.

    23 And it came to pass, when Joseph was come unto his brethren,
    that they stript Joseph out of his coat,
    his coat of many colours that was on him;

    24 And they took him, and cast him into a pit: and the pit was empty,
    there was no water in it.
    James the Just - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    en.wikipedia.orgJames (Hebrew: יעקב Ya'akov; Greek Ἰάκωβος Iákōbos),

    first Bishop of Bishops,[2] who died in 62 or 69,
    was an important figure of the Apostolic Age.
    He is distinguished from the Apostle James, son of Zebedee
    by various epithets;
    he is called James the brother of the Lord by Paul (Galatians 1:19)

    Reuben=Aries, Simeon=Taurus and Levi=Gemini and Joseph=Aquarius

    This is a combined twinblessing and I can give you the others,
    but would not like to overload this as yet out of context.

    The 'instruments of cruelty' we all know very well
    and have experienced and are experiencing daily
    in the environments we live and reside in.

    I give the GOT first and then show some other star sign blessings:

    Gospel of Thomas (Lambdin):

    (30) Jesus said, "Where there are three gods, they are gods.
    Where there are two or one, I am with him."

    This of course is the {Twinship}.

    Because of the Cardinality of 10=Capricorn
    and the Fixidity of 11=Aquarius as males;
    the Starsign Ophiuchus=13 and the starsign of Arachne=14
    BOTH manifest as the twinship from the MUTABILITY
    with 13=1+3=4 and so signifying or 'anointing' the Mother in Cancer
    by the maleness of Ophiuchus as a 'Serpent Tamer'
    and 14=1+4=5 in a 'blessing' of the 'Lion of the Sun of Judea'
    in the femaleness of Arachne as the 'Lioness of Israel'.

    Arachne is like a Taurus-Gemini hybrid
    aka a Gemini-Aquarius hybrid mutated by Pisces.

    Ophiuchus is like the elemental natural harmony
    in Taurus-Scorpio and Gemini-Sagittarius.

    Gospel of Thomas (Lambdin):

    (19) Jesus said, "Blessed is he who came into being
    before he came into being.
    If you become my disciples and listen to my words,
    these stones will minister to you.

    For there are five trees for you in Paradise
    which remain undisturbed summer and winter
    and whose leaves do not fall.

    Whoever becomes acquainted with them will not experience death."

    THIS CODE all of you should now Understand.

    The Becoming here is the reconfiguration
    of a New World from an old remnant

    So WE came into BEINGNESS
    before the New World even existed in 3D.

    Please try to understand.
    The 5-4-{3=12}-11-10 = 5-4-{3=12}-2-1
    series so is written:

    5-4-{3-12-11}-11-1
    or Leo-Cancer-{Gemini-Pisces-Aquarius*}-Aquarius-Aries.

    Aquarius*=Hybrid between Aquarius fixed 'femme fatale' ascended
    + Taurus Fixed 'femme fatale' descended.

    This then relates in emergent energy streams with the Orion cosmology,
    Aldebaran and Antares and important stars of the fixidity
    and related constellations.

    Aldebaran = Regal Star of Taurus-Simeon and Antares =
    Regal Star of Scorpio-Asher blended with Ophiuchus
    as the male 'second coming'
    in twinship with Arachne (spiders appearing)
    as the female counterpart of the twinship of 3 in 1 in 3 as 2 as 3 as 1.

    Here are the other blessings,
    I can elaborate upon if so required

    Genesis.49: (KJV)

    1 And Jacob called unto his sons, and said,
    Gather yourselves together,
    that I may tell you that which shall befall you in the last days.

    2 Gather yourselves together, and hear, ye sons of Jacob;
    and hearken unto Israel your father.

    3 Reuben, thou art my firstborn, my might,
    and the beginning of my strength,
    the excellency of dignity, and the excellency of power:

    4 Unstable as water, thou shalt not excel;
    because thou wentest up to thy father's bed;
    then defiledst thou it: he went up to my couch.

    5 Simeon and Levi are brethren;
    instruments of cruelty are in their habitations.

    6 O my soul, come not thou into their secret;
    unto their assembly, mine honour,
    be not thou united: for in their anger they slew a man,
    and in their selfwill they digged down a wall.

    7 Cursed be their anger, for it was fierce;
    and their wrath, for it was cruel:
    I will divide them in Jacob, and scatter them in Israel.

    8 Judah, thou art he whom thy brethren shall praise:
    thy hand shall be in the neck of thine enemies;
    thy father's children shall bow down before thee.

    9 Judah is a lion's whelp: from the prey, my son, thou art gone up:
    he stooped down, he couched as a lion, and as an old lion;
    who shall rouse him up?

    10 The sceptre shall not depart from Judah,
    nor a lawgiver from between his feet,
    until Shiloh come;
    and unto him shall the gathering of the people be.

    11 Binding his foal unto the vine,
    and his ass's colt unto the choice vine;
    he washed his garments in wine,
    and his clothes in the blood of grapes:

    12 His eyes shall be red with wine, and his teeth white with milk.

    13 Zebulun shall dwell at the haven of the sea; and he shall be
    for an haven of ships; and his border shall be unto Zidon.

    14 Issachar is a strong ass couching down between two burdens:

    15 And he saw that rest was good, and the land that it was pleasant;
    and bowed his shoulder to bear, and became a servant unto tribute.

    16 Dan shall judge his people, as one of the tribes of Israel.

    17 Dan shall be a serpent by the way, an adder in the path,
    that biteth the horse heels, so that his rider shall fall backward.

    18 I have waited for thy salvation, O Lord.

    19 Gad, a troop shall overcome him:
    but he shall overcome at the last.

    20 Out of Asher his bread shall be fat,
    and he shall yield royal dainties.

    21 Naphtali is a hind let loose: he giveth goodly words.
    22 Joseph is a fruitful bough, even a fruitful bough by a well;
    whose branches run over the wall:

    23 The archers have sorely grieved him, and shot at him, and hated him:

    24 But his bow abode in strength,
    and the arms of his hands were made strong
    by the hands of the mighty God of Jacob;
    (from thence is the shepherd, the stone of Israel:)

    25 Even by the God of thy father,
    who shall help thee; and by the Almighty,
    who shall bless thee with blessings of heaven above,
    blessings of the deep that lieth under,
    blessings of the breasts, and of the womb:

    26 The blessings of thy father have prevailed above
    the blessings of my progenitors
    unto the utmost bound of the everlasting hills:
    they shall be on the head of Joseph,
    and on the crown of the head of him
    that was separate from his brethren.

    27 Benjamin shall ravin as a wolf:
    in the morning he shall devour the prey,
    and at night he shall divide the spoil.

    28 All these are the twelve tribes of Israel:
    and this is it that their father spake unto them,
    and blessed them; every one according to his blessing
    he blessed them.

    29 And he charged them, and said unto them,
    I am to be gathered unto my people:
    bury me with my fathers in the cave
    that is in the field of Ephron the Hittite,

    30 In the cave that is in the field of Machpelah,
    which is before Mamre,
    in the land of Canaan, which Abraham bought
    with the field of Ephron the Hittite
    for a possession of a buryingplace.

    31 There they buried Abraham and Sarah his wife;
    there they buried Isaac and Rebekah his wife;
    and there I buried Leah.

    32 The purchase of the field and of the cave
    that is therein was from the children of Heth.

    33 And when Jacob had made an end of commanding his sons,
    he gathered up his feet into the bed,
    and yielded up the ghost, and was gathered unto his people.

    There is a key to decode the Piscean Twin in the natal birthcharts.

    But I shall not elaborate on this at he present time
    except saying compare ascendants.

    I shall now return to more mundane matters
    Ah I apologize

    The names above relate as follows:

    Reuben=Aries

    Simeon=Taurus

    Levi=Gemini

    Dan=Cancer

    Judah=Leo

    Gad=Virgo

    Naphtali=Libra

    Asher=Scorpio

    Issachar=Sagittarius

    Zebulon=Capricorn

    Josep=Aquarius

    Benjamin=Pisces

    Last comment:

    We are HELPING this cosmic birth to manifest in 3D.

    We are in no way 'elevated' or special,
    but our individual incarnation 'contracts' and soul energies
    ALLOW US to manifest a new blueprint
    of 'higherD' dna beyond the 'lowerD' dna.

    After the birth we will be relieved from this function
    and enabled to go our separate ways,
    if we so desire in individual choices
    So in praxis;
    OUR 'work' will end 2012 December 21st thereabouts.

    Tony Bermanseder aka Thubanis

    www.tinyurl.com/the13thbridge
    or; main forum at http://www.cosmosdawn.net/forum/index.php


    (transferred from old forum at: http://www.thuban.spruz.com/forums/...stp=1&id=81B9B8BF-0B9D-438F-9727-0CCCE4F59FB4)
     
    Last edited: Oct 8, 2014
  2. Susan Lynne Schwenger

    Susan Lynne Schwenger The Final Synthesis - isbn 978-0-9939480-0-8 Staff Member

    Messages:
    6,333
    Louis VII le Jeune, King of France ~ roi de France
    This is the Master Profile for Louis VII le Jeune, roi de France.

    Louis VII le Jeune, roi de France is your 26th great grandfather.
    You
    Susan Lynne Schwenger



    Lynda Mae Handy - Schwenger
    your mother



    James aka Jim Edward (Morton-Russell) Handy Jr.
    her father



    James aka Jim (Ruthven) Handy SR.
    his father


    Marion aka Marrian Ruthven - Handy - Satchell
    his mother



    Alexander (Thompson) Ruthven
    her father



    Robert (Witherspoon) Ruthven, Sr.
    his father


    John Andrew (Henderson) Ruthven
    his father



    John (Peadie) Ruthven
    his father



    John (Hutcheson) Ruthven
    his father



    George John (Reid) Ruthven
    his father


    William Alexander (Clerksone) Ruthven
    his father



    William Ruthven
    his father



    Sir William Ruthven, Kt.
    his father



    William Ruthven, 2nd Lord Ruthven
    his father


    Catherine Gray of Buttergask - Stewart - Ruthven
    his mother



    Elizabeth Stewart
    her mother



    John Stewart of Balveny, 1st Earl of Atholl
    her father


    Joan Beaufort, Queen of Scots
    his mother



    John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset
    her father



    John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster
    his father


    Philippa of Hainault, Queen consort of England
    his mother



    Jeanne de Valois, Countess of Hainault
    her mother



    Charles of France, Count of Valois
    her father


    Philippe III le Hardi, roi de France
    his father



    Louis IX the Saint, King of France
    his father



    Louis VIII le Lion, roi de France
    his father


    Philip II Augustus, king of France
    his father



    Louis VII le Jeune, roi de France
    his father
    [​IMG]
    Louis7_le_jeune_medium.
    Louis VII 'le Jeune' de France, King of France

    roi de France


    Lithuanian: Liudvikas VII jaunesnysis de France, Prancūzijos Karalius,
    French: King Louis VII “le Jeune" Roi de France, roi de France,
    Spanish: Rey Louis VII "el Joven" Capeto, roi de France
    0


    Different birth dates: 9/18/1120 or 8/29/1120 Died September 18, 1180[aged 60] Saint-Pont, Allier Burial Saint Denis Basilica
    Louis VII, called the Younger or the Young, French: Louis le Jeune (1120 – 18 September 1180), was King of France, the son and successor of Louis VI (hence his nickname). He ruled from 1137 until his death. He was a member of the House of Capet.
    Family

    1. m. Eleanor d'Aquitaine heiress and daughter of William X d'Aquitaine and Aénor de Châtellerault
      1. Marie of France
      2. Alix of France
    2. m. 1154 Constance of Castile, daughter of Alfonso VII of Castile, died in childbirth on 4 October 1160
      1. Marguerite of France
      2. Alys of France
    3. Adela of Champagne 5 weeks after the death of Constance.
      1. Philippe II "Auguste" Capet, Roi de France
      2. Agnes of France
    Louis VII was born in 1120, the second son of Louis VI of France and Adelaide of Maurienne.
    In 1154 Louis VII married Constance of Castile, daughter of Alfonso VII of Castile.

    She, too, failed to give him a son and heir, bearing only two daughters, Marguerite of France, and Alys.

    Louis having produced no sons by 1157, Henry II of England began to believe that he might never do so,
    and that consequently the succession of France would be left in question.

    Determined to secure a claim for his family, he sent the Chancellor, Thomas Becket,
    to press for a marriage between Princess Marguerite and Henry's heir,
    also called Henry (later Henry the Young King). Louis, surprisingly,
    agreed to this proposal, and by the Treaty of Gisors (1158)
    betrothed the young pair, giving as a dowry the Norman Vexin and Gisors.

    Louis VII receiving clergymen, from a late medieval manuscript.

    Constance died in childbirth on 4 October 1160,
    and five weeks later Louis VII married Adela of Champagne.

    Henry II, to counterbalance the advantage this would give the King of France,
    had the marriage of their children (Henry "the Young King" and Marguerite)
    celebrated at once.
    Life

    Louis's reign was dominated by feudal struggles (in particular with the Angevin family),
    and saw the beginning of the long feud between France and England.
    It also saw the beginning of construction on Notre-Dame de Paris and the disastrous Second Crusade.

    Louis VII was born in 1120, the second son of Louis VI of France and Adelaide of Maurienne.

    As a younger son, Louis VII had been raised to follow the ecclesiastical path.

    He unexpectedly became the heir to the throne of France after the accidental death of his older brother,
    Philip, in 1131.

    A well-learned and exceptionally devout man, Louis VII was better suited for life as a priest than as a monarch.

    In his youth, he spent much time in Saint-Denis, where he built a friendship with the Abbot Suger
    which was to serve him well in his early years as king.

    In the same year he was crowned King of France, Louis VII was married
    on 22 July 1137 to Eleanor d'Aquitaine, heiress of William X d'Aquitaine.

    The pairing of the monkish Louis VII and the high-spirited Eleanor was doomed to failure;
    she once reportedly declared that she had thought to marry a King,
    only to find she'd married a monk.

    They had only two daughters, Marie and Alix.

    In the first part of Louis VII's reign he was vigorous and jealous of his prerogatives,
    but after his Crusade his piety limited his ability to become an effective statesman.

    His accession was marked by no disturbances, save the uprisings of the burgesses of Orléans
    and of Poitiers, who wished to organize communes.

    But soon he came into violent conflict with Pope Innocent II.

    The archbishopric of Bourges became vacant, and the King supported as candidate
    the chancellor Cadurc, against the Pope's nominee Pierre de la Chatre,
    swearing upon relics that so long as he lived Pierre should never enter Bourges.

    This brought the interdict upon the King's lands.
    Louis VII then became involved in a war with Theobald II of Champagne,
    by permitting Raoul I of Vermandois, Seneschal of France, to repudiate his wife,
    Theobald II's niece, and to marry Petronilla of Aquitaine, sister of the queen of France.

    Champagne also sided with the Pope in the dispute over Bourges.

    The war lasted two years (1142–44) and ended with the occupation of Champagne
    by the royal army. Louis VII was personally involved in the assault and burning of the town
    of Vitry.

    More than a thousand people who had sought refuge in the church died in the flames.

    Overcome with guilt, and humiliated by ecclesiastical contempt, Louis admitted defeat,
    removing his armies from Champagne and returning them to Theobald,
    accepting Pierre de la Chatre, and shunning Ralph and Petronilla.

    Desiring to atone for his sins, he then declared on Christmas Day 1145 at Bourges
    his intention of going on a crusade.

    Bernard of Clairvaux assured its popularity by his preaching at Vezelay (Easter 1146).

    Meanwhile in 1144, Geoffrey the Handsome, Count of Anjou, completed his conquest of Normandy.

    In exchange for being recognised as Duke of Normandy by Louis, Geoffrey surrendered half of the Vexin
    — a region considered vital to Norman security — to Louis.

    Considered a clever move by Louis at the time, it would later prove yet another step towards Angevin power.

    Raymond of Poitiers welcoming Louis VII in Antioch.In June 1147 Louis VII and his queen,
    Eleanor, set out from Metz, Lorraine, on the overland route to Syria.

    Just beyond Laodicea the French army was ambushed by Turks.

    The French were bombarded by arrows and heavy stones, the Turks swarmed down
    from the mountains and the massacre began.

    The historian Odo of Deuil reported:
    During the fighting the King [Louis] lost his small and famous royal guard,
    but he remained in good heart and nimbly and courageously scaled the side
    of the mountain by gripping the tree roots …

    The enemy climbed after him, hoping to capture him, and the enemy in the distance
    continued to fire arrows at him. But God willed that his cuirass
    should protect him from the arrows, and to prevent himself from being captured
    he defended the crag with his bloody sword, cutting off many heads and hands.​
    Louis VII and his army finally reached the Holy Land in 1148. His queen Eleanor supported her uncle,
    Raymond of Antioch, and prevailed upon Louis to help Antioch against Aleppo.

    But Louis VII's interest lay in Jerusalem, and so he slipped out of Antioch in secret.

    He united with Conrad III of Germany and King Baldwin III of Jerusalem to lay siege to Damascus;
    this ended in disaster and the project was abandoned.

    Louis VII decided to leave the Holy Land, despite the protests of Eleanor,
    who still wanted to help her doomed uncle Raymond of Antioch.

    Louis VII and the French army returned home in 1149.

    The expedition came to a great cost to the royal treasury and military.

    It also precipitated a conflict with Eleanor, leading to the annulment of their marriage
    at the council of Beaugency (March 1152).

    The pretext of kinship was the basis for annulment; in fact, it owed more to the state
    of hostility between the two, and the decreasing odds that their marriage
    would produce a male heir to the throne of France.

    Eleanor subsequently married Henry, Count of Anjou, the future Henry II of England,
    in the following May, giving him the duchy of Aquitaine, three daughters, and five sons.

    Louis VII led an ineffective war against Henry for having married
    without the authorization of his suzerain; the result was a humiliation
    for the enemies of Henry and Eleanor, who saw their troops routed,
    their lands ravaged, and their property stolen.

    Louis reacted by coming down with a fever, and returned to the Ile de France.

    At the same time the emperor Frederick I (1152–1190) in the east was making good
    the imperial claims on Arles.

    When the schism broke out, Louis VII took the part of the Pope Alexander III,
    the enemy of Frederick I, and after two comical failures of Frederick I to meet Louis VII
    at Saint Jean de Losne (on 29 August and 22 September 1162),
    Louis VII definitely gave himself up to the cause of Alexander III,
    who lived at Sens from 1163 to 1165.

    Alexander III gave the King, in return for his loyal support, the golden rose.

    More importantly for French — and English — history would be his support for Thomas Becket,
    Archbishop of Canterbury, whom he tried to reconcile with Henry II.

    Louis sided with Becket as much to damage Henry as out of piousness
    — yet even he grew irritated with the stubbornness of the archbishop,
    asking when Becket refused Henry's conciliations, "Do you wish to be more than a Saint?"

    He also supported Henry's rebellious sons, and encouraged Plantagenet
    disunity by making Henry's sons, rather than Henry himself,
    the feudal overlords of the Angevin territories in France;
    but the rivalry amongst Henry's sons and Louis's own indecisiveness
    broke up the coalition (1173–1174) between them.

    Finally, in 1177, the Pope intervened to bring the two Kings to terms at Vitry.

    Finally, nearing the end of his life, Louis' third wife bore him a son and heir,
    Philip II Augustus.

    Louis had him crowned at Reims in 1179, in the Capetian tradition
    (Philip would in fact be the last King so crowned).

    Already stricken with paralysis, King Louis VII himself was not able to be present at the ceremony.

    He died on September 18, 1180 at the Abbey at Saint-Pont, Allier
    and is interred in Saint Denis Basilica.
    Sources

    Medieval Sourcebook

    Odo of Deuil: The Crusade of Louis VII http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/odo-deuil.html
    * 1. St. Bernard Preaches at Vezelay
    * 2. The French Army in Central Europe
    * 3. The French Army in Constantinople
    * 4. The French Army in Asia Minor

    1. St. Bernard Preaches at Vezelay
    [Adapted from Brundage] Following the call of Pope Eugnius IV for a crusade, at Christmas time 1145, the French king, Louis VII, revealed to his courtiers his designs to go to the aid of the Latins in the East.

    The King met, however, with considerable opposition from his advisors,
    who believed that the welfare of the kingdom required that the King remain at home.
    It was agreed, therefore, to defer any action on the project until the following Easter.
    In the meantime, the King sought the advice of the powerful and renowned Bernard of Clairvaux,
    who agreed to preach on behalf of the Crusade to the King's court during Easter time at Vezelay:

    In the year of the Incarnation of the Word one thousand one hundred forty-six,
    Louis, the glorious king of the Franks and duke of Aquitaine, the son of King Louis,
    came to Vezelay at Easter so that he might be worthy of Christ by bearing his cross after him.

    Louis was twenty-five years old.

    When the same pious King held his court at Bourges on the preceding Christmas,
    he had first revealed the secret in his heart to the bishops and barons of the kingdom,
    whom he had purposefully summoned for his coronation in greater numbers than usual.

    The devout Bishop of Langres, had at that time preached in his capacity as a bishop
    about the slaughter and oppression of the Christians and the great insolence
    of the pagans in Rohais, known in antiquity as Edessa.

    He had roused many to tears by this lamentable tale and he had admonished them
    all that they should fight together with their king for the King of all in order to help the Christians.

    Zeal for the faith burned and glowed in King Louis.

    He held luxury and temporal glory in contempt and set an example
    which was better than any sermon.

    The King, however, could not immediately harvest by his example what the Bishop
    had sown by his words.

    Another day was appointed, therefore, namely Easter at Vezelay,
    when all were to assemble on Passion Sunday.

    Those who had received the heavenly inspiration were to take on the glory
    of the cross on the feast of the Resurrection.

    The King, meanwhile, continued to press the undertaking and sent emissaries
    on this matter to Pope Eugene at Rome.

    They were joyfully received and were sent back with gladness:
    they brought back a letter sweeter than any honeycomb.

    The letter enjoined the King to be obedient and prescribed moderation in weapons and clothing.

    It also contained a promise of the remission of sins for those who took the sweet yoke
    of Christ as well as a promise of protection for their wives and children
    and instructions on certain other matters which seemed useful
    to the holy wisdom and prudence of the Supreme Pontiff.

    The Pope hoped that he could be present in person so as to be the first
    to lay his hands on such a holy enterprise,
    but he could not, since he was hindered by the tyranny of the Romans.

    " He therefore delegated this task to Bernard, the holy Abbot of Clairvaux.

    At last the day which the King hoped for arrived.

    The Abbot, armed with the apostolic authority and with his own sanctity was there at the time and place appointed, together with the very great multitude which had been summoned.

    Then the King received the insignia of the cross which the Supreme Pontiff
    had sent to him and so also did many of his nobles.

    Since there was no place in the fortress which could hold such a multitude,
    a wooden platform was built for the Abbot in a field outside of Vezelay,
    so that he could speak from a high place
    to the audience standing around him.

    Bernard mounted the platform together with the King, who wore the cross.

    When the heavenly instrument had, according to his custom, poured out the dew of the Divine Word,
    the people on all sides began to clamor and to demand crosses.

    When he had sowed, rather than passed out, the parcel of crosses w
    hich had been prepared, he was forced to tear his clothing into crosses
    and to sow them too.

    He labored at this task as long as he was in the town.

    I shall not attempt to write about the miracles which occurred there at that time
    and by which it appeared that the Lord was pleased, since if I write about a few of them,
    it will not be believed that there were more, while if I write about many of them,
    it may seem that I am overlooking my subject.

    Finally it was decided that they would start out in a year and everyone returned home rejoicing.

    The Abbot indeed covered his robust spirit with a frail and almost moribund body.

    He flew everywhere to preach and in a short time the number of those
    who wore the cross had multiplied many fold.

    The King took an almost childlike joy in spreading the faith and sent ambassadors
    to King Roger in Apulia concerning the large army which he hoped to raise.

    Roger wrote back willingly on all these matters.

    He also sent back noblemen who pledged his Kingdom as security for the food,
    shipping, and all other necessities.

    They further promised that either Roger or his son would go along on the journey.

    Louis sent other messengers to the Emperor at Constantinople

    - I do not know his name, for it is not written in the book of life.

    The Emperor replied with a long and wordy scroll filled with flattery
    and in which he called our King his holy friend and brother and promised many things
    which he did not in fact carry out. But these things belong else where!

    Louis also asked the Hungarian and German kings for market rights
    and the right of passage and he received letters and messengers
    from them granting what be desired.

    Many of the dukes and counts of those areas were inspired by his example
    and wrote asking to take part in his expedition.

    Thus everything went along favorably. Meanwhile the news flew.

    It crossed over to England and reached the remote parts of the other islands.

    The people of the maritime areas prepared ships so as to accompany the King by sea.

    The first groups to depart on the Second Crusade were companies of Anglo-Norman
    and Flemish sailors and troops who sailed from Dartmouth on May 19, 1147,
    bound for Spain to take part in the Spanish phase of the Crusade.

    The principal objective of these Crusaders was the conquest of a number of strong positions
    on the western coast of the Iberian peninsula, among them the important city of Lisbon,
    in what is now Portugal.'

    Affonso I of Portugal with his army was already in the field there
    when the Anglo-Norman contingents landed on the beaches close by, late in June, 1147.
    Source

    Odo of Deuil, La Croisade de Louis VII,
    roi de France, I, ed. Henri Waquet,
    Documents relatifs à l;histoire des croisades,
    Vol 3 (Paris: Paul Guethner, 1949), 20-23,
    translated by James Brundage,
    The Crusades: A Documentary History,
    (Milwaukee, WI: Marquette University Press, 1962)
    Copyright note: Professor Brundage informed the Medieval Sourcebook
    that copyright was not renewed on this work.
    Moreover he gave permission for use of his translations.

    2. The French Army in Central Europe
    [Adapted from Brundage] A German army under Conrad II set out through Hungary,
    but met a disastrous end at the hand sof the Slejuqs in Anatolia.

    While the Germans were marching heedlessly toward defeat,
    the French army, led by King Louis VII, was following in their tracks,
    about a month behind.

    The story of their journey is related by the French King's chaplain, Odo of Deuil:

    In what we have written the description of outstanding actions is given as a good example;
    the names of the cities are given to show the route of the journey;
    the description of the character of the localities is given as a guide to show
    what types of provisions are needed.

    Since there will always be pilgrims to the Holy Sepulcher,
    it is hoped that they will be more cautious in view of our experiences.

    The rich cities of Metz, Worms, Wiirzburg, Ratisbon, and Passau,
    then, lie a three-day journey from one another.

    From the last named city it is a five-day journey to Wiener-Neustadt
    and from there it takes one day to reach the Hungarian border.

    The country in between these towns is forested and provisions must be brought from the towns, since the countryside cannot provide enough for an army.

    There are plenty of rivers there and also springs and meadows.

    When I passed through that area the mountains seemed rugged to me.

    Now, however, compared to Romania [i.e. Anatolia], I would call it a plain.

    This side of Hungary is bordered by muddy water.

    On the other side it is separated from Bulgaria by a clear stream.

    The Drave River is in the middle of Hungary.

    One bank of the river is steep and the other has a gentle slope, so that it is shaped like a ball.

    The result of this is that when even a little rain falls and is added to the water
    of the nearby swamps, even rather distant places are flooded.

    We heard that many of the Germans who preceded us were suddenly flooded out there.

    When we came to the place where their camp had been, we could scarcely ford it.

    We had only a few small boats and it was therefore necessary to make the horses swim.

    They found it easy to get in but hard to get out; however, with some work
    and God's protection they came across without losses.
    All the rest of this country is covered with lakes, swamps, and springs-if springs
    can be made by travellers, even in the summer, by scraping the earth
    a little bit-except for the Danube, which follows a straight enough course
    and carries the wealth of many areas by ship to the noble city of Gran.

    This country is such a great food-producing area that Julius Caesar's commissariat
    is said to have been located there. The marketing and exchange facilities
    there were sufficient for our needs. We crossed Hungary in fifteen days.

    From there, at the entrance to Bulgaria, the fortress called the Bulgarian Belgrade presented itself;
    it is so called to distinguish it from the Hungarian town of the same name.

    One day from Belgrade, with a river between them, lies the poor little town of Branicevo.

    Beyond these towns the country is, so to speak, forested meadow or crop-producing woods.

    It is bountiful in good things which grow by themselves and it would be good
    for other things if it had any farmers.

    It is not flat, nor is it rugged with mountains; rather it is watered by streams
    and very clear springs which flow between the hills, vines, and usable fields.

    It lacks any rivers, and between there and Constantinople we had no use for our boats.

    Five days from this place lies Nish, which, though small, is the first city of this section of Greece.

    The cities of Nish, Sofia, Philippopolis, and Adrianople are four days apart
    from each other and from the last of these it is five days to Constantinople.

    The countryside in between is flat. It is full of villages and forts and abounds
    in all kinds of good things.

    On the right and left there are mountains close enough to be seen.

    These are so long that they enclose a wide, rich, and pleasant plain. . . .

    Thus far we had been at play, for we had neither suffered any damages
    from men's malice nor had we feared any dangers from the plots of cunning men.

    From the time when we entered Bulgaria and the land of the Greeks,
    however, both the strength and morale of the army were put to the test.

    In the impoverished town of Branicevo, as we were about to enter an uninhabited area,
    we loaded up with supplies, most of which came via the Danube from Hungary.

    There was such a number of boats there, brought by the Germans,
    that the populace's supplies of firewood and timber for building
    were assured for a long time.

    Our men took the smaller boats across the river and bought supplies
    from a certain Hungarian fortress which was not far away.

    Here we first encountered the stamina, a copper coin.

    We unhappily gave -or rather, lost-five denarii for one of them
    and a mark for twelve solidi.

    Thus the Greeks were tainted with perjury at the very entrance to their country.

    You may remember that, as has been said, their representatives had sworn,
    on the Emperor's behalf, that they would furnish us with a proper market and exchange.

    We crossed the rest of this desolate country and entered a most beautiful and wealthy land
    which stretches without interruption to Constantinople.

    Here we first began to receive injuries and to take notice of them.

    The other areas had sold us supplies properly and had found us peaceful.

    The Greeks, however, shut up their cities and fortresses and sent their merchandise
    down to us on ropes suspended from the walls.

    The supplies purveyed in this manner, however, were insufficient for our multitude.

    The pilgrims, therefore, secured the necessary supplies by plundering and looting,
    since they could not bear to suffer want in the midst of plenty.

    It seemed to some that the Germans who had preceded us were at fault in this respect,
    since they had looted everything and we discovered that they had burned
    several settlements outside the walls of towns.

    The story must be told, although reluctantly.

    Outside of the walls of Philippopolis was a noble town inhabited by Latin peoples
    who sold a great many supplies to travellers for profit.

    When the Germans settled down in the taverns there, a joker was present,
    as bad luck would have it. Although he did not know their language,
    he sat down, made a sign, and got a drink.

    After guzzling for a long time, he took a charmed snake out of his pocket
    and placed it in his schooner, which he had deposited on the ground.

    He went on to play other joker's tricks among people of whose language
    and customs he was ignorant.

    The Germans rose up in horror, as if they had seen a monster,
    seized the entertainer, and tore him to pieces.

    They blamed everyone for the misdeeds of one man
    and declared that the Greeks had tried to murder them with poison.

    The town was aroused by the tumult in the suburb and the Duke came out
    beyond the walls with a group of his men to settle the disturbance.

    The Germans, whose eyes were bleary with wine and anger, saw, not unarmed men,
    but a posse.

    The angry Germans, therefore, rushed upon the men who had come to preserve peace
    in the belief that they were going to take revenge for the murder.

    The Germans snatched up their bows-for these are their weapons
    -and went out once more to turn to flight those from whom they had fled.

    They killed and wounded the Greeks and when all the Greeks had been expelled from the suburb,
    the Germans stopped.

    Many of the Germans were killed there, especially those who had gone into the inns, f
    or, in order to get their money, the Greeks threw them into caves.

    When the Germans had plucked up their spirits and had taken up their weapons again,
    they returned and, in order to redress their shame and the slaughter of their men,
    they burned nearly everything outside of the walls.

    The Germans were also unbearable to us. On one occasion some of our men wished
    to get away from the crowding of the multitude around the King.

    They therefore went on ahead and stayed near the Germans.

    Both they and the Germans went to market, but the Germans
    would not allow the Franks to buy anything until they got enough for themselves.

    From this arose a brawl, or rather a squabble, for when one man denounces
    another whom he does not understand in a loud voice, that is a squabble.

    The Franks struck them and the Germans struck back. The Franks then returned from the market
    with their supplies.

    The Germans, who were numerous, were scornful of the pride of a few Franks
    and took up arms against them.

    The Germans attacked them fiercely and the Franks, who were armed in a similar fashion,
    resisted spiritedly. God put an end to this wickedness, for night soon fell....

    Thus, as the Germans went forward they disturbed everything
    and for this reason the Greeks fled from our peaceful Prince who followed the Germans.

    Nonetheless, the congregation of the churches and all the clergy came out
    from the cities with their icons and other Greek paraphernalia
    and they always received our King with due honor and with fear....
    Source

    Odo of Deuil, La Croisade de Louis VII, roi de France,
    II-III, ed. Henri Waquet,
    Documents relatifs à l;histoire des croisades,
    Vol 3 (Paris: Paul Guethner, 1949), 30-32, 35-37,
    translated by James Brundage,
    The Crusades: A Documentary History,
    (Milwaukee, WI: Marquette University Press, 1962), 106-109
    Copyright note: Professor Brundage
    informed the Medieval Sourcebook that copyright
    was not renewed on this work.
    Moreover he gave permission for use of his translations.

    3. The French Army in Constantinople
    [Adapted from Brundage] The French forces arrived at Constantinople on October 4, 1147.

    There they were both impressed by the splendor of the city and alarmed
    by the suspicious actions of the Greeks:
    Constantinople is the glory of the Greeks.

    Rich in fame, richer yet in wealth, the city is triangular in shape, like a ship's sail.

    In Its inner angle lies Santa Sophia and the Palace of Constantine,
    in which there is a chapel honored for its sacred relics.

    The city is hemmed in on two sides by the sea: approaching the city,
    we had on the right the Arm of St. George and on the left a certain estuaryl6
    which branches off from it and flows on for almost four miles.

    There is set what is called the Palace of Blachernae which, although it is rather low,
    yet, rises to eminence because of its elegance and its skillful construction.

    On its three sides the palace offers to its inhabitants the triple pleasure
    of gazing alternately on the sea, the countryside, and the town.

    The exterior of the palace is of almost incomparable loveliness and its interior surpasses
    anything that I can say about it. It is decorated throughout with gold and various colors
    and the floor is paved with cleverly arranged marble.

    Indeed, I do not know whether the subtlety of the art or the preciousness
    of the materials gives it the greater beauty or value.

    On the third side of the city's triangle there are fields.

    This side is fortified by towers and a double wall which extends for nearly two miles,
    from the sea to the palace.

    This wall is not especially strong, and the towers are not very high,
    but the city trusts, I think, in its large population and in its ancient peace.

    Within the walls there is vacant land which is cultivated with hoes and plows.

    Here there are all kinds of gardens which furnish vegetables for the citizens.

    Subterranean conduits flow into the city under the walls to furnish the citizens
    with an abundance of fresh water.

    The city is rather squalid and smelly and many places are afflicted
    with perpetual darkness.

    The rich build their houses so as to overhang the streets and leave these dark
    and dirty places for travellers and for the poor.

    There murder and robberies occur, as well as other sordid crimes which love the dark.

    Life in this city is lawless, since it has as many lords as it has rich men
    and almost as many thieves as poor men.

    Here the criminal feels neither fear nor shame, since crime is not punished by law
    nor does it ever fully come to light.

    Constantinople exceeds the average in everything-it surpasses other cities
    in wealth and also in vice.

    It has many churches which are unequal to Santa Sophia in size,
    though not in elegance.

    The churches are admirable for their beauty and equally so for their numerous venerable
    relics of the saints.

    Those who could enter them did so, some out of curiosity in order to see them,
    and some out of faithful devotion.

    The King also was guided on a visit to the holy places by the Emperor.

    As they returned, the King dined with the Emperor at the latter's insistence.

    The banquet was as glorious as the banqueters; the handsome service, the delicious food,
    and the witty conversation satisfied eyes, tongue, and ears alike.

    Many of the King's men feared for him there, but he bad placed his trust in God
    and with faith and courage he feared nothing.

    Since he harbored no wicked designs himself, he was not quick to believe
    that others harbored wicked designs on him.

    Even though the Greeks gave no evidence of their treachery,
    however, I believe that they would not have shown such vigilant helpfulness
    if their intentions were honest.

    They were concealing the grievances for which they were going to take revenge
    after we crossed the Arm of St. George.

    It should not be held against them, however, that they kept the city gates closed
    against the commoners, since they had burned many of the Greeks' houses
    and olive trees, either because of a lack of wood
    or else because of the insolence and drunkenness of fools.

    The King frequently bad the ears, bands, and feet of some of them cut off,
    but he was unable to restrain their madness in this way.

    4. The French Army in Asia Minor
    [Adapted from Brundage] The French forces crossed the straits into Asia Minor
    about October 16, 1147, and then headed straightway into the hinterland of Anatolia
    or, as Odo calls it, Romania.

    Though they were more fortunate than the other forces which had preceded
    them into Anatolia, the French expedition's journey through the peninsula
    was difficult, slow, and painful.

    The rugged countryside, the continual harassment of the troops by the Turks,
    the persistent difficulties with supplies and communications, all combined
    to discourage the leaders and to make inroads upon the army's strength.

    As the French forces pushed further during the winter of 1147-1148, their despair deepened.

    Turkish raids took a mounting toll, while the weather impeded progress
    and did its own share in weakening the morale of the men. By the time the Crusaders
    reached Adalia, King Louis and his advisors had had their fill.

    Despairing of the prospect of continuing to fight their way toward Jerusalem,
    the King and his advisors decided to continue the rest of the way by sea.

    Unfortunately for these plans, however, the available Byzantine shipping was insufficient
    to transport the whole army and they could not wait indefinitely in Adalia
    for the arrival of further ships.

    As a result, King Louis with his household and a scattering of knights
    from the army were taken aboard the available ships and sailed to St. Simeon,
    the port city of Antioch, leaving the rest of the Crusading army
    to continue the journey as best it could.

    Many of the troops thus left behind at Adalia were killed in combat
    with the Turks in the vicinity of the town when they attempted
    to continue their journey by land.

    Those who managed to break through the Turkish cordon around the city
    were decimated by further Turkish and Arab attacks
    and only a handful remained alive to complete their journey to Jerusalem.

    :
    Romania, furthermore, is a very wide land with rugged, stony mountains.

    It extends south to Antioch and is bounded by Turkey on the east.

    All of it was formerly under Greek rule, but the Turks now possess a great part of it and,
    after expelling the Greeks, have destroyed another part of it.

    In the places where the Greeks still hold fortresses, they do not pay taxes.

    Such are the servile conditions in which the Greeks hold the land which French
    strength liberated when the Franks conquered Jerusalem."'

    This indolent people would have lost it all, save for the fact that they
    have brought in soldiers of other nations to defend themselves.

    They are always losing, but since they possess a great deal, they do not lose everything at once.

    The strength of other peoples, however, is not sufficient for a people which totally lacks strength of its own. Nicomedia first made this clear to us: located among briars and brambles, its towering ruins demonstrated its ancient glory and the slackness of its present masters. In vain does a certain estuary of the sea flow from the Arm and terminate after a three-day journey at Nicomedia to better the city's facilities.
    From Nicomedia three routes of various lengths and quality lead to Antioch. The road which turns to the left is the shorter of them and, if there were no obstacles along it, it could be traversed in three weeks. After twelve days, however, it reaches Konya, the Sultan's capital, which is a very noble city. Five days beyond the Turkish territory this road reaches the land of the Franks. A strong army fortified by faith and numbers would make light of this obstacle if it were not frightened by the snow-covered mountains in the winter. The road running to the right is more peaceful and better supplied than the other, but the winding seacoast which it follows delays the traveller three times over and its rivers and torrents in the winter are as frightful as the snow and the Turks on the other road. On the middle road the conveniences and difficulties of the other routes are tempered. It is longer but safer than the shorter road, shorter and safer than the long road, but poorer. The Germans who preceded us, therefore, had a disagreement. Many of them set out with the Emperor through Konya on the left hand road under sinister omens. The rest turned to the right under the Emperor's brother, a course which was unfortunate in every way. The middle road fell to our lot and so the misfortunes of the other two sides were tempered.
    Source

    Odo of Deuil, La Croisade de Louis VII, roi de France, IV, ed. Henri Waquet, Documents relatifs à l;histoire des croisades, Vol 3 (Paris: Paul Guethner, 1949), 54-55, translated by James Brundage, The Crusades: A Documentary History, (Milwaukee, WI: Marquette University Press, 1962), 111-112
    Copyright note: Professor Brundage informed the Medieval Sourcebook that copyright was not renewed on this work. Moreover he gave permission for use of his translations.
    This text is part of the Internet Medieval Source Book. The Sourcebook is a collection of public domain and copy-permitted texts related to medieval and Byzantine history.
    Unless otherwise indicated the specific electronic form of the document is copyright. Permission is granted for electronic copying, distribution in print form for educational purposes and personal use. If you do reduplicate the document, indicate the source. No permission is granted for commercial use.
    © Paul Halsall December 1997 halsall@murray.fordham.edu
    Source

    Meade, Marion. Eleanor of Aquitaine: A Biography. 1977.
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Pai de Filipe Augusto, foi também o primeiro marido da célebre Leonor da Aquitânia. O seu reinado foi dominado por conflitos feudais, especialmente com os angevinos, e marcou o início da longa rivalidade entre a França e a Inglaterra. Também foi o período do início da construção da actual catedral de Notre-Dame de Paris e da desastrosa Segunda Cruzada.
    Subida ao trono Luís VII foi o segundo filho do rei Luís VI de França com Adelaide de Sabóia, e por isso foi educado para seguir a carreira eclesiástica. Grande parte da sua juventude foi passada em Saint-Denis, onde aprendeu a confiar e a valorizar as opiniões do abade Suger, que seria um bom conselheiro durante os primeiros anos do seu reinado.
    Homem educado e excepcionalmente devoto, tornou-se inesperadamente no herdeiro do trono, para a qual tinha menos talento, com a morte acidental do seu irmão Filipe em 13 de Outubro de 1131, em consequência de uma queda de cavalo. A 25 de Outubro foi sagrado rei e coroado em Reims pelo papa Inocêncio II. Depois da morte do seu pai foi novamente coroado em Bourges, a 25 de Dezembro de 1137.
    Casamento com Leonor da Aquitânia Antes de morrer, Luís VI tinha organizado o casamento do filho com Leonor, a herdeira do ducado da Aquitânia (1122-1204), filha de Guilherme X de Poitiers e de Leonor de Châtellerault. O casamento teve lugar em Bordéus, a 25 de Julho de 1137, com vantagens para ambos os noivos.
    Na conflituosa época dos nobres salteadores que assolavam o país, aterrorizando as populações e os domínios vizinhos, Leonor obteve a protecção necessária para o seu ducado. Luís quase que triplicou os domínios da coroa, uma vez que a sua noiva era senhora da Aquitânia, Gasconha, Poitou, Auvérnia, Bordéus, Agen, Saintonge, Limousin, Angoumois e Périgord - o equivalente a 19 departamentos franceses actuais.
    O carácter do rei, devoto, ascético, ingénuo, rude e pouco vigoroso, não combinava com a sua forte, inteligente, refinada e sensual noiva, apesar de durante dez anos parecerem viver sem sérios conflitos. A união, da qual nasceram duas filhas, Maria Capeto e Alice Capeto, estava condenada ao fracasso. É atribuída uma declaração a Leonor: que pensava ter-se casado com um rei, mas descobrira que se casara com um monge.
    Aumento da influência da coroa Luís VII afastou a sua mãe da corte mas manteve os conselheiros do pai, dando particular importância ao abade Suger de Saint-Denis. Seguiu a política de Luís VI, continuando a tentar aumentar os domínios da coroa. No ano da sua coroação e do seu casamento, começaram os trabalhos de construção da basílica de Saint-Denis, a partir da igreja já existente no local.
    Fez múltiplas concessões às comunas rurais, encorajou a reclamação das terras e favoreceu a emancipação dos servos. Obteve o apoio das cidades ao lhes outorgar forais à burguesia (Étampes, Bourges) e desenvolvendo as dos seus domínios (Reims, Sens, Compiègne, Auxerre). Apoiou por fim a eleição de bispos dedicados ao poder real. São Bernardo de Claraval representado numa iluminura do séc. XIII
    A partir de Maio de 1141, o rei entrou em conflito com o conde Teobaldo II de Champagne e o papa Inocêncio II devido à investidura do bispado de Langres, no qual desejava impor um monge da abadia de Cluny contra o candidato Bernardo de Claraval. Permitiu que Raúl I de Vermandois, senescal de França, repudiasse a sua esposa, sobrinha de Teobaldo II, para casar com Petronilha da Aquitânia, irmã da rainha de França.
    Opôs-se novamente ao papa ao tentar impor o seu candidato ao assento de Bourges em 1141 contra Pierre de la Châtre, sustentado por Inocêncio, jurando pelas santas relíquias que enquanto vivesse, Pierre não entraria em Bourges. O papa acabou por excomungar Luís VII e colocar o reino sob interdicto (o equivalente à excomunhão, aplicado a um território). O candidato papal refugiou-se no condado de Champagne, que o rei invadiria em Dezembro de 1142. Em Janeiro de 1143 as suas hostes incendiaram Vitry-en-Perthois, incluindo a sua igreja, na qual se tinham refugiado mais de mil habitantes da vila, que aí pereceram.
    Com a culpa deste acto pesando na sua consciência, e humilhado pelo repúdio eclesiástico, Luís admitiu a derrota, removendo o seu exército de Champagne, devolvendo as terras a Teobaldo, aceitando Pierre de La Châtre e afastando-se de Raúl e Petronilha. Para resolver definitivamente a questão, o Jovem assinou o tratado de Vitry com o conde Teobaldo II no Outono de 1143, aceitando a eleição do candidato papal para levantar o interdicto do reino, e a 22 de Abril de 1144 participou da conferência de Saint-Denis para encerrar o conflito entre a Santa Sé e a França. Como parte do acordo, Luís VI aceitou, contra a vontade do abade Suger, participar da Segunda Cruzada, pregada por São Bernardo.
    Ao mesmo tempo, o conde Godofredo V de Anjou concluía a conquista da Normandia. Em troca de ser reconhecido duque da Normandia pelo monarca francês, cedeu-lhe metade da Vexin - uma região vital para a segurança Normanda. Considerada uma jogada inteligente de Luís na época, esta acção acabaria por se tornar em mais um passo importante na construção do poder angevino.
    Morte e legado Luís morreu a 18 de Setembro de 1180 em Melun de caquexia acompanhada de paralisia. Foi sepultado no dia seguinte na abadia real de Saint-Port de Barbeau, que fundara próximo a Fontaine-le-Port, nas margens do rio Sena, entre Melun e Fontainebleau. Foi sucedido pelo seu filho Filipe Augusto, que já exercia o poder de facto desde 28 de Junho, quando o seu pai abandonou o poder em seu favor.
    Apesar de mais educado para o clero que para o governo, Luís VII teve um papel importante na história da França:
    • Consolidou o poder real nas províncias sob a sua influência e combateu o poder feudal
    • Cercou-se de alguns conselheiros de grande qualidade e publicou ordenanções importantes para a gestão do reino
    • O reino da França enriqueceu sob o seu reinado, a agricultura transformou-se e ganhou produtividade, a população aumentou, o comércio e a indústria foram desenvolvidos, surgiu um verdadeiro renascimento intelectal e o território cobriu-se de castelos e fortes construídos em pedra.
    • Reforçou poderosas ligações com o clero e o papado
    Mas a Segunda Cruzada foi calamitosa e a separação de Leonor da Aquitânia foi um erro crasso, que forneceu os meios para um vassalo menor se impor, colocando a coroa da França em inferioridade territorial durante cerca de meio século. Foi necessária a acção de três grandes reis, Filipe Augusto, Luís VIII o Leão e Luís IX para reverter a situação e reduzir as consequências deste erro político.
    Tal como na Inglaterra com Henrique II, a monarquia, até a esta época itinerante, foi fixada em Paris, uma vez que a presença do rei já não era necessária por todos os seus domínios. Foi formado um embrião de administração central e local. Os poderosos do reino, seus familiares, tornaram-se seus conselheiros e formariam o Conselho do rei, os serviços centrais da monarquia reagruparam os chefes dos serviços domésticos do palácio. Nas províncias, prebostes foram encarregados de recolher as receitas, criar contingentes militares e administrar justiça. Como o seu pai, Luís sustentou o movimento de emancipação das comunas, a cedência de privilégios às comunidades rurais e a emancipação dos servos.

    Louis VII (called the Younger or the Young) (French: Louis le Jeune) (1120 – 18 September 1180) was King of France, the son and successor of Louis VI (hence his nickname). He ruled from 1137 until his death. He was part of the genetic ascendancy of the House of Capet. His reign was dominated by feudal struggles (in particular with the Angevin family), and saw the beginning of the long feud between France and England. It also saw the beginning of construction on Notre-Dame de Paris, the founding of the University of Paris and the disastrous Second Crusade.

    Early Life
    Louis VII was born in 1120, the second son of Louis VI of France and Adelaide of Maurienne. As a younger son, Louis VII had been raised to follow the ecclesiastical path. He unexpectedly became the heir to the throne of France after the accidental death of his older brother, Philip, in 1131. A well-learned and exceptionally devout man, Louis VII was better suited for life as a priest than as a monarch.
    In his youth, he spent much time in Saint-Denis, where he built a friendship with the Abbot Suger which was to serve him well in his early years as king.
    Ealry Reign
    In the same year he was crowned King of France, Louis VII was married on 25 July 1137 to Eleanor, Duchess of Aquitaine, heiress of William X of Aquitaine. The pairing of the monkish Louis VII and the high-spirited Eleanor was doomed to failure; she once reportedly declared that she had thought to marry a King, only to find she'd married a monk. They had only two daughters, Marie and Alix.
    In the first part of Louis VII's reign he was vigorous and jealous of his prerogatives, but after his Crusade his piety limited his ability to become an effective statesman. His accession was marked by no disturbances, save the uprisings of the burgesses of Orléans and of Poitiers, who wished to organize communes. But soon he came into violent conflict with Pope Innocent II. The archbishopric of Bourges became vacant, and the King supported as candidate the chancellor Cadurc, against the Pope's nominee Pierre de la Chatre, swearing upon relics that so long as he lived Pierre should never enter Bourges. This brought the interdict upon the King's lands.
    Louis VII then became involved in a war with Theobald II of Champagne, by permitting Raoul I of Vermandois and seneschal of France, to repudiate his wife, Theobald II's niece, and to marry Petronilla of Aquitaine, sister of the queen of France. Champagne also sided with the Pope in the dispute over Bourges. The war lasted two years (1142–1144) and ended with the occupation of Champagne by the royal army. Louis VII was personally involved in the assault and burning of the town of Vitry-le-François. More than a thousand people who had sought refuge in the church died in the flames. Overcome with guilt, and humiliated by ecclesiastical contempt, Louis admitted defeat, removing his armies from Champagne and returning them to Theobald, accepting Pierre de la Chatre, and shunning Ralph and Petronilla. Desiring to atone for his sins, he then declared on Christmas Day 1145 at Bourges his intention of going on a crusade. Bernard of Clairvaux assured its popularity by his preaching at Vezelay (Easter 1146).
    Meanwhile in 1144, Geoffrey the Handsome, Count of Anjou, completed his conquest of Normandy. In exchange for being recognised as Duke of Normandy by Louis, Geoffrey surrendered half of the Vexin—a region considered vital to Norman security—to Louis. Considered a clever move by Louis at the time, it would later prove yet another step towards Angevin power.
    In June 1147, in fulfillment of his vow to go on crusade,
    Louis VII and his queen, Eleanor, set out from Metz,
    Lorraine, on the overland route to Syria.

    Soon they arrived to the Kingdom of Hungary where they were welcomed
    by the king Géza II of Hungary, who was already waiting with the German emperor.

    Due to his good relationships with Louis VII, Géza II asked the French king
    to be his son Stephen's baptism godfather.

    After receiving provisions from the Hungarian king, the armies continued the march to the East. Just beyond Laodicea the French army was ambushed by Turks.

    The French were bombarded by arrows and heavy stones,
    the Turks swarmed down from the mountains and the massacre began.

    The historian Odo of Deuil reported:
    During the fighting the King Louis
    lost his small and famous royal guard,
    but he remained in good heart and nimbly
    and courageously scaled the side of the mountain
    by gripping the tree roots …
    The enemy climbed after him,
    hoping to capture him, and the enemy in the distance
    continued to fire arrows at him.
    But God willed that his cuirass should protect him from the arrows,
    and to prevent himself from being captured he defended the crag
    with his bloody sword, cutting off many heads and hands.
    Louis VII and his army finally reached the Holy Land in 1148.

    His queen Eleanor supported her uncle, Raymond of Antioch,
    and prevailed upon Louis to help Antioch against Aleppo.

    But Louis VII's interest lay in Jerusalem, and so he slipped out of Antioch in secret.

    He united with Conrad III of Germany and King Baldwin III of Jerusalem to lay siege to Damascus;
    this ended in disaster and the project was abandoned.

    Louis VII decided to leave the Holy Land, despite the protests of Eleanor,
    who still wanted to help her doomed uncle Raymond of Antioch.

    Louis VII and the French army returned home in 1149.

    A Shift in the Status Quo

    The expedition came to a great cost to the royal treasury and military.

    It also precipitated a conflict with Eleanor, leading to the annulment of their marriage
    at the council of Beaugency (March 1152).

    The pretext of kinship was the basis for annulment; in fact, it owed more to the state of hostility
    between the two, and the decreasing odds that their marriage would produce a male heir
    to the throne of France.

    Eleanor subsequently married Henry, Count of Anjou, the future Henry II of England,
    in the following May giving him the duchy of Aquitaine, three daughters, and five sons.

    Louis VII led an ineffective war against Henry for having married
    without the authorisation of his suzerain;
    the result was a humiliation for the enemies of Henry and Eleanor,
    who saw their troops routed, their lands ravaged, and their property stolen.

    Louis reacted by coming down with a fever, and returned to the Ile-de France.

    In 1154 Louis VII married Constance of Castile, daughter of Alfonso VII of Castile.

    She, too, failed to give him a son and heir, bearing only two daughters, Marguerite of France, and Alys.

    Louis having produced no sons by 1157, Henry II of England began to believe
    that he might never do so, and that consequently the succession of France would be left in question.

    Determined to secure a claim for his family, he sent the Chancellor, Thomas Becket,
    to press for a marriage between Princess Marguerite and Henry's heir,
    also called Henry (later Henry the Young King).

    Louis, surprisingly, agreed to this proposal, and by the Treaty of Gisors (1158)
    betrothed the young pair, giving as a dowry the Norman Vexin and Gisors.

    Constance died in childbirth on 4 October 1160, and five weeks later Louis VII
    married Adela of Champagne.

    Henry II, to counterbalance the advantage this would give the King of France,
    had the marriage of their children (Henry "the Young King" and Marguerite)
    celebrated at once.

    Louis understood the danger of the growing Angevin power;
    however, through indecision and lack of fiscal and military resources
    compared to Henry II's, he failed to oppose Angevin hegemony effectively.

    One of his few successes, in 1159, was his trip to Toulouse to aid Raymond V,
    Count of Toulouse who had been attacked by Henry II:

    after he entered into the city with a small escort, claiming to be visiting the Countess his sister,
    Henry declared that he could not attack the city whilst his liege lord was inside, and went home.

    Diplomacy
    At the same time the emperor Frederick I (1152–1190) in the east
    was making good the imperial claims on Arles.

    When the schism broke out, Louis VII took the part of the Pope Alexander III,
    the enemy of Frederick I, and after two comical failures of Frederick I
    to meet Louis VII at Saint Jean de Losne

    (on 29 August and 22 September 1162),

    Louis VII definitely gave himself up
    to the cause of Alexander III, who lived at Sens from 1163 to 1165.

    Alexander III gave the King, in return for his loyal support, the golden rose.

    More importantly for French — and English

    — history would be his support for Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury,
    whom he tried to reconcile with Henry II. Louis sided with Becket
    as much to damage Henry as out of piousness

    — yet even he grew irritated with the stubbornness of the archbishop,
    asking when Becket refused Henry's conciliations, "Do you wish to be more than a Saint?"

    He also supported Henry's rebellious sons, and encouraged Plantagenet disunity
    by making Henry's sons, rather than Henry himself,
    the feudal overlords of the Angevin territories in France;

    but the rivalry amongst Henry's sons and Louis's own indecisiveness
    broke up the coalition (1173–1174)
    between them.

    Finally, in 1177, the Pope intervened to bring the two Kings to terms at Vitry-le-François.

    In 1165, Louis' third wife bore him a son and heir, Philip II Augustus.

    Louis had him crowned at Reims in 1179, in the Capetian tradition
    (Philip would in fact be the last King so crowned).

    Already stricken with paralysis,
    King Louis VII himself was not able to be present at the ceremony.

    He died on 18 September 1180 at the Abbey
    at Saint-Pont, Allier and is interred in Saint Denis Basilica.

    Legacy
    The reign of Louis VII was, from the point of view of royal territory and military power
    a difficult and unfortunate one. Yet the royal authority made progress in the parts of France
    distant from the royal domains: more direct and more frequent connection was made with distant vassals,
    a result largely due to the alliance of the clergy with the crown.
    Louis VII thus reaped the reward for services rendered the church
    during the least successful portion of his reign.

    His greater accomplishments lie in the development of agriculture,
    population, commerce, the building of stone fortresses, as well as an intellectual renaissance.

    Considering the significant disparity of political leverage and financial resources
    between Louis VII and his Angevin rival, not to mention Henry II's superior military skills,
    Louis VII should be credited with preserving the Capetian dynasty.

    Fictional Portrayals
    Louis is a character in Jean Anouilh's play Becket.
    In the 1964 film adaptation he was portrayed by John Gielgud,
    who was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor.
    He was also portrayed by Charles Kay in the 1978 BBC TV drama series The Devil's Crown.

    Louis VII, called the Younger or the Young (French: Louis le Jeune; 1120 – 18 September 1180),
    was King of France, the son and successor of Louis VI (hence his nickname).
    He ruled from 1137 until his death.
    He was a member of the House of Capet.
    His reign was dominated by feudal struggles (in particular with the Angevin family),
    and saw the beginning of the long feud between France and England.
    It also saw the beginning of construction on Notre-Dame de Paris and the disastrous Second Crusade.

    King of France. He was reinterred in 1817 to St Denis Basilique.
    http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=21090

    https://www.geni.com/people/Louis-V...00000005791896564?through=6000000002187951284
     
  3. Susan Lynne Schwenger

    Susan Lynne Schwenger The Final Synthesis - isbn 978-0-9939480-0-8 Staff Member

    Messages:
    6,333
    Pagans react to Notre Dame fire

    3fd9c861a5b8bc454cc081560e910700?s=32&d=retro&r=g. By Star Bustamonte | 4 hours ago
    PARIS – Monday around 6:20 p.m. local time,
    a fire alarm warned those in the Notre Dame cathedral of fire but none was found.
    Twenty minutes later smoke was visible pouring from the roof of Notre Dame de Paris
    as the top of structure was engulfed in flame.
    By 8:00 p.m. the central spire of the cathedral collapsed.
    The devastation of watching the iconic structure that sits at the heart of Paris
    was reflected in the thoughts of many within the Pagan community
    as they commented on social media.
    IMG_0275-771x251.
    “My feelings about Notre Dame are not complex,
    the destruction of such a beautiful and sacred site is bad, full stop.
    That cathedral is special to millions of people, and holds priceless art and history. It’s a tragedy.”
    Jason Mankey​
    Hundreds of Parisians filled the streets around the cathedral and came together
    to share their sorrow, a sign of unity that overcame any thoughts of differences.
    Loss is universal and unifying.
    “May we save as much of the beauty of art, culture, and human aspiration as we can.
    May we remember and restore what we can.
    May our eye for beauty and majesty be greater than creeds,
    politics, differences of origin, and whatever current pains and conflicts cloud our sight.”
    Ivo Dominguez, Jr.​
    Some of the posts by Pagans and polytheists reflected the complexity of conflicted thoughts and emotions.
    “You don’t need my permission in any way but you are entitled to feel
    however you feel about the fire that has destroyed so much of Notre Dame de Paris.
    You may be feeling a confusing bundle of conflicting emotions.
    Go to your home altar and feel what you feel. Pray if you do that.
    Weep, if that is right for you.
    Acknowledge the extraordinary symbolism of this event at this time in this place.
    You are not required to wallow in guilt because you weep or, likewise, because you do not.
    And no one, including me, is entitled to tell you how to feel about this,
    especially if your spiritual tradition harkens back to pre-Christian Europe.
    No one has that right. Go to your Divines and your Ancestors, and listen to Their counsel.
    We well know–and remember–what this holy place means,
    in every sense.
    Sit with your great heart, your grief wrapped in your ragged soul, and know you are enough.
    Let it be.”
    H. Byron Ballard
    “I’ve never been to Notre Dame, but I’ve visited other cathedrals in Europe.

    Immediately upon walking in I know I’m in a sacred place.

    They are temples to another God and another religion,
    but they give me some idea of what it must have been like to walk
    into the ancient temples of the Gods I worship.
    My feelings about the way Christianity conquered Europe
    and about the politics of the current Catholic Church
    do not diminish my feelings of sorrow at the damage to this sacred place.”
    John Beckett​
    1200px-Point_Zero_July_17_2008-1170x780.
    Image credit: John Trainor – Flickr: Point Zero,
    For those who are French or with French ancestry,
    the loss is even more poignant. Notre Dame is truly the heart of France.
    All distances in the country are measured by how far they are from the cathedral,
    literally, France’s “point zero.”
    “The great fire that swept through Notre Dame today is a tragedy of history and beauty.
    When religious structures that have withstood the challenges of time are damaged,
    such as this church, we all feel the loss.
    While the structure may be rebuilt, the essence is diminished.
    I am thankful that there was no loss of life and that many of the things of religious value were saved.
    Je suis desole.” .
    Jean “Drum” Pagano, ADF Archdruid
    Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris is a powerful and inspirational historical,
    cultural, and spiritual place, not only for Roman Catholic Christians in France
    but for people of many beliefs and countries.
    I am among the millions mourning the destruction caused by the tragic fire
    at this world heritage site today. Healing blessings to this Sacred Site and to Paris,
    to the firefighters and others who battled the blaze and are dealing with the aftermath,
    to France and the French people, to Roman Catholics and other Christians,
    and to all impacted by this tragedy. Notre Dame Cathedral,
    which is over 800 years old, has endured much over the centuries,
    including damage caused by wars, revolution, and neglect.
    May the Cathedral be repaired, restored, and renewed,
    and may the Divine as Our Lady, and as Great Mother in Her many forms
    guide this process now and in times to come. Blessed Be.
    Selena Fox, Circle Sanctuary​
    Notre_Dame_Paris_front_facade_lower.
    Image credit: Benh LIEU SONG
    permalink
    1200px-Notre_Dame_et_la_statue_de_St_Genevi%C3%A8ve.
    Image credit: Juliette Jacquemont
    permalink
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    Image credit: Uoaei1 - CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=45384121
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    [​IMG]
    Image credit: Uoaei1 [CC BY-SA 4.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0)]
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    Image credit: Benh LIEU SONG
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    Image credit: Juliette Jacquemont

    850-plus years of history have been witnessed by the Notre Dame walls
    –the crowning of Henry VI of England as king of France,
    Mary Queen of Scots was married to Francis II, the coronation of Napolean as Emperor of the French,
    Joan of Arc was beatified there, and Charles de Gaulle’s funeral was held there.
    Few sites have touched so many lives; the web of grief has stretched to all of us around the world today, whether we have stood on the holy ground of Notre Dame, or admired it from afar, whether we are Catholic or Christian or of any faith at all.

    Some places touch us in ways we do not fully understand.

    I could not be more devastated had I learned of an earthquake
    swallowing the Great Pyramid of Khufu or a plane crashing into and crushing Stonehenge.

    I think of all the human craftspeople who worked on the cathedral nearly two centuries,
    the millions who have sojourned to its sanctuary, and many more who have been struck
    with wonder at its beauty.

    Wonder is such a precious thing in life, and now a part of our wonder has perished in the flames.

    And yet, may it comfort the people of France to know they have nurtured wonder
    and beauty, and shared it freely with the world.

    Some phoenix of renewed beauty will no doubt rise from these ashes.
    Holli S. Emore, Executive Director, Cherry Hill Seminary​
    Fl%C3%A8che_Notre-Dame_de_Paris.
    Image credit: Jebulon - Own work, CC0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=17425100
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    CLUNY-Maquette_pilier_nautes_1.
    Image credit: Anonymous - Marsyas 08:50, 7 March 2006 (UTC), CC BY 2.5, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=617778
    permalink
    Apostle_statues_of_Notre_Dame.
    Image credit: Eutouring - Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=55696679
    permalink
    Fl%C3%A8che_Notre-Dame_de_Paris.
    Image credit: Jebulon - Own work, CC0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=17425100
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    CLUNY-Maquette_pilier_nautes_1.

    Despite the events held within its walls, Notre Dame was constructed
    on a site that has a much longer history.

    The Gallo-Roman city of Lutetia lies beneath it on Île-de-la-Cité.

    The Pillar of the Boatmen, discovered in 1710, was erected by the guild of boatmen
    dating to 1 A.D. and possibly when a temple to the Roman god Jupiter was on the site.

    The pillar also bears the image of Cernunnos and directly named him.
    By now, many of you have seen the news that Notre-Dame de Paris Cathedral
    suffered a very significant fire Monday.

    While it’s under control finally, millions are mourning the loss of it’s sacred space,
    along with much of it’s art, iconography, and history,
    possibly including the Archaeological Crypt there designed
    to preserve evidence of early occupation by the Celtic Parisii tribe and later by Romans.

    My reaction is to respect those mourning the loss of sacred space, as we would want for ourselves,
    our ancestors, and our children. Such spaces will always have the potential to raise us up and help us be better humans, even despite the Church’s history.
    Canu Nodiad, First Officer of Covenant of the Goddess
    I had the privilege to visit Notre Dame while a Humanities student in Paris.

    I remember the first time I stepped through the doors and feeling the overwhelming size
    and antiquity of the Cathedral. I was enthralled at the enormity, stained glass, and statues and but also at the architectural perfection that is Notre Dame. While this fire is a tragedy erasing hundreds of years of history, it has been rebuilt time and again after other such devastations.

    I hope it will see a brighter future. My heart is with Paris and France as they mourn the loss of this Beautiful Lady.
    Janine Nelson, PIO of Covenant of the Goddess​
    While a minority, other Pagans and polytheists found the destruction liberating.

    Some suggested the cathedral represented two millennia of Christian oppression and terrorism,
    and were happy the building was consumed in flames.

    But the Steer of the Troth and founder of Urglaawe, Robert Schreiwer acknowledged
    the sentiment but focused treasures lost to the world in this fire and the terrible pain
    and devastation for the celebrants of Easter Week. The Steer noted,
    The fire at the Notre Dame cathedral in Paris has stunned the world.

    Although many Pagans and Heathens have issues with the methods
    that the Catholic Church used to build its wealth over many centuries,
    this cathedral is a world architectural and historical treasure.

    We are all diminished by its destruction, and our hearts go out to the worshipers
    who were looking forward to celebrating Christian Easter this coming Sunday.

    There have been several fires, along with vandalism, at churches in France in recent months,
    and we’re seeing speculation in some social media circles that the fire may be suspicious.

    It is too early to make that determination; however, it is our sincere hope that no conscious
    human action caused this fire.

    The Steer also mentioned that his kinswoman, Victoria Young, posted the following
    on behalf of the Urglaawe community:

    The Distelfink Sippschaft of Urglaawe wishes to send their love, respect,
    and grief to the people of France upon the disaster at the Cathédrale Notre Dame in Paris.

    While the Catholic Church has not historically been the friend of non-Christian religions, we ache alongside the parishioners, the population of France, and the greater world, for the loss of such magnificent artwork, and the sheer dedication of humanity which created the Cathedral.

    The Cathédrale Notre Dame has stood for over 850 years,
    through wars, plague, and revolution.

    We honour the Cathédrale Notre Dame, and acknowledge the joy
    that the Cathédrale Notre Dame has brought to many generations,
    whether it be through their religious beliefs or simply the beauty they have experienced while visiting.​
    Adrian Moran, member of the Council of Guardians for Fellowship of the Phoenix
    and also writes the blog, A Path Through the Woods, expresses the impact of history
    and mystery the cathedral contains, as well optimism for the future:
    It’s a shock to see such an instantly recognizable landmark in flames.

    It is a repository of history and art. It is a temple to music, with its legendary organ.

    It was once dubbed the Temple of Reason during the anti-clerical days of the French Revolution.

    There is something essential about the place that reaches out to people of all backgrounds and beliefs,
    even as it’s a Catholic cathedral within a very secular country.

    The archaeological crypt (open to the public) shows that site was used by the ancient Parisii people
    and the Romans as a spiritual center.

    The map of the modern city of Paris radiates out from this island in the Seine.

    Everything points to the specialness of the spot, and the spectacular architectural
    presence of the Gothic masterpiece of the building

    – with arches reaching toward heaven and elaborate stone carving firmly rooted in the earth

    – means that it has transcended the meaning of simply being a Christian church.

    Notre Dame de Paris is a piece of the entire world’s cultural heritage.

    The damage is extensive, but I think it’s inevitable that the people of Paris
    will rebuild it and once again share the magic of this magnificent place with the world.​
    Tuesday morning also brought the welcome news that the famed Rose Windows
    survived the fire, intact.

    As a structure, the cathedral has survived many conflicts
    –the Huguenots, the French Revolution, and World War II.

    During WWII, the Rose Windows were disassembled and stored safely away
    should the Germans attempt to damage the cathedral.

    Many times during its long history, Notre Dame de Paris has been rebuilt and renovated.

    Indeed, already private individuals and companies have pledged over 600 million euro
    to see Our Lady of Paris restored.

    Lucky coincidences like the 16 bronze sculptures that were attached to the spire
    and the surrounding roof being removed just days before due to the restoration efforts
    that were underway prior to the fire.

    In 2015, art historian, Andrew Tallon used lasers to scan the entire structure.

    He passed away in November of 2018, but his work may hold some of the keys to reconstruction.

    At the time of writing, reports state that the Church remains structurally sound
    and the famous rose windows are safe.

    The wooden roof is gone.

    Many items were rescued during the fire and some- like the gargoyles
    • had been removed beforehand as part of the restoration.
    • The heart of France may be a bit battered and will clearly be in need of convalescence,
    • but it beats yet within the people of her country, as well as outside of it, spanning the globe.


    ABOUT STAR BUSTAMONTE

    3fd9c861a5b8bc454cc081560e910700?s=96&d=retro&r=g.
    Star Bustamonte serves as News Editor for The Wild Hunt,
    and drawing on over 25 years of reading tarot, writes the weekly Tarot card of the week feature.
    She is a Pagan of an eclectic origin, serves on the Circle of Council for Mother Grove Goddess Temple,
    and is the Chief Bottle Washer and Lightning Bug Herder for Mystic South Conference.
    Left to her own devices, she would stay home reading books and drinking Guinness
    and trying to prevent her cats from getting their grubby little paws on things
    they shouldn’t–like wine.
    She lives with her long suffering husband, who miraculously still loves her.

    https://wildhunt.org/2019/04/pagans...PRYtWYoaZmBylUgrdaLC3iOlGABEcOI5_qnPb6KPo-U7E
     
  4. Susan Lynne Schwenger

    Susan Lynne Schwenger The Final Synthesis - isbn 978-0-9939480-0-8 Staff Member

    Messages:
    6,333

    The Virgo Cathedrals of Northern France

    New Page -- 19 May 2006
    Laurence Gardner [1] has compared the Constellation of stars in the zodiacal sign of Virgo with the Notre Dame cathedrals of northern France.
    “The cathedrals were all built at much the same time, even though some took more than a century to complete in their various stages. Notre Dame in Paris was begun in 1163, Chartres in 1194, Reims in 1211, and Amiens in 1221. Others of the same era were at Bayeux, Abbeville, Rouen, Laon, Evreux, and Etampes. In accordance with the Hermetic principle ‘As above, so below’, the combined ground-plan of the Notre Dame cathedrals replicates the Virgo constellation.” [emphasis added]
    Even more fascinating is the fact that many of these Notre Dame and other cathedrals included labyrinths of various designs and sizes. These labyrinths were derived from an archetypal form found all over the world and dating back thousands of years. They typically employed a non-linear path which went through various segments in a non-sequential manner. As a decidedly sacred form, as many as twenty-two of the eighty Gothic cathedrals designed and built in medieval times housed labyrinths [2].
    A relevant question might involve the reasons for the cathedral builders to incorporate labyrinths as a decidedly sacred and in several cases Notre Dame honoring device. This web page will attempt to suggest some answers to this question. As such it will include: 1) the reaction to labyrinths by the Catholic Church clergy (those responsible for the preservation of the cathedrals in all of their glory), 2) the connection between Notre Dame (“Our Lady”) and a wide variety of religions and traditions, 3) a detailed correlation between the French cities or cathedrals and selected bright stars of the Virgo Constellation, 4) a sampling of the labyrinths which once adorned their respective cathedrals, 5) a decidedly speculative consideration of a deeper underlying meaning of what the cathedral builders might have been attempting to tell us in using the Virgo Constellation as a template for a Gothic building spree of cosmic dimensions, and 6) a revised interpretation concerning the mythology.
    1. Labyrinths and the Church
    Tragically, many of the labyrinths incorporated as an integral part of the cathedrals were subsequently destroyed by the Catholic Church clergy in the 17th and 18th centuries – at Auxerre in 1690, Sens in 1768, Reims in 1778, Arras in 1795 [3], Poitiers (“perished long ago”) [4], and Saint Omer circa 1778 [5], and so forth and so on.
    “But Jean-Bapiste Souchet, Canon of Chartres who died in 1654, never dared attempt any desecration at Chartres. It remains today the largest, best preserved, and traditionally the most magical of all labyrinths from medieval times.” [3]
    Why would the clergy destroy such fascinating and sacred artifacts? The primary reason appears to be that the Catholic clergy were so fearful of the Knights Templar and their designs (i.e. the labyrinths) that they began a systematic destruction of them. [3] There was always the hint of magic about the labyrinths, and this equated in the clergy mind with evil spirits, Republicans, and used car salesmen. Gardner [1], for example, has noted that the word Gothicin architectural terms had nothing to do with the Goths, but derived instead from the Greek goetik – which meant “magical [action]”.
    At the same time, despite the integration of labyrinths into the cathedral designs:
    “It is strange if, amongst all the great mass of medieval ecclesiastical literature, there is actually no indication of the use or significance of these monuments in the service of the Church; but no light appears to be forthcoming from this source, and certainly the writings of the chief authorities of these times give no support to any of the theories.” [6]
    There is thus the distinct possibility that many of the medieval Catholic clergy [pardon the redundancy] had no hint of the underlying purpose of sacred labyrinths and accordingly reacted out of blind fear, simply destroying what they did not understand.
    Alternatively, some of the clergy may have recognized that the Notre Dame cathedrals were honoring someone other than the Blessed Virgin Mary (the mother of Jesus), or that the labyrinths were a route for individuals to attain their own inner peace and reflective moments without the need for the intercession of priests and/or intermediaries. Neither possibility could be tolerated by a control-at-any-cost clergy.
    Margaret Starbird [7], for example, has noted that:
    "During this... era, beautiful and important epithets that once belonged to the Magdalene were shifted to the Blessed Virgin Mary and churches built to 'Our Lady' ostensibly honored the mother of Jesus as the preeminent bearer of the archetypal feminine -- 'alone of all her sex.'
    "After the mid-thirteenth century, the 'voice of the bride' was effectively silenced, although it is whispered that the masons of Europe kept the true faith and built its symbols into the very stones of Gothic cathedrals..."
    As noted above, the labyrinth at Chartres was not destroyed. This may have been based on the fact that the Notre Dame at Chartres is said to stand on the most sacred ground.
    “So venerated is the location of Chartres that it is the only cathedral not to have a single king, bishop, cardinal, canon, or anyone interred in the soil of its mound. It was a pagan site, dedicated to the traditional Mother Goddess – a site to which pilgrims traveled long before the time of Jesus. The original altar was built above the Grotte des Druides, which housed a sacred dolmen, and was identified with the ‘Womb of the Earth.” [3]
    Small wonder that the always-fearful Catholic clergy restrained their religious fervor at Chartres. It’s one thing to loudly proclaim the evils of magic and what others should do about it, and quite another to go up against said magical forces of an unknown power and unknown possible willingness to defend itself by any means available. Those who use fear to control others inevitably find themselves controlled by fear as well.
    An extremely worthwhile link, which provides additional detail – particularly concerning the Chartres Cathedral -- and which demonstrates the hidden geometry of the labyrinth within the cathedral, is The Gothic Cathedrals [8]. Don’t miss it! But hurry back. You ain’t seen nothing yet!
    2. Notre Dame
    Many of the architectural drawings for the finer points of the Gothic cathedrals (including the pattern for the famous labyrinth at Chartres) were obtained from a 2nd century Greek alchemical manuscript and were dedicated to the patron goddess of France, Notre Dame de Lumiere ("Our Lady of Light"). This pattern is “reckoned to be one of the most sacred designs on Earth.” [3]
    The Constellation of Virgo itself had long been associated with almost every major female deity in any of various worldwide early civilizations including:
    The Sumerians who knew her as Inanna, Queen of Heaven and Earth;
    The Akkadians’ (and Babylonians’) as Ishtar, the “leading one” or “chief”;
    The Egyptians who knew her as Isis, the Goddess of Fertility;
    The Hindus as Kauni, “The Maiden”;
    The Persians as Khosha, “the Ear of Wheat”;
    The Hebrews as Bethulah, “Abundance in Harvest”;
    The Semites as Astarte (Anunit or Atarsamain) [3];
    The Greeks as Demeter (or Persephone), the Earth Goddess;
    The Romans as Virgo or Ceres, (“ear of wheat or corn”); and
    The Anglo-Saxons as Eostre (“Easter”), goddess of spring.
    Even the ancient Chinese construed Virgo to be important (even though they based their understanding on the passage of the moon and not the sun).
    3. Virgo Constellation / Cities
    The Constellation of Virgo is the second largest in the sky (after Hydra) and the sixth member of the zodiac. Allegedly based upon the Babylonian description of the constellations, the pattern of Virgo is pictured as a female, often holding a spike of grain in one hand [9]. As such the constellation and the female it represented have been associated with the Earth Goddess, the arrival of spring, the bringer of the growing season [10], and the ripening of the harvest [9]. In fact, Virgo’s main stars, Spica and Vindemiatrix, are associated with a “spike of grain” (or “grape gatherer”) and a “wine gatherer” respectively. Virgo has also been depicted as holding a staff, a caduceus, or a scale. These other symbols collectively add to the Goddess’ associations with healing, justice, wisdom, or prophecy.
    Virgo’s other name is the Virgin. As such, the Constellation has been viewed by some as representing the Virgin Mary, the mother of Jesus. While the original definition of virgin as “a woman beholden to no man” may still hold even in this case, there is no doubt that the Knights Templar held "The Virgin" (whichever goddess or mother was implied in that designation) in special reverence when they constructed many of the French Cathedrals. The fact that it is far more likely that "The Virgin" in question was Mary Magdalene than her mother-in-law is the material for another web page.
    [BTW, this web page was posted on 19 May 2006 – the date of the opening of the movie, The Da Vinci Code, which posits the Magdalene as the bride of Jesus.]
    Figure 1 shows a map of Northern France [based on reference 11] overlaid with several of the brighter stars in the Constellation of Virgo.
    Figure 1a -- Selected Cities of Northern France
    Figure 1b -- Selected Stars of the Constellation of Virgo
    Figure 1c -- Virgo in Northern France
    The corresponding stars [12] and Cities / Cathedrals are given in Table 1. Note that the designation Virginis refers to the traditional identities of stars in Virgo, while other nearby stars from adjacent constellations are included for the sake of completeness. Note also that the greater magnitude of a star corresponds to a smaller (or negative) number, e.g. Arcturus with a magnitude of –0.05 is the brightest in the Table (and in fact is the third brightest star in the sky; fourth if you include the Sun). Spica is the brightest in Virgo. Stars whose specific identification was unavailable to the author have been labeled as, for example, “W-Omicron” (“West of Omicron”). Also, “~” implies a less than exact match.
    [The Greek alphabet is found at http://www.winshop.com.au/annew/greek.html.]
    TABLE 1

    Star

    Virgo

    Magnitude

    Corresponding City*

    Spica (Azimech)

    Alpha Virginis

    0.98

    Chartres Notre Dame

    Porrima (Arich)

    Gamma Virginis

    2.74

    Dammartin-en-Goelle

    Vindemiatrix

    ~ Epsilon Virginis

    2.85

    Amiens Notre Dame **

    Heze

    ~ Zeta Virginis

    3.38

    Evreux Notre Dame

    Minalauva

    ~ Delta Virginis

    3.39

    Beauvais (Saint Pierre)

    Zavijava

    Beta Virginis

    3.61

    Reims Notre Dame
     
    109 Virginis

    3.73

    Bayeux Notre Dame
     
    Mu Virginis

    3.87

    Flers

    Zaniah

    ~ Eta Virginis

    3.89

    Meaux (Saint Etienne***)
     
    Nu Virginis

    4.04

    Chaumont-Porcien

    Syrma

    Iota Virginis

    4.07

    Gace-o-Argentan
     
    W-Omicron Virginis

    4.12

    Saint-Quentin (Notre Dame
     
    ~ Kappa Virginis

    4.18

    Alencon Notre Dame
     
    WSW-Tau Virginis

    4.23

    Lisieux (Saint Peter)
     
    Theta Virginis

    4.38

    Versailles
     
    110 Virginis

    4.39

    Carentan Notre Dame

    Khambalia

    Lambda Virginis

    4.52

    Beaumont-sur-Sarthe
     
    Pi Virginis

    4.65

    Laon Notre Dame
     
    Chi Virginis

    4.66

    Melun
     
    74 Virginis

    4.68

    Dreux (Saint Pierre)
     
    ~ 61 Virginis

    4.74

    Orleans
     
    ~ Psi Virginis

    4.77

    Etampes Notre Dame
     
    Sigma Virginis

    4.78

    Gournay-en-Bray
     
    ~ Phi Virginis

    4.81

    Falaise (Holy Trinity)
     
    ~ Rho Virginis

    4.88

    ? Amiens Notre Dame
     
    W-78 Virginis

    4.92

    Rouen Notre Dame

    (has a planet!)

    E-70 Virginis

    4.97

    Abbeville Notre Dame ***
     
    NE-Theta Virginis

    >5.00

    Paris Notre Dame
     
    N-Gamma Corvus

    >5.00

    Sens (Saint Etienne)
        

    Arcturus

    Alpha Bootis

    -0.05

    (Middle of English Channel)

    Denebola

    Beta Leo

    2.14

    Fourmies

    Gienah Ghurab

    Gamma Corvus

    2.6

    Auxerre (Saint Etienne)

    Zubenelgenubi

    Alpha Librae

    2.75 / 5.15

    Laval Notre Dame
     
    Pi Hydra

    3.76

    Tours (Saint Gatien)
    *The cities/cathedrals of Chartres, Reims and Bayeux correspond almost exactly with the stars, Spica, Zavijava and 109 Virginis, and are considered the template by which all other cities and stars are compared. Keep in mind that it was difficult to move cities – even during medieval times – in order to correlate the stars and cities more exactly.
    **The cities of Amiens, Sens and Auxerre lie roughly 10-20 kilometers east of the star associated with them. However, the three cities lie along a straight line that parallels a straight line drawn between the three stars associated with them. In addition, Paris and Abbeville are located roughly the same distance east of their respective stars.
    ***Saint Etienne is French for Saint Stephen, who was killed by the Sanhedrin at the urging of Saul of Taurus (Saint Paul). In Meaux there was apparently a 13th Century Saint Etienne, but a 17th Century Notre Dame.
    The naming and selection of stars which constitute a constellation is largely arbitrary. If one looks at a star map such as Stargazing’s photo [13], one notices that several stars are not included in the Greek letter designations and are not linked by imaginary lines. Accordingly, stars that are not designated with a member of the Greek alphabet (such as 109 Virginis) may still be included in a traditional view of Virgo while named stars such as Gienah Ghurab and Denebola might also be included in an expanded view of Virgo. In fact, the four bright stars: Arcturus, Denebola, Zubenelgenubi, and Gienah Ghurab nicely frame Virgo, and these four might have been viewed by the designers of the Northern France cathedrals to be part of the Virgo symbolism in their plans.
    Obviously, the selection of cities is limited to settlements which were already established as of the 11th through the 14th centuries as places to build Gothic cathedrals. It also takes a long time to build a cathedral – the Notre-Dame of Reims took a hundred years (1211-1311)! Cities are also notorious in not springing forth in full bloom overnight.
    Accordingly the matches between stars and cities is not always exact. However, the cathedrals at Chartres, Reims, and Bayeux are by definition exact, while several cities such as Dreux, Rouen, Carentan, Fourmies, Flers, Beaumont-sur-Sarthe, Saint Quentin, and Gace-o-Argentan are also very nearly exact. Amiens, Lisieux, Evreux, Meaux, Paris, and Beauvais must be considered approximate. Finally, several of the cities have cathedrals which are not specifically dedicated to Notre Dame – for example, Meaux (Cathedral of Saint Etienne), Lisieux (Cathedral of Saint Peter), Beauvais (Cathedral of Saint Pierre), and Tours (Cathedral of Saint Gatien).
    Nevertheless, with study it becomes ever more clear that the designers and builders of the medieval cathedrals of northern France – essentially the Knights Templar – were indeed intending to mimic in some way the Virgo constellation with the location of various cathedrals dedicated to Notre Dame, “Our Lady”. And while the Catholic Church may be eager to identify Notre Dame as the mother of Jesus, there is almost no reason to assume that this was the case. Mary has never been identified by the Church with the Virgo constellation and the clergy’s eagerness to destroy the labyrinths suggests that the intended design was never wholly something the Church was eager to embrace. The Church is also notorious for reinventing the wheel in its own peculiarly narrow focus when it comes to interpreting history and events in general.
    4. Labyrinth Paths
    The labyrinth designs, meanwhile, were nothing short of prolific. For example:
    Chartres Cathedral of Notre Dame [14]-- Built 1194-1260.
    Reims Cathedral of Notre Dame [14] -- Built 1211 -- end of 13th Century; labyrinth destroyed in 1778.
    Bayeux Cathedral of Notre Dame [15] -- labyrinth 12 foot across, red tiles with shields/ griffins, and fleur-de-lis, separated by small, plain, black tiles
    Amiens Cathedral of Notre Dame [16] -- Built 1260-1289; labyrinth destroyed in 1825, but rebuilt in 1895. (For this labyrinth, follow the black lines, not the spaces in between)
    Saint Quentin Collegiate Church of Saint Quentin [17] -- Began in 1195 and completed after 300 years; labyrinth dates from 1495 (and still exists) (Again, follow the black lines, not the spaces in between)
    Sens (similar to Auxerre) Cathedral of Saint Etienne [18] -- Built 1140-1164; labyrinth 30 foot in diameter, destroyed 1768 (Auxerre demolished in 1690).
    Saint Omer Collegiate Church of Notre Dame [19] -- Located at Abbey of St. Bertin; labyrinth destroyed 1778 (at the time of Reims destruction and possibly for the same reason)
    Poitiers Church of Notre Dame de la Grande [20] -- "It will be seen that the construction is such that he who traces the path eventually emerges--like the poet of the "Rubaiyat"--by that same door at which he entered; he will have encountered no "stops," but he may have "looped the loop" an indefinite number of times." (shades of the Tree of Life?) (Once again, follow the black lines, not the spaces in between)
    5. Speculations
    Virtually every depiction of the Virgo constellation by various and diverse scholars (astronomical, mythological, and so forth) shows a fully clothed Virgo lying prone along the elliptic. For example [21]:
    In one hand is inevitably shown a shaft of wheat or other cereal grain, as if identifying the Virgo as the bringer of harvests and nutritional well being. While this sounds plausible – based on all the various symbolisms from various cultures around the world – it is not necessarily what the Knights Templars had in mind. In fact, the normal depictions -- for example, from astronomy [21] or astrology [22] -- may be far short of a far more interesting picture of what Virgo is really all about.
    To consider Virgo in an alternative depiction, we might begin by investigating various geometrical aspects of the stars of the constellation and the various French cities. For example, one can quickly draw straight lines through:
    1 -- Arcturus, Evreux, Dreux, and Spica (Chartres) (which interestingly enough is very nearly exactly perpendicular to the elliptic, see item 5 below); or
    2 -- Arcturus, 70 Virginis, Epsilon Virginis, and Beta Virginis (Reims); or
    3 -- 109 Virginis (Bayeux), Evreux, and Paris’ Notre Dame; or
    4 -- Beta Virginis (Reims), 109 Virginis (Bayeux) and 5 other Virginis stars; or
    5 -- Beta Virginis (Reims), Lambda Virginis (Beaumont sur Sarthe) and Zubenelgenubi.
    The latter line up of stars very closely approximates the elliptic (the path of the sun across the constellations). This may be very important. There is also the curious fact that a circle centered on Evreux and passing through Chartres (Spica) meets tangentially a larger circle centered on Chartres -- one which intersects Gienah Ghurab (Auxerre) and Nu Virginis (Meaux) -- at a point which intersects the lines between Arcturus and Spica.
    This latter curiosity can lead one to turn the traditionally depicted figure of Virgo about ninety degrees – so that her figure is perpendicular to the elliptic, i.e. standing erect. One can then overlay what Leonardo de Vinci might have called his Vitruvian Woman. When this is done in a particular manner, Figure 11, one finds that Arcturus (“Bear Guard” and/or “Keeper of Heaven”) becomes the crown charka of an idealized Virgo figure. Arcturus and Spica are of course linked by the traditional saying of going from the Big Dipper, “Arc to Arcturus; slide to Spica.” Both of these are among the 15 Behenian Fixed Stars (“magical in medieval astrology: and the “source of power for one or more planets) [23].
    Meanwhile, if we also draw a circle around the navel of the figure -- as in Leonardo Da Vinci’s original drawing -- the circle's circumference passes through Zubenelgenubi (Laval), Pi Hyrda(Tours), Gienah Ghurab (Auxerre), Rho Virginis (Amiens), 70 Virginis (Abbeville), and 109 Virginis (Bayeux). This is beyond coincidence.
    Other very interesting correspondences include:
    Bayeux (109 Virginis) conjunct the tip of the right raised arm;
    Amiens (Rho Virginis) conjunct the tip of the left raised arm;
    Lisieux (WSW-Tau Virginis) conjunct the left elbow;
    Gournay-en-Bray (Sigma Virginis) conjunct the right elbow;
    Rouen (W-78 Virginis) conjunct the left eye;
    Evreux (Zeta Virginis) conjunct the heart center;
    Dreux (74 Virginis) conjunct the navel;
    Auxerre (Gamma Corvus) conjunct the tip of the left foot;
    Tours (Pi Hydra) conjunct the tip of the right foot; and
    Chartres (Spica) conjunct the vagina (womb).
    These conjunctions are shown in Figure 11.
    Figure 11
    On the one hand, perhaps we shouldn’t tell the Catholic Church about the true meaning of Chartres’ location, if only to avoid their tearing down all of the Notre Dame cathedrals in a fit of apoplectic fanaticism. Of course, they may have already begun to suspect Leonardo Da Vinci as not being an enthusiastic advocate of the Church’s rather tortured dogma, so perhaps they wouldn’t be all that surprised.
    On the other hand and despite any protestations from the Church, the particular design shown above (with all of the intriguing correlations listed above that) strongly suggests the Knights Templar designers were perhaps more interested in honoring the pagan tradition of the Chartres site as the “womb of the Earth” than as homage to any saint or honored guest of the Church. In fact, there seems to be an honoring of a goddess or someone whose fertility was symbolized far more effectively by her womb than by her carrying a handful of wheat stalks. (BTW, an arm carrying the wheat stalks and offering them to the world can always be drawn so that the wheat stalks correspond to the Notre Dame at Paris without violating the scale.) [Virgo might even have said to the people of Paris, “Let them eat wheat.”]
    One might also surmise that the reason no dead person has even been buried in Chartres Cathedral is that the end of such lives (and their burial) might have been considered to be inconsistent with the womb of life. The site is simply too sacred to appease the arrogance of celebrities and honored folk of a Church so totally out-of-touch-with-reality.
    We should also emphasize that the womb is the source of the menstrual blood – as in the Bloodline of the Holy Grail. We might also recall that Spica (Chartres) has more than one meaning. Besides Virgo’s “ear of wheat”, it is also referred to as “The Undefended” and “The grape gatherer”.
    “The Undefended” might well refer to Mary Magdalene and her status as the mother of the Desposyni (“Heirs of the Lord” [3]), as well as the fact that she was effectively on the run from authorities for much of her life following the Crucifixion – and thus more than just a bit vulnerable. At the same time, the “grape gatherer” symbol might be even more interesting in that it might be a reference to the Starfire of the goddess inasmuch as grapes are high in Rhodium and Iridium in the monatomic form. Recall also the association of Virgo with healing, justice, wisdom, or prophecy. The Starfire or ORME certainly qualifies for providing many of these attributes.
    An upright and emboldened Virgo (the true “Virgin” who is “beholden to no man”) is thus depicted in the landscape of northern France to be available for providing the elixir of life to anyone who might chance to follow a sacred labyrinth to its inner meaning.
    Keep in mind that as in all cases of labyrinth walking one exits by the same path as one enters. This suggests an additional meaning of labyrinths: one of death and rebirth. Perhaps the Anglo-Saxons knew something when they identified the Virgo Constellation with Eostre (“Easter”), the goddess of spring (i.e. rebirth after “death”).
    Immediate Update: The first person to read this web page (other than the author who while not reading it did at least skim it) suggested that the labyrinth of Chartres might be overlaid on the Vitruvian Woman figure. This is a simple matter of sizing the Chartres labyrinth figure shown above to the circle generated by the Leonardo's Vitruvian Man (which has all manner of connections with the Golden Ratio and Sacred Geometry), and which in Figure 1c above connects so many cities/cathedrals of France. When this is done and the circle oriented so that the horizontal line on the labyrinth is parallel to the elliptic, we obtain:
    This should be sufficient to cause apoplexy in the Vatican.
    6. The Mythological Connection
    Inasmuch as Myth can often be considered as a condensed history suitable for use in oral traditions, it is worthwhile to consider one particular story, as related by Julius D. W. Staal [24].
    In the guise of Astrea (Goddess of Justice), Virgo mixed with those mortals who were members of an unspoiled golden race of men who did not know feuds or wars. They were all communal farmers and everything was peaceful -- until a silver race of men began to appear on Earth. This secondary race was slightly inferior, but nevertheless and despite their tendency toward criminal ways Astrea did make an effort to guide and teach them. When the silver race died out, there was created a brazen race, one enamored with swords and war weapons. Astrea loathed this race and left the Earth, taking her place in Heaven.
    The curious part about such gods and goddesses and their departures from the Earth is that those who revered them never seemed to have grasped just how and where luminaries such as Virgo/Astrea had gone. Space ships were not exactly a consumer product at the time and thus the means and destination of departures were not easy to grasp for those decidedly not in the know.
    One obvious scenario led these non-spacefaring people to believe that their gods and goddesses had departed the daily grind only to take residence upon high mountains such as Mount Olympus or Mount Kailash. In the latter, intriguing example it has been said that “ancient cosmography identifies Kailash with the mighty mountain Sumeru, the central peak of the world.” [25]
    It’s hard to miss the similarity between “Sumeru” and “Sumerian” such that one can be justified in concluding that Kailash is just one more place where the Earthbound suspected their gods and goddesses -- who had once been so influential in their lives -- now resided. The bad news was that their protectors and guides had left them to their own devices. The good news was that at least their deities were still, so to speak, in the neighborhood and thus possibly available for assistance and/or intervention on behalf of their worshipping public.
    A second possibility is that the Earthbound believed that the gods and goddesses (what was likely to be the Anunnaki) quite literally left the Earth and ascended into the Heavens – but in this case remained in visible sight of those left behind. Constellations thus provided a means of maintaining the illusion that the absent deities were still close enough to keep tabs on their progeny and/or wards. In fact, the constellations might even suggest to those on the ground that there were messages to be read by their appearance in the nighttime skies. It was just a matter of interpreting the relative positions of the constellation’s stars in such a manner as to make the symbolism moderately obvious.
    In the case of Virgo – if one views her constellation in the form shown in Figure 11 above -- her message might be more one of sacred sex rather than clothed propriety, and specifically that of a connection with the Starfire, the menstrual blood of the Goddess. Chartres as this source of heavenly manna – by possibly the use of its incredible labyrinth – thus becomes truly the “womb of the world.”

    ________________________
    References:
    [1] Laurence Gardner, Bloodline of the Holy Grail, The Hidden Lineage of Jesus Revealed,, Element Books, Harper Collins, London, 1996.
    [2] http://www.gracecathedral.org/enrichment/excerpts/exc_20010328.shtml
    [3] Laurence Gardner, The Magdalene Legacy, The Jesus and Mary Bloodline Conspiracy,Element Books Harper Collins, London, 2005.
    [4] http://www.sacred-texts.com/etc/ml/img/fig055.jpg
    [5] http://www.sacred-texts.com/etc/ml/img/fig054.jpg
    [6] http://www.sacred-texts.com/etc/ml/ml12.htm#img_fig053
    [7] Margaret Starbird, "The 'Sacred Feminine'", Special Edition; Secrets of the Da Vinci Code, U. S. News and World Report, 2006, excerpted in part from Dan Burstein, editor, Secrets of the Code: The Unauthorized Guide to the Mysteries Behind the Da Vinci Code, Client Distribution Services, 2004.
    [8] http://members.home.nl/peregrine/The%20Gothic%20Cathedrals.html
    [9] http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/constellations/virgo.html
    [10] http://www.coldwater.k12.mi.us/lms/planetarium/myth/virgo.html
    [11] Wide World Atlas, Reader’s Digest, Pleasantville, New York, 1979
    [12] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virgo
    [13] http://www.stargazing.net/david/constel/constel/virgo.html
    [14] http://www.labyreims.com/e-intromed.html
    [15] http://www.sacred-texts.com/etc/ml/img/fig052.jpg
    [16] http://www.arch.columbia.edu/DDL/projects/amiens/maze-8.gif
    [17] http://www.simurgh.net/nada/space/quentin.htm
    [18] http://www.sacred-texts.com/etc/ml/img/fig053.jpg
    [19] http://www.sacred-texts.com/etc/ml/img/fig054.jpg
    [20] http://www.sacred-texts.com/etc/ml/img/fig055.jpg
    [21] http://www.accd.edu/sac/ce/scobee/StarChart.htm
    [22] http://www.astrology-insight.com/virgo.htm
    [23] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Behenian_fixed_stars
    [24] Julius D. W. Staal, Patterns in the Sky, Myths and Legends of the Stars, McDonald and Woodward Publishing, Blacksburg, Virginia, 1988.
    [25] http://www.nectravels.com/tibet/kailash_manasarovar.htm
     

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