THE ANSWER to Ancient Calendars & Mayan Timeline Encodings Of The Calendars-BERMANSEDER & SCHWENGER

Discussion in 'Ancient, Indigenous, & Tribal Calendars' started by CULCULCAN, Apr 14, 2014.


    CULCULCAN The Final Synthesis - isbn 978-0-9939480-0-8 Staff Member



    A man by the name of Alexander Marshack, in the 1960's found a piece of bone near the headwaters of the Nile. The bone was close to 30,000 years old. But its age however, was not the most interesting feature. What made this bone particularly unusual is that it had at periodic intervals, notches carved into it as if to mark a sequence of time. He later found many other such markings on bones, antlers, stones and goddess figures, in Czechoslovakia, Russia, Spain and Italy.

    After studying these numerous finds, Marshack was convinced that the lines were not made all at once as if to somehow decorate the object, but were made at different times as one would find with any crude calendar. His theory is that these objects were the first attempts at keeping a record of time, and that these markings were actually indications of lunar cycles.

    This idea was quite shocking to his academic friends. For it implied a degree of mental sophistication on the part of our early ancestors, that no one had yet imagined. But then something else turned up, something that uncovered their eyes and pulled back the curtain. It is a solitary carving in rock about 17 inches high, discovered in France. Its age has been estimated between 24,000 to 20,000 years old. It is a female figure standing upright. She is holding elevated in her right hand a bison's horn - crescent-shaped like the New Moon. The horn is notched with thirteen lines.

    These mysterious thirteen lines became the centre of much discussion. Eventually, they came to be understood to indicate either the thirteen days from the visible New Moon to the Full, or the thirteen New Moons of each yearly cycle.

    The most astounding thing about this carving however, is graphically indicated by her left hand. She is resting her left hand upon her swelling womb, showing all to see in no uncertain terms, a relationship between the cycles or phases of the Moon and the cycles of the womb. In this figure, the mystery and power of the celestial realms have become graphically infused and embodied in the Female Form.

    This mysterious unity of the celestial and the terrestrial realms personified in the Female is certainly the most powerful and long lasting religious image ever to evolve in the human species. And in fact, it is still with us today. Go into any Catholic church and look closely at the image of the mother of Jesus. She will be found to be standing on the crescent Moon.

    If we take off our glasses of the twentieth century and peer out into the darkness of our past, there is one image that dominates the night as no other - the Moon. Her ever changing phases, yet ever renewing cycles captured the imagination of the human mind like no other image. And with her mysterious motions she wove the fabric of many myths and rituals all over the World.

    At some point in our evolutionary journey, the Moon became the universal image of the eternal Goddess. The Moon not only governed the tides of the sea, but also the tides of the womb. The menstrual cycle coincides with the 28 day cycle of the Moon. Even today, in many parts of the world women still refer to their menstrual cycle as being in their "moon time".

    It is not surprising then, to find that all early calendars were based on this primary association between the cycles of menstruation and the phases of the Moon. In many languages, the words for Moon, month, measurement and menstruation have either similar meanings or common root words. In Gaelic for example, the words for "menstruation" and "calendar" are the same. Similar associations are seen all over the world.

    A month was measured from one New Moon to the next, giving 13 New Moons for each year. Consequently, all early calendars had thirteen months in the year. Every festival was calculated to the New or Full Moons. And in many parts of Europe, people continued observing these ancient festivals well into the middle Ages.

    The calendar then, was not some distant abstraction to these people, but something that gave meaning and structure to their lives in ways we can scarcely imagine. It was a paradigm that was woven with the threads of their own biology and spiritual perceptions. It was a reality that recognized the seasons of increase and decrease, of birth and death as rhythmic phases in a larger, ever renewing cycle. Nothing was perceived in terms of absolute opposites, only as complementary cycles in the spiral dance of Creation.

    The ever changing, self-renewing lunar image of the Goddess became the unifying symbol of the Heavens and the Earth, and lent meaning and measure to all things. The three phases of the Moon Goddess were reflected in the lives of all her children: human, animal and plant.

    In the Northern latitudes the New Moon became associated with spring, birth, and the growth of all living things. This image was similarly represented in the life of the Female as the maiden or young girl.

    Associated with the Full Moon was summertime, when all life became fruitful. This phase of the Moon naturally became symbolic of motherhood.

    The waning or decreasing Moon was associated with winter, when the Earth became less abundant. It also became associated with the Female who ceased to flow her life-giving blood. Because she now retained the sacred blood of life, the older woman was regarded to be more powerful and wise. For this reason, in many societies the elder women were always the centre of power.

    So we find this mysterious relationship between the three phases of the Moon, the seasonal rhythms of the Earth, and the three stages in a woman's life, symbolically depicted in the lunar image of the Goddess. She represented the primary image that influenced nearly all concepts of Deity for at least 20,000 years.

    Each of these three lunar aspects eventually became personified as a separate Goddess, giving rise to the more abstract concept of the Three in One, and the One in Three. This was the origin of what much later became known as the Trinity.

    In Greece, the three Goddesses were known as Athene, Aphrodite and Hecate. In Ireland they were known as Ana, Babd and Macha; in India: Parvati, Durga i Uma.

    Eventually the three Goddesses were replaced by Male Gods, or as in the case of Christianity, three masculine aspects of one God.

    Through these kinds of associations we are still able to get a small glimpse, of the once universally recognized bond between the concepts of Deity, the Moon and Females. The Moon Goddess was perceived to empower a woman and menstrual blood was a sign of that empowerment. The whole concept of measurement of sequential time was born from this perception. The menstrual and lunar cycles became the basis of all ancient calendars, which in turn became the governing principle for almost all activities of early societies, especially those activities centred around agriculture. Even today in many parts of the world, the cycles of the Moon are considered when planting or harvesting food crops. In this country we have the Farmer's Almanac, which still associates times of planting with the cycles of the Moon.

    Because of their mysterious association with the Moon Goddess, women were quite naturally seen to be the leaders of the tribe, clan or social structure. Their biological processes were perceived in a spiritual context, whereby women became the natural power holders, the initiators of the species.

    In the ancient and almost universal culture that we have been examining in detail, women didn't dominate men as in the later societies, where men had absolute power over women. We do not find any indications of a pyramid social structure, or hierarchy dominated by a woman or a group of women who gathered most of the wealth and power for themselves, leaving the rest of the society fighting over the crumbs, as we repeatedly find in the later societies ruled exclusively by male hierarchies. Rather, we find cooperative communities where the primary ethic was based on sharing, the sharing of food, natural resources and work. By every indication these early communities sought to live in harmony with the organic and cyclic processes of Nature, rather than to dominate or exploit their environment, a process that begins to be so typical in the later Bronze Age developments.

    One other feature that was conspicuously absent from these early communities, is any sign of violence. We find in their extensive artwork no indication of any symbols of domination - spears, swords, or thunderbolts that we find in later societies, where the ruler or deity demands obedience under the threat of killing or violence. Rather the emphasis was on bonding, reinforcing the primal connection with the Source of Life and the cooperation between all Life forms.



    The Story of The Great Mother


    ...It is interesting to find in the Bible in Paul's letter to the Hebrews an explicit reference to the all encompassing power of blood. In this letter we read that Moses "took the blood of the calves and of the goats, with water and scarlet wood and hyssop, and sprinkled both the book itself and all the people, saying 'This is the blood of the covenant which God has commanded for you.' The tabernacle also and all the vessels of the ministry he sprinkled likewise with blood; and with blood almost everything is cleansed according to the Law, and without the shedding of blood there is no forgiveness."

    This ritual then is undoubtedly connected to the ancient associations with the powers of the womb and of the Earth. In the earliest writing that we are currently able to translate, the Sumerian, the word AMA meant both the earth and womb. The Aryan root word Mater was used for both mother and measurement, from which we get such words as matter, metric, material, and matrix which originally meant "womb of matter"...



    ...In the early development of the Sacred Marriage, people held the sacred ritual on mountaintops. For the mountain was seen as a supernatural symbol, a place where the Earth rose up to meet the Sky. It was the meeting place of the visible with the invisible. The holy mountain of the Goddess was seen as a Cosmic Mountain, the Axis Mundi, the sacred centre of the World around which everything revolved.

    On the island of Crete the holy mountain was called Ida. Near the summit of Ida there are caves that have been used for thousands of years as shrines of the Goddess. In Anatolia, as in Crete, there was a holy mountain also called Ida. And at its summit were sanctuaries of the Great Goddess Cybele, who was known as "the Lady of Ida" and "Mother of all the Gods"....



    ...The very origins of self-esteem and self-worth are intricately involved with this level of bonding between the mother and child. All pleasurable stimulation sends a message to the child of acceptance and love. While all painful experiences send an equally powerful message of rejection and insecurity. These messages are translated not only in terms of the primary mother-child relationship, but the child's relationship to his or her own body as well.

    If the baby has consistently been denied pleasurable stimulation and repeatedly received messages of rejection, not only will the development of the brain suffer, but personal self-esteem and self-worth will be undermined.

    Furthermore, there is a great chance that pleasure and pain will become confused. And the experience of intimacy itself will become associated with pain and insecurity. Unfortunately, this can remain as a dark subconscious undercurrent influencing all future relationships.

    If on the other hand, the child receives an abundance of pleasurable stimulation and messages of physical acceptance, brain development will be greatly enhanced and the emotional stability of a positive self-image will be established. The experience of intimacy will be associated with pleasure and security. The child will be able to take delight in all forms of pleasure, and perceive these as the inherent qualities of his or her world....

    Last edited: May 13, 2014

    CULCULCAN The Final Synthesis - isbn 978-0-9939480-0-8 Staff Member

    Ancient Egypt - Egyptian Statue started moving - sparking fears related to curses

    Ancient Egypt - Egyptian Statue started moving - sparking fears related to curses




    THE13thBRiDGE-SUSAN - Posted 5 Hours Ago

    Ancient Egypt - Egyptian Statue started moving - sparking fears related to curses



    Susan, note the time period involved. It spans from April 2nd, 2013 to April 9th, 2013 and so represents the WOC aka 'Week of Confusion' in the ancient scroll encodings and also describes the 7 days of Noah, set aside to 'Build the Ark of the Covenant'.

    In the dragon context of the star lineages, this April period preceded the countdown as described in the mandala charts and can be said to represent the earlier chapters in the Books of the Revelations in Daniel (Old Testament and Torah) and the New Testament (Apocalypse) in say the 'opening of the 7 seals' and the 'blowing of the first 4 trumpets', beginning the 'three woes'.

    The statue turns 180 degrees and no further, because this reprents the 'half cycle' of 360 degrees as the supercode of the 'Hour' as 15 days in the proportion of a year to a day becoming the proportion of a day to an Hour as known by the dragon scribes, who used the 'inspirational minds' of the authors of the ancient scripts.
    So an ancient year of 360 days, each of 24 hours (or four watches, each of 6 hours duration) will define the 'Hour of Prophecy' as 15 days in the ratio 360/15=24/1.

    This statue of Osiris effect so symbolises the 'fulfilment of scriptural prophecy' in the 3½ times as a time cycle partitioned in the count of 7+1+7=15 or 3½+3½+1+3½+3½=15. The 7 days or a week cycle so become the 180 degrees with 3½ days a half week and with a 'mirror day' in between the two weeks being the decoding of the mysterious 'Day of the Lord' as the 'Hour of Decisions' and other such incipherments.

    Emeth 141


    GOOD WORK ...the calendar work can be found here:



    [12:49:02 PM] Emeth 141:
    [1:19:56 PM] Kali 666: nice post Tony
    [1:20:04 PM] Kali 666: i liked the moon tonight too
    [1:20:15 PM] Kali 666: do you think that statue really moved by itself?
    [1:21:29 PM] Emeth 141: Yes
    [1:21:48 PM] Emeth 141: Cox is a superskeptic physicist
    [1:22:05 PM] Emeth 141: They actually timecropped and filmed the thing
    [1:22:35 PM] Emeth 141: Their 'explanations' of friction of the surfaces and the 'visitors' are all BS and they know it
    [1:22:47 PM] Emeth 141: Why did no other statue move?
    [1:23:19 PM] Emeth 141: It could be a fake though
    [1:23:29 PM] Emeth 141: Someone setting this story up
    [1:23:46 PM] Emeth 141: But if not, then it would relate to the superspace of the 4D
    [1:25:16 PM] Emeth 141: I also agree with Rok about Snowden. There are impersonations now and disinfo games
    [1:25:50 PM] Emeth 141: This is how they 'confuse' the public on a big scale now
    [1:26:25 PM] Kali 666: what would be the message of the statue moving now?
    [1:26:39 PM] Emeth 141: As I said in the post
    [1:26:50 PM] Emeth 141: It relates to the timeline
    [1:27:12 PM] Emeth 141: The 4 moons are 45 days apart and 15+15+15=45
    [1:28:15 PM] Emeth 141: In the wingmaker novels, the superman genius is called 15 remember? And as the only being on earth, who has 'top 1' clearance
    [1:28:55 PM] Kali 666: mhm yes
    [1:29:22 PM] Emeth 141: The 'illuminati' ptb knows about those things
    [1:29:58 PM] Emeth 141: They dont know the PTB of the Logos though, mixing it up with their Luciferianism
    [1:31:24 PM] Emeth 141: The final 15 days begin with the Supermoon and end with the Omega Moon and this story was published on the first day following the supermoon
    [1:31:43 PM] Kali 666: it did a complete about face
    [1:31:50 PM] Emeth 141: Yes a number of times
    [1:32:08 PM] Kali 666: gradually
    [1:32:11 PM] Emeth 141: But this story would begin sometime in early 2013
    [1:32:17 PM] Emeth 141: March is my guess
    [1:32:58 PM] Emeth 141: The timing is significant of being made generally public in June and not in May or April, when some people were aware of this see?
    [1:33:45 PM] Emeth 141: So it is Logos induced in its timing to be 'made public'
    [1:34:38 PM] Emeth 141: March 24th-25th was a cosmic marker for the 'coming of age' of humanity as the 18th anniversary of March 24th, 1995
    [1:35:40 PM] Emeth 141: This might have been the time this Osiris statue moved for the first time
    [1:36:27 PM] Emeth 141: It would fit in nicely with the scientists timing the phenomenon so 10 days later
    [1:36:40 PM] Emeth 141: After the curator talked about it so 10 days before April 2nd to April 9th
    [1:37:20 PM] Kali 666: they know during the course of how many days it moved?
    [1:37:36 PM] Emeth 141: Look at the time stamps in the video
    [1:37:53 PM] Emeth 141: 7
    [1:37:58 PM] Kali 666: aha ok
    [1:38:20 PM] Emeth 141: It shows it in any of those videos now flooding youtube

    [2:02:49 PM] Emeth 141:
    [2:04:27 PM] Emeth 141: This COULD be true, but I remain unconvinced by this explanation. In any case, the timings and reality of SOME effect, correlate the Logos timeline as debated by Thuban data transmissions
    Kali 666
    From an original source:

    Egypt at the Manchester Museum

    Everything Egyptian at the Manchester Museum

    « Lecture 29/06/13: “Talking Trees in Ancient Egyptian Love Poetry” by Cynthia Sheikholeslami

    The mystery of the spinning statuette (II)

    June 20, 2013 by Campbell@Manchester

    Several months ago, we noticed that one of our Middle Kingdom statuettes was spinning around imperceptibly slowly in its new case in our Egyptian Worlds gallery. We set up a time lapse camera to take one image every minute for a week. This is the result.

    The cause may be subtle vibrations from footfall or traffic outside, but the statuette has been on a glass shelf in about the same place in the gallery for decades and has never moved before – and none of the other objects in the case move in any way. A mystery? See for yourself.


    Pete Robinson asks:
    "[1:27:12 PM] Emeth 141: The 4 moons are 45 days apart and 15+15+15=45".
    Last time I looked moons were 28 days apart. Which universe was Emeth referring to ???


    Emeth 141: Three 15 day halfmoons DEFINE 4 moons Susy A----15---B---15---C---15---D
    The 4 Moons are here called A and B and C and D

    [1:53:57 AM] The 13th Bridge: not sure what you mean by a 'half moon" ?



    [28/06/2013 12:43:06 PM] Emeth 141: Three 15 day halfmoons DEFINE 4 moons Susy A----15---B---15---C---15---D
    [28/06/2013 12:43:28 PM] Emeth 141: The 4 Moons are here called A and B and C and D
    [28/06/2013 3:53:59 PM] The 13th Bridge: not sure what you mean by a 'half moon" ?
    [28/06/2013 6:57:45 PM] Emeth 141: Half Moon is 15 days Susan as 15 days as a Quarter Moon in the phases
    [28/06/2013 6:58:27 PM] Emeth 141: Half full or half new in waxing and waning
    [28/06/2013 11:29:01 PM] The 13th Bridge: so, in 360 there are
    [28/06/2013 11:29:12 PM] The 13th Bridge: 13/28's approx
    [28/06/2013 11:29:20 PM] The 13th Bridge: thus the 15 half moon
    [28/06/2013 11:29:31 PM] The 13th Bridge: calculated utilizing the ancient year/month
    [1:53:42 AM] The 13th Bridge: yesterday's calculation - should have read half-moon related to ANCIENT YEAR OF 360 days/12=30/2=15 and, points of a,b,c,d - as, there would be
    between a-b, 15 b-c 15, and, c-d 15 - last TIME i checked 15+15+15 = 45 days, between a-d ;)
    [1:53:47 AM] The 13th Bridge: is that correct

    It is amazing how peripheral and superficial people can be, Susan. How many days are in a week from Sunday to Sunday? 7 Right?

    But counting the Sundays, you have 8 days defined in 7 intervals of timekeeping called 'days'. And so is solved the great mystery how there can be 4 moons defined in 45 days.

    'Know betters' than Pete Robinson should learn to think a little, before critisizing even the more logical propositions.

    I would suggest to you Susan, not to complicate simple statements made, but to think about them in a rational and somewhat deeper manner, than most people you communicate with seem to be capable of doing so.



    Thanks, Tony :)
    Last edited: May 13, 2014

    CULCULCAN The Final Synthesis - isbn 978-0-9939480-0-8 Staff Member

    Last edited: May 13, 2014

    CULCULCAN The Final Synthesis - isbn 978-0-9939480-0-8 Staff Member

    Astronomers find ancient star Methuselah - which appears older than The Universe ~ Tony Bermanseder proves universe is 19.1 Billion years old

    Astronomers find ancient star Methuselah - which appears to be older than The Universe

    Scientists have discovered an "impossible" star which appears to be older than the universe. The mysterious star Methuselah appears to be between 14 and 15 billion years old - a bit of an issue considering the universe itself is known to have come into existence 13.8 billion years ago.

    Oddly enough, Methuselah is even located inside our own galaxy - about 190 light years away. And even after using new information about the star's distance from us, its brightness and its structure, scientists are unable to place an estimate of its age much below 14.5 billion years - still older than the universe.

    Fortunately for the team from Pennsylvania State University and the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, there appears to be a margin of error of about 800 million years, or so - enough to just barely place the star below the age of everything else, if peace of mind is important to you.

    Astronomers Find Ancient Star 'Methuselah' Which Appears To Be Older Than The Universe

    Huffington Post UK | By Michael Rundle

    Scientists have discovered an "impossible" star which appears to be older than the universe. The mysterious star Methuselah appears to be between 14 and 15 billion years old - a bit of an issue considering the universe itself is known to have come into existence 13.8 billion years ago.

    Oddly enough, Methuselah is even located inside our own galaxy - about 190 light years away. And even after using new information about the star's distance from us, its brightness and its structure, scientists are unable to place an estimate of its age much below 14.5 billion years - still older than the universe.

    Fortunately for the team from Pennsylvania State University and the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, there appears to be a margin of error of about 800 million years, or so - enough to just barely place the star below the age of everything else, if peace of mind is important to you.

    Formally known as HD 140283, the star is the oldest object currently known to astronomers. It was first discovered a century ago, moving more than 800,000 mph relative to our solar system. The star is on a long and looping orbit around the galaxy,and is only briefly passing through Earth's neighbourhood on the western spiral arm.

    In the study published in Astrophysical Journal Letters,astronomers said the star was born in a 'dwarf galaxy' which was swallowed by the Milky Waymore than 12 billion years ago.

    Using new measurements the team was able to refine its estimate of the star's position,and learn more about its structure. The study suggests that further research might bring the age of the star down even further.


    JPL-Caltech / NASA







    The Age of the Universe within a multidimensional Expansion Cosmology

    As is described in this thread {}, the universe is subject to an 'electromagnetic return' in 11 dimensions, which renders the 11D cosmology as a cyclically 'closed and spheroidal universe' within a 'Hubble Oscillation' Period of 16.9 Billion years and encompassing an asymptotic (linear) time expansion in a hyperbolic 10-dimensional open universe.

    This results in a present 'returning time parameter' of 14.7 Billion years for the present cycle coordinate and it is just this 'age' which has been experimentally verified in the article below. Overall, the universe is twice 2.2 Billion years older than this 'coordinate date' in 10 dimension in so 19.1 Billion years This easily encompasses the 'some stars appear to be older than the universe' dilemmas of contemporary terrestrial cosmological models, which use a 'wrong Hubble parameter' by to 20% in 72 km/Mpcs for the ''nodal Hubble Constant' in the cyclic cosmological envelope of 58 km/Mpcs.
    (Found and shared by Raven)

    Science News
    ... from universities, journals, and other research organizations

    Hubble Finds 'Birth Certificate' of Oldest Known Star

    See Also:
    Space & Time
    This is a Digitized Sky Survey image of the oldest star with a well-determined age in our galaxy. The aging star, cataloged as HD 140283, lies 190.1 light-years away. Hubble Space Telescope was used to narrow the measurement uncertainty on the star's distance, and this helped refine the calculation of a more precise age of 14.5 billion years (plus or minus 800 million years). The star is rapidly passing through our local stellar neighborhood. The star's orbit carries it through the plane of our galaxy from the galactic halo that has a population of ancient stars. The Anglo-Australian Observatory (AAO) UK Schmidt telescope photographed the star in blue light. (Credit: Digitized Sky Survey (DSS), STScI/AURA, Palomar/Caltech, and UKSTU/AAO)

    "We have found that this is the oldest known star with a well-determined age," said Howard Bond of Pennsylvania State University in University Park, Pa., and the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, Md.

    The star could be as old as 14.5 billion years (plus or minus 0.8 billion years), which at first glance would make it older than the universe's calculated age of about 13.8 billion years, an obvious dilemma.

    But earlier estimates from observations dating back to 2000 placed the star as old as 16 billion years. And this age range presented a potential dilemma for cosmologists. "Maybe the cosmology is wrong, stellar physics is wrong, or the star's distance is wrong," Bond said. "So we set out to refine the distance." The new Hubble age estimates reduce the range of measurement uncertainty, so that the star's age overlaps with the universe's age -- as independently determined by the rate of expansion of space, an analysis of the microwave background from the big bang, and measurements of radioactive decay.

    This "Methuselah star," cataloged as HD 140283, has been known about for more than a century because of its fast motion across the sky. The high rate of motion is evidence that the star is simply a visitor to our stellar neighborhood. Its orbit carries it down through the plane of our galaxy from the ancient halo of stars that encircle the Milky Way, and will eventually slingshot back to the galactic halo.

    This conclusion was bolstered by the 1950s astronomers who were able to measure a deficiency of heavier elements in the star as compared to other stars in our galactic neighborhood. The halo stars are among the first inhabitants of our galaxy and collectively represent an older population from the stars, like our Sun, that formed later in the disk. This means that the star formed at a very early time before the universe was largely "polluted" with heavier elements forged inside stars through nucleosynthesis. (The Methuselah star has an anemic 1/250th as much of the heavy element content of our Sun and other stars in our solar neighborhood.)

    The star, which is at the very first stages of expanding into a red giant, can be seen with binoculars as a 7th-magnitude object in the constellation Libra.

    Hubble's observational prowess was used to refine the distance to the star, which comes out to be 190.1 light-years. Bond and his team performed this measurement by using trigonometric parallax, where an apparent shift in the position of a star is caused by a change in the observer's position. The results are published in the March 1 issue of the Astrophysical Journal Letters.

    The parallax of nearby stars can be measured by observing them from opposite points in Earth's orbit around the Sun. The star's true distance from Earth can then be precisely calculated through straightforward triangulation.

    Once the true distance is known, an exact value for the star's intrinsic brightness can be calculated. Knowing a star's intrinsic brightness is a fundamental prerequisite to estimating its age.

    Before the Hubble observation, the European Space Agency's Hipparcos satellite made a precise measurement of the star's parallax, but with an age measurement uncertainty of 2 billion years. One of Hubble's three Fine Guidance Sensors measured the position of the Methuselah star. It turns out that the star's parallax came out to be virtually identical to the Hipparcos measurements. But Hubble's precision is five times better than that of Hipparcos. Bond's team managed to shrink the uncertainty so that the age estimate was five times more precise.

    With a better handle on the star's brightness Bond's team refined the star's age by applying contemporary theories about the star's burn rate, chemical abundances, and internal structure. New ideas are that leftover helium diffuses deeper into the core and so the star has less hydrogen to burn via nuclear fusion. This means it uses fuel faster and that correspondingly lowers the age.

    Also, the star has a higher than predicted oxygen-to-iron ratio, and this too lowers the age. Bond thinks that further oxygen measurement could reduce the star's age even more, because the star would have formed at a slightly later time when the universe was richer in oxygen abundance. Lowering the upper age limit would make the star unequivocally younger than the universe.

    "Put all of those ingredients together and you get an age of 14.5 billion years, with a residual uncertainty that makes the star's age compatible with the age of the universe," said Bond. "This is the best star in the sky to do precision age calculations by virtue of its closeness and brightness."

    This Methuselah star has seen many changes over its long life. It was likely born in a primeval dwarf galaxy. The dwarf galaxy eventually was gravitationally shredded and sucked in by the emerging Milky Way over 12 billion years ago.

    The star retains its elongated orbit from that cannibalism event. Therefore, it's just passing through the solar neighborhood at a rocket-like speed of 800,000 miles per hour. It takes just 1,500 years to traverse a piece of sky with the angular width of the full Moon. The star's proper motion angular rate is so fast (0.13 milliarcseconds an hour) that Hubble could actually photograph its movement in a few hours.

    Strange 'Methuselah' Star Looks Older Than the Universe

    by Mike Wall, Senior Writer | March 07, 2013 04:20pm ET


    This Digitized Sky Survey image shows the oldest star with a well-determined age in our galaxy. Called the Methuselah star, HD 140283 is 190.1 light-years away. Astronomers refined the star's age to about 14.5 billion years (which is older than the universe), plus or minus 800 million years. Image released March 7, 2013. Credit: Digitized Sky Survey (DSS), STScI/AURA, Palomar/Caltech, and UKSTU/AAO View full size image
    The oldest known star appears to be older than the universe itself, but a new study is helping to clear up this seeming paradox.

    Previous research had estimated that the Milky Way galaxy's so-called "Methuselah star" is up to 16 billion years old. That's a problem, since most researchers agree that the Big Bang that created the universe occurred about 13.8 billion years ago.

    Now a team of astronomers has derived a new, less nonsensical age for the Methuselah star, incorporating information about its distance, brightness, composition and structure.

    "Put all of those ingredients together, and you get an age of 14.5 billion years, with a residual uncertainty that makes the star's age compatible with the age of the universe," study lead author Howard Bond, of Pennsylvania State University and the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, said in a statement. [Gallery: The Methuselah Star Revealed]

    The uncertainty Bond refers to is plus or minus 800 million years, which means the star could actually be 13.7 billion years old — younger than the universe as it's currently understood, though just barely.

    This is a backyard view of the sky surrounding the ancient star, cataloged as HD 140283, which lies 190.1 light-years from Earth. The star is the oldest known to astronomers to date. Image released March 7, 2013.
    Credit: A. Fujii and Z. Levay (STScI)
    View full size image

    A mysterious, fast-moving star
    Bond and his team used NASA's Hubble Space Telescope to study the Methuselah star, which is more formally known as HD 140283.

    Scientists have known about HD 140283 for more than 100 years, since it cruises across the sky at a relatively rapid clip. The star moves at about 800,000 mph (1.3 million km/h) and covers the width of the full moon in the sky every 1,500 years or so, researchers said.

    The star is just passing through the Earth's neck of the galactic woods and will eventually rocket back out to the Milky Way's halo, a population of ancient stars that surrounds the galaxy's familiar spiral disk.

    The Methuselah star, which is just now bloating into a red giant, was probably born in a dwarf galaxy that the nascent Milky Way gobbled up more than 12 billion years ago, researchers said. The star's long, looping orbit is likely a residue of that dramatic act of cannibalism.

    Distance makes the difference

    Hubble's measurements allowed the astronomers to refine the distance to HD 140283 using the principle of parallax, in which a change in an observers' position — in this case, Hubble's varying position in Earth orbit — translates into a shift in the apparent position of an object.

    They found that Methuselah lies 190.1 light-years away. With the star's distance known more precisely, the team was able to work out Methuselah's intrinsic brightness, a necessity for determining its age.

    The scientists also applied current theory to learn more about the Methuselah star's burn rate, composition and internal structure, which also shed light on its likely age. For example, HD 140283 has a relatively high oxygen-to-iron ratio, which brings the star's age down from some of the earlier predictions, researchers said.

    In the end, the astronomers estimated that HD 140283 was born 14.5 billion years ago, plus or minus 800 million years. Further observations could help bring the Methuselah star's age down even further, making it unequivocally younger than the universe, researchers said.

    The new study was published last month in the Astrophysical Journal Letters.
    Found by Susan Serafina from other sources

    Four Metric Ages for the Universe in the Cosmology of Membranes

    The Age of the Universe is metric dependent. One might ask certain questions, like "How old is the Universe" and this is a very good question at the core of all cosmology.

    Analysis shows, that there are four different metrics and so there are four ages and four sizes for your universe and depending on one's viewpoint of observation.

    If measured from WITHIN the inertia defined Hubble Horizon in a 10D-string universe, the universe has the volume of a sphere, but measured from in between that Hubble Horizon in 10D and its 11D-membrane universe, this volume transforms into a special toroidal shape, like a doughnut without as hole.

    This then gives the volume V10+=2π2Rmax3[n/(n+1)]3 for an inertial doughnut age of 8.96 billion years or a 15.03 billion year spherical age. These are the Actual Inertial Ages for the universe as envelopes or upper bounds and these are not the ages as measured by scientists as the natural philosophers.

    The transformation factor between the "doughnut without a hole" and the sphere is the upper bounded Chaos Constant known as the Feigenbaum-Delta: σFmax=3π/2.

    Should one measure the universe from a position of OUTSIDE this 11-D WittenMirror-spacetime say in 12D-VafaMirror spacetime however, the volume increases due to the 4-dimensional seed activated by the 3-dimensional seed.

    Technically the surface on which the far away mirror exists becomes a 3-dimensional mirror just as the location of a local surface mirror can be postulated to exist on the inside of a spherical 2-dimensional mirror much farther away and as 'seen at a distance'.

    Then the outside of this 2D-mirror surface changes from a spherical surface to a doughnut surface, remaining however 2-dimensional, albeit in transition to 3D, obtained in the asymptotic approach of the 2D-surface towards the 3D-surface.

    In other words, the 'Image' as seen in the 'far away mirror' INTERSECTS its own lightpath X=cT and between the mass parametric lower-D spacetime and the electromagnetically defined higher-D spacetime.

    Outside the far away mirror in the 12-D-Vafa spacetime then the surface topology is 4-dimensional as the orthogonal vector nRmax in the expression dV11+=S.dR=2π2Rmax3dR
    from V4=½π2R4 and dV4/dR=2π2R3

    The extra-3D-volume so becomes: V11+=n32Rmax3 and is measured relative to the inside in 10D as an age of 32.04 billion years, but relative to the outside in 11D as 19.11 billion years. These are the Actual Electromagnetic Ages for the universe.

    The Measured Ages for the universe are however lower, than the Actual Ages, because of the intersection of the 3rd dimension with the 4th dimension.

    If the critical volume is defined as Vcritical=2π2Rmax3, then the extra 3D volume expanding as a 4D volume seed will be V11-= n.Vcritical and as reduced from V11+=n3.Vcritical The Measured Electromagnetic Age for your universe then is 17.62 billion doughnut years and 29.53 billion sphere years.

    The following expressions must hold and define the multivolumes in labels, which can then become reinterpreted in the form of 'missing energy' and 'missing mass'. Many cosmologists in your universe term this the search for 'dark energy' and 'dark matter' respectively.

    Multidimension Factor: DIM = V11+/V10+ = V11-/V10-
    Dark Matter Factor: DIMDM = V11- /V10+=(n+1)3/n2~7.561 (for n=npresent)
    Dark Energy Factor: DIMDE = V11+/V10-=(n+1)3.n2~12.434 (for n=npresent)

    One so must have a reduced 3-dimensional inertial volume V10-, which is given by
    V10-=(n/[n+1]3)2π2Rmax3 and provides a doughnut age of 8.26 billion years and the age measured by the astrophysicist, namely 13.85 billion years as the Measured Inertial Ages for the universe.

    Comprehensively then, the universe is experiencing an ongoing transformation in its cosmological evolution.

    Emeth141, Saturday, August 17th, 2013



    Emeth, the 'Methuselah' Star is interesting, That it is very bright, very fast moving, heading out of the galaxy , may be up to 14.5 billion years old and yet only 190 light-years away makes for a mysterious signature.


    jorgelito - Raven & Tony have proven the universe is older than 14.5 billion years ;)
    (see above) 19.1 billion years
    thanks; susan
    Last edited: May 13, 2014

    CULCULCAN The Final Synthesis - isbn 978-0-9939480-0-8 Staff Member

    celtic astrology can be aligned to The Ancient (360 day) Calendar & The Thirteen (13) Moon calendar

    celtic astrology can be aligned
    to The Ancient (360 day) Calendar
    & The Thirteen (13) Moon calendar
    & The Six (6) Event calendar
    & The Six (6) Season x 60 days calendar
    discovery by: Susan Lynne Schwenger
    celtic astrology
    ~ "Some eclectic Neopagans are also influenced by Robert Graves
    fictional "Celtic Tree Calendar",
    which has no foundation in historical calendars or actual Ancient Celtic Astrology "
    - Hutton (1991) pp.145
    (which is posted below)

    HOWEVER, we will get into the nuts & bolts on this, in further posts in this thread
    that do align The Ancient Celtic Astrology - and, Day-Record-Time-Wisdom keeping
    to The Six (6) Season Calendar aka The Thirteen (13) Moon Calendar aka The Ancient Year
    to The Six (6) Event Calendar aka The Ancient Year of 360 Days
    which begins on The Last Full Moon of December, each and every year.
    This alignment was discovered by Susan Lynne Schwenger,
    back in 1984 in her 26th year, at the age of 25.
    ~ Susan Lynne Schwenger


    If you notice some of The Celtic People utilized charts that have 13 signs,
    however, this is NOT traditional Celtic history...

    so, lets talk about ancient times when 360 days was the length of an ancient year, which follows the moon aka lunar cycles, and, also follows the sun aka solar cycles.

    There was also a 9 cycles x 40 days = 360 days = An Ancient Year which follows the light 'sun' or 'solar' cycles and the dark 'sun' or 'solar' cycles - and, this can be aligned to The Ancient (360) Day Calendar aka The Thirteen (13) Moon Calendar aka The Six (6) Season Calendar of 6 seasons x 60 days = 360 Days = An Ancient Year aka The Six (6) Event Calendar which follows the fire festivals of Samhain, Imbolc, Beltane and Lughnasadh, through the new moon, and, full moon cycles, along with the important yearly alignments of The Solstice, and, The Equinox.

    This ancient year, has NOW simply been modified in approx 1582 AD to The Gregorian Calendar which was introduced by Pope Gregory, which takes an ancient day (which in truth, is NOT exactly 24 hours - each day is a different length of time, each day, has a slightly different sunrise, and, sunset)
    and, The Gregorian Calendar is what adjusts it, to the modern day civil calendar which has been in use, since 1582 by using the following formula to turn the 'real 'cosmic' time into a tick-tock day ~ that fits perfectly into a into a 24 hr clock which is an absolute requirement for making sure, that a mechanical clock can be created with gears, that can measure 12 hours, 720 minutes, and, 43,200 seconds in 12 hours and, 24 hrs, 1420 minutes, and, 86,400 seconds in 24 hours.

    The Actual "Cosmic" Time converted into Gregorian Time as follows:
    Four (4) Gregorian Years = (360 + 5 = 365 x 3 regular years = 1095 days)
    + (360+5+1 = 366 days x 1 leap year = 366 days) = 1461 days

    Back in 1984, in her 26th year, at age 25 Susan Lynne Schwenger discovered the connection between The Gaulish Coligny Lunar (moon) - Solar (sun) Calendar which dates back to approx 800 BCE and, runs through a 26,000 ancient year cycle in 5200 cycles x 5 years and, once every 104,000 ancient years - when earth enters an ice age.

    This calendar was utilized by The Old Celtic - The Old Gaelic Irish, The Neo-Pagan - The Pagan - The Pict aka The Pictish and, was adopted by The Modern Day Wicca or Wiccan People in the early 1920's

    ~ Susan Lynne Schwenger
    Last edited: May 13, 2014

    CULCULCAN The Final Synthesis - isbn 978-0-9939480-0-8 Staff Member

    Ancient Astronomical Calendar Discovered in Scotland Predates Stonehenge by 6,000 Years

    Ancient Astronomical Calendar
    Discovered in Scotland
    Predates Stonehenge by 6,000 Years

    (and, it fits right in with:

    The Discovery of Susan Lynne Schwenger & Tony Bermanseder -The End of The Macha & Pacha Grand Cycle of 16th December 2013 at sunset, and, The Start of The Pacha iNTi Grand Cycle of 17th December 2013 at sunrise.

    Susan was the first person to identify The Grand Cycle change in 1984, as The Last Full Moon in 2013 - 17 DEC 2013.

    The Aztec, Mayan, Maori, Aboriginal, First Nations, Metis & Native American Tribes had cycles of

    1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 13, 18, 20, 52, 60, 180, 260, 360, 360+5, 360+1+5, 23,400, 26,000, 26,001, 52,000, 52,002, 144,000, 180,000, 1,872,000 & 9,360,000

    in alignment with The Full Moon Cycles...

    The Six (6) Season Calendar aka The Thirteen (13) Moon Calendar aka The Ancient Year of 360 days begins on the last full moon of December, each and every year.

    Susan & Tony were also the first ones to align The Celtic Calendar, The Metonic Calendar, The Ancient Egyptian Calendar, The Chinese 60-year Calendar Cycle, etc.,

    The Bermanseder Bible Codes & The Bermanseder Pyramid Formula (which closes the 12 pointed star)

    can also be aligned to these calendars:

    by David Dickinson on August 7, 2013

    A team from the University of Birmingham recently announced an astronomical discovery in Scotland marking the beginnings of recorded time. Announced last month in the Journal of Internet Archaeology, the Mesolithic monument consists of a series of pits near Aberdeenshire, Scotland. Estimated to date from 8,000 B.C., this 10,000 year old structure would pre-date calendars discovered in the Fertile Crescent region of the Middle East by over 5,000 years.

    But this is no ordinary wall calendar. Originally unearthed by the National Trust for Scotland in 2004, the site is designated as Warren Field near the town of Crathes. It consists of 12 pits in an arc 54 metres long that seem to correspond with 12 lunar months, plus an added correction to bring the calendar back into sync with the solar year on the date of the winter solstice.


    A diagram of the Warren Field site, showing the 12 pits (below) and the alignment with the phases of the Moon plus the rising of the winter solstice Sun. Note: the scale should read “0-10 metres.” (Credit: The University of Birmingham).

    “The evidence suggests that hunter-gatherer societies in Scotland had both the need and sophistication to track time across the years, to correct for seasonal drift of the lunar year” said team leader and professor of Landscape Archaeology at the University of Birmingham Vince Gaffney.
    We talked last week about the necessity of timekeeping as cultures moved from a hunter-gatherer to agrarian lifestyle. Such abilities as marking the passage of the lunar cycles or the heliacal rising of the star Sirius gave cultures the edge needed to dominate in their day.

    For context, the pyramids on the plains of Giza date from around 2500 B.C., The Ice Man on display in Bolzano Italy dates from 3,300 B.C., and the end of the last Ice Age was around 20,000 to 10,000 years ago, about the time that the calendar was constructed.

    “We have been taking photographs of the Scottish landscape for nearly 40 years, recording thousands of archaeological sites that would never have been detected from the ground,” said manager of Aerial projects of the Royal Commission of Aerial Survey Projects Dave Cowley. “It’s remarkable to think that our aerial survey may have helped to find the place where time was invented.”

    The site at Warren Field was initially discovered during an aerial survey of the region.


    Vince Gaffney, professor of Landscape and Archaeology at University of Birmingham in Warren Field, Crathes, Aberdeenshire where the discovery was made. (Credit: The University of Birmingham).

    The use of such a complex calendar by an ancient society also came as a revelation to researchers. Emeritus Professor of Archaeoastronomy at the University of Leicester Clive Ruggles notes that the site “represents a combination of several different cycles which can be used to track time symbolically and practically.”
    The lunar synodic period, or the span of time that it takes for the Moon to return to the same phase (i.e., New-to-New, Full-to-Full, etc) is approximately 29.5 days. Many cultures used a strictly lunar-based calendar composed of 12 synodic months. The Islamic calendar is an example of this sort of timekeeping still in use today.

    However, a 12 month lunar calendar also falls out of sync with our modern Gregorian calendar by 11 days (12 on leap years) per year.

    The familiar Gregorian calendar is at the other extreme, a calendar that is strictly solar-based. The Gregorian calendar was introduced in 1582 and is still in use today. This reconciled the 11 minute per year difference between the Julian calendar and the mean solar year, which by the time of Pope Gregory’s reform had already caused the calendar to “drift” by 10 days since the 1st Council of Nicaea 325 AD.


    Artist’s conception of the Warren Field site during the winter solstice. (Credit: The University of Birmingham). Credit: The University of Birmingham

    Surprisingly, the calendar discovered at Warren Field may be of a third and more complex variety, a luni-solar calendar. This employs the use of intercalary periods, also known as embolismic months to bring the lunar and solar calendar back into sync.

    The modern Jewish calendar is an example of a luni-solar hybrid, which adds an extra month (known as the 2nd Adar or Adar Sheni) every 2-3 years. This will next occur in March 2014.

    The Greek astronomer Meton of Athens noted in 5th century B.C. that 235 synodic periods very nearly add up to 19 years, to within a few hours. Today, this period bears his name, and is known as a metonic cycle. The Babylonian astronomers were aware of this as well, and with the discovery at Warren Field, it seems that ancient astronomers in Scotland may have been moving in this direction of advanced understanding as well.

    It’s interesting to note that the site at Warren Field also predates Stonehenge, the most famous ancient structure in the United Kingdom by about 6,000 years. 10,000 years ago would have also seen the Earth’s rotational north celestial pole pointed near the +3.9th magnitude star Rukbalgethi Shemali (Tau Herculis) in the modern day constellation of Hercules. This is due to the 26,000 year wobble of our planet’s axis known as the precession of the equinoxes.


    The precession of the north celestial pole over millennia. (Credit: Wikimedia Commons graphic under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Generic license. Author: Tau’olunga).

    The Full Moon nearest the winter solstice also marks the “Long Nights Moon,” when the Full Moon occupies a space where the Sun resides during the summer months and rides high above the horizon for northern observers all night. The ancients knew of the five degree tilt that our Moon has in relation to the ecliptic and how it can ride exceptionally high in the sky every 18.6 years. We’re currently headed towards a ‘shallow year’ in 2015, where the Moon rides low in relation to the ecliptic. From there, the Moon’s path in the sky will get progressively higher each year, peaking again in 2024.

    Who built the Warren Field ruins along the scenic Dee Valley of Scotland? What other surprises are in store as researchers excavate the site? One thing is for certain: the ancients were astute students of the sky.

    It’s fascinating to realize how much of our own history has yet to be told!

    About David Dickinson

    David Dickinson is an Earth science teacher, freelance science writer, retired USAF veteran & backyard astronomer. He currently writes and ponders the universe from Tampa Bay, Florida.

    Tagged as: ancient astronomy, Archaeoastronomy, crathes, ecliptic, embolismic month, gregorian calendar, intercalculary month, julian calendar, long nights moon, lunar calendar, oldest calendar, warren field,

    susan lynne schwenger, tony bermanseder, The Ancient Year (360 day) Calendar, The Thirteen (13) Moon Calendar, Grand Cycle, 16 Dec 2013, 17 Dec 2013, 16th December 2013, 17th December 2013,


    (and, it fits right in with:

    The Discovery of Susan Lynne Schwenger & Tony Bermanseder
    -The End of The Macha & Pacha Grand Cycle of 16th December 2013 at sunset,
    and, The Start of The Pacha iNTi Grand Cycle of 17th December 2013 at sunrise. Susan was the first person to identify The Grand Cycle change in 1984,
    as The Last Full Moon in 2013 - 17 DEC 2013.

    The Aztec, Mayan, Maori, Aboriginal, First Nations, Metis & Native American Tribes had cycles of 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 13, 18, 20, 52, 60, 180, 260, 360, 360+5, 360+1+5, 23,400, 26,000, 26,001, 52,000, 52,002, 144,000, 180,000, 1,872,000 & 9,360,000 in alignment with The Full Moon Cycles...

    The Six (6) Season Calendar aka The Thirteen (13) Moon Calendar aka The Ancient Year of 360 days begins on the last full moon of December, each and every year.
    Susan & Tony were also the first ones to align The Celtic Calendar, The Metonic Calendar, The Ancient Egyptian Calendar, The Chinese 60-year Calendar Cycle, etc.,etc.,etc.,
    The Bermanseder Bible Codes & The Bermanseder Pyramid Formula (which closes the 12 pointed star) can also be aligned to these calendars:


    Warren Field - The Beginning of Time?



    World's oldest calendar discovered in Scotland



    Archaeoscoop: World's Oldest Calendar?

    Last edited: May 13, 2014

    CULCULCAN The Final Synthesis - isbn 978-0-9939480-0-8 Staff Member

    What is a Biblical New Moon ???


    What Is a Biblical New Moon?

    Yahweh in His wisdom has given us a calendar in the sky for all to see. He uses the sun and moon to establish days, months, years, and also His appointed observances, Genesis 1:14. A critical component to His calendar is the new moon, which starts each Biblical month. Yahweh commanded special offerings on each new moon, and one special new moon is even a Feast day called the Feast of Trumpets, Isaiah 66:23.

    Yahweh uses the new moon to establish moedim, or commanded observances, Psalm 104:19. Special offerings were also given on the new moons, 2Chronicles 2:4; 8:13; 23:31.

    We find many references to the new moon or beginning of months in the Scriptures, including the obligation for True worshipers to observe them, Numbers 10:10; 28:11-15; 1Chronicles 23:31; 2Chronicles 2:4; 8:13; 31:3; Ezra 3:5; Ezekiel 46:1, 3, 6; Colossians 2:16.

    Apostolic Believers, who remained true to His Word, continued to honor new moon days as well as observe Feast days in the New Testament, Acts 18:21; 27:9; 1Corinthians 5:7-8.

    Further, we learn from Ezekiel’s prophecy (46:3) that new moon days will be kept in the coming Kingdom: “The people of the land shall also worship at the doorway of that gate before Yahweh on the sabbaths and on the new moons.”

    Make no mistake. The Biblical admonition to observe the new moon as a special marker in the Biblical calendar is not a pronouncement about worshiping the moon itself. Yahweh prohibits worshiping any celestial body: “And beware, lest you lift up your eyes to heaven and see the sun and the moon and the stars, all the host of heaven, and be drawn away and worship them and serve them, those which Yahweh your Elohim has allotted to all the peoples under the whole heaven” (Deut. 4:19). At the same time He commands us to watch for and observe the new moon each month so that we honor and follow His unique calendar and the setting of His special holy days.

    What Constitutes a New Moon?

    What exactly is a new moon according to the Scriptures? The Jewish calendar creates some confusion because it uses the conjunctions of the moon (Hebrew molad) in setting the beginning of each month. Also somewhat confusing, a certain verse of Scripture seems to equate the new moon with the full moon.

    If you are baffled about what the new moon is, we hope this study will settle the issue for you.

    Let’s first look at the astronomical conjunction. A lunar conjunction is when the sun, moon and earth are directly in line. Because the sun is behind the moon, no sunlight is reflected from the lunar face. The moon is a total blackout during a conjunction. No part of the moon can be seen in an astronomical conjunction.

    The average wall calendar portrays the conjunction with a large black dot and calls it a “new moon.” But in reality it is a “no moon.” It is invisible, and a “no moon” conjunction is not what the Bible means by a new moon, which we will see.

    The Bible uses the same Hebrew word for both “new moon” and “month.” Therefore, the new moon is linked to and sets the beginning of the month. But on our Gregorian wall calendars the “no moon” conjunction floats all over the 12 calendar months. Modern calendars completely ignore the Biblical way of setting the first day of the month by the visual new moon, even though the word “month” is derived from the word “moon” and should be oriented to the moon as it was intended by the Creator.

    Historically, new moon spotters in Israel watched for the thin crescent to establish the beginning of each month. Once seen they reported their sighting to the calendar court authorities of the Sanhedrin. Note what one authority says, “Originally, the New Moon was not fixed by astronomical calculation, but was solemnly proclaimed after witnesses had testified to the reappearance of the crescent of the moon,” Encyclopaedia Judaica, Vol. 12, p. 1039.

    The switchover from watching for the first visible crescent to calculating conjunctions to determine the month’s beginning came with Hillel II’s calendar revisions in the 4th century C.E. “By the middle of the fourth century, the sages had established a permanent calendar and the public proclamation of the New Moon was discontinued” (Ibid).

    Going by the calculated lunar conjunction contradicts the command in Deuteronomy 16:1: “Observe the month [chodesh, new moon] of Abib and keep the Passover…” Here, the word “observe” in the Hebrew is shamar and also means “look narrowly for, search” (No. 8104 in Strong’s). The Holladay Concise Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon defines it as watching in the sense of looking. Vine’s Complete Expository Dictionary of Old and New Testament Words includes the definitions “mark, watchman, wait, watch, look narrowly.” The command is to look for, wait for, watch and mark the new moon.

    The problem is that you cannot see a moon that is completely black or dark, as it is during a conjunction. It would be lunacy sending out new moon watchers on the night of a conjunction to look for a moon they cannot see. To visually confirm the new moon there must be something to identify. Obviously, the invisible conjunction is not that something.

    Another predicament is created by the use of the conjunction because during the period surrounding the conjunction there are as many as two or even three nights when no moon is visible. This leads us to wonder which three invisible moons are we commanded to “look narrowly for”? On which of three invisible starting points does the month begin? Yahweh’s calendar is based on observation. Man’s calendars are based on calculation.

    No U.S. Naval Observatory existed in the time of the prophets or Apostles. The ancients had to have something tangible to go by that was visible on only one day each month. They needed to see the first thin crescent of a moon as it began its building or waxing phase.

    Philo was a prominent Jewish leader who lived in Alexandria from about 20 B.C.E. to about 50 C.E. and was a contemporary of both Yahshua the Messiah and Paul. He was aware of what the Savior and His followers considered was the new moon. In his Treatise on the Special Laws, Book II, XI (41), Philo discusses the Biblical observances. Note how he describes the new moon:

    “[It] is that which comes after the conjunction, which… [is] the day of the new moon in each month.” In his detailed discussion of the new moon, Philo describes what constitutes a new moon: “…at the time of the new moon, the sun begins to illuminate the moon with a light which is visible to the outward senses, and then she displays her own beauty to the beholders.”

    As Philo noted, the new moon follows the conjunction but it is not the conjunction itself. His observation reveals to us what was considered the new moon in Yahshua’s day and what the Savior Himself also observed as the new moon. That is all we need to know to realize what still constitutes the Biblical new moon today.

    Does ‘New’ Mean ‘Full’?

    Some read Psalm 81:3 and conclude that the new moon is a holy feast day, and also (because of mistranslation) that the new moon is the full moon and not the first light of the moon. The KJV reads, “Blow up the trumpet in the new moon, in the time appointed, on our solemn feast day.” Time “appointed” is the Hebrew kacah and means “to plump, i.e. fill up hollows” (Vine’s Complete Expository Dictionary of Old and New Testament Words). This appointed time is a full moon totally filled with light and on which a solemn Feast day occurs. Does that mean that the new moon is the full moon?

    The New King James and some other translations add to the confusion by not translating Psalm 81:3 precisely enough: “Blow the trumpet at the time of the New Moon, at the full moon, on our solemn feast day.” One immediate problem we note is that nowhere in Scripture is the regular monthly new moon referred to as a Feast day, nor is it a full moon, as we shall see.

    Other translations clear up the problem by showing two completely different and separate observances in this verse: “Sound the ram’s horn at the new moon, and when the moon is full, at the day of our feast” (NIV).

    In Psalm 81:3 Yahweh is speaking of a new moon as well as another observance or appointed time that comes at a full moon. During each of these separate times the trumpet was to sound.

    The Hebrew in fact reveals two distinct clauses in this passage, making a definite division of thought. The first is the trumpet as applying to the new moon. The second is the trumpet as it applies to a solemn feast day, which is by Biblical definition different from a regular monthly new moon.

    From the Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia, one would translate Psalm 81:3 this way: “Blow the trumpet at the new moon, and in the fullness of our festival day.”

    The Interlinear NIV Hebrew-English Old Testament also makes a differentiation between the two clauses of verse 3: “Sound the ram’s horn at the New Moon, and when the moon is full, on the day of our Feast.”

    The Complete Jewish Bible reads: “Sound the shofar at Rosh-Hodesh [new moon], and at full moon for the pilgrim feast.”

    The Psalms for Today: A New Translation from the Hebrew into Current English translates the verse: “Sound the trumpet at the new moon, and at the day of our festival, when the moon is full.”

    These Hebrew-based translations show that the new moon is different from the full moon and different from a Feast day. The Hebrew shows that the new moon and the full moon are not synonymous. The first is barely visible, the second totally visible. Different words are used for each.

    The Hebrew word levanah meaning white, occurs three times in the Hebrew text and poetically refers to the white brilliance of the full moon (see Song of Solomon 6:10; Isa. 24:23; 30:26). And the Hebrew word kehseh, meaning fullness, is twice translated full moon (Ps. 81:3; Prov. 7:20). Chodesh, on the other hand, refers to the new moon and is never used for full moon.

    Counting Backward from the Full Moon?

    Some postulate that all that is necessary is to wait for the full moon and then count back two weeks for the beginning of the month.

    First, such a method ignores Scriptural mandate and practice. Why would one need to “narrowly look for” and diligently search for a full moon? A full moon is in plain sight all night long.

    Second, by this reckoning there would historically have been no need for special moon watchers to search the evening sky and report their findings to the Sanhedrin.

    Third, those moons immediately preceding and following a full moon have nearly full lumination and are difficult to distinguish from the actual full moon without side-by-side comparison and an expert, discerning eye. This is not the case with a new moon crescent that is either seen or not seen, as by a shepherd boy like David out in the sheep fields.

    Fourth, the astronomical full moon does not consistently fall at the exact midpoint between two lunar conjunctions. The full moon may follow the lunar conjunction by as little as 13 days, 21 hours and 53 minutes, or by as much as 15 days, 14 hours and 30 minutes. That is why months vary in length between 29 and 30 days. This anomaly is because the moon’s orbit is not perfectly circular.

    Fifth, this method is based on the conjunction, which we have shown is not the Scriptural new moon.

    Consequently, determining the new moon by counting backward from the full moon is anything but scripturally ordained and at times quite inaccurate. And in one special case doing so would even be out of the question: the Feast of Trumpets, itself a new moon and the first day of the seventh month, would be two weeks past by the time the full moon arrived and the backward count is made.

    Scimitar-shaped New Moon

    Scholars who know the Hebrew language also know that the new moon is defined as a thin, crescent moon. Vine’s says, “Chodesh means ‘new moon,’ ‘month.’ The word refers to the day on which the crescent reappears.” The Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament says of (c)hodesh, “Although this word properly means ‘new moon,’ it is commonly used as an equivalent to our word ‘month’ because the month began when the thin crescent of the new moon was first visible at sunset.”

    The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia says hodhesh (chodesh) means “‘new,’ ‘fresh.’ As the Hebrews reckoned their months from the actual first appearance of the young crescent, hodhesh is most frequently translated ‘month’ ” (Vol. 1, p. 303).

    The verb form of (c)hodesh is hadash, a primitive root meaning to rebuild, renew, repair, refresh. This gives us additional proof as to what constitutes a new moon. A full moon is not in the rebuilding or renewing stage. It is already rebuilt, complete, and as full as it will get before waning back down to nothing, where it starts to re-grow from complete blackness once more.

    According to Gesenius Hebrew-Chaldee Lexicon the word hodesh derives from a word which means to be new, or to polish a sword. Etymologists have observed that the basic sense is that of cutting and polishing. And the significance of newness relates to a polished sword. The new moon resembles a scimitar or curved sword.

    The New Brown Driver Briggs Gesenius says chodesh is rooted in the meaning of conceal, as in “to conceal behind a curtain.” A full moon is anything but concealed. A crescent, on the other hand, is nearly all concealed by a curtain of darkness except for just a curved sliver of light along the right edge.

    An Act of Worship

    Looking for the new moon crescent each month is, above all, an act of worship. It is axiomatic that we cannot let our worship be done by someone else. James tells us, “Be doers of the word, and not hearers only...” 1:22. Do we have the dedication to go out and search the evening sky for a sliver of moon that is often very difficult to locate? Or do we just rely on others in our area or in some other part of the world to do it for us?

    As we learn through hundreds of lessons in the Scriptures, True Worship takes effort and self-sacrifice to search out Yahweh’s ways in order to honor Him. It takes no effort or sacrifice to see a full moon or follow computer calculations.
    Last edited: May 14, 2014

    CULCULCAN The Final Synthesis - isbn 978-0-9939480-0-8 Staff Member

    Australian Aboriginal Astronomy - Stone Engraving of Emus aligns at Emu-Egg Harvest Time - Galatic

    says: @ArchaeosOup
    G'day... Nice Clip... As to the "Oldest Calendar"...?
    Well, you may want to check out Australian Aboriginal Astronomy...
    There's a Stone Engraving of a Reclining Emu,
    reflecting the Reclining Emu profiled in the Dark Spaces (Coal Sack Nebula ?)
    of the Overhead Milky Way..;
    & the Emu in the Night Sky only aligns with the Stone Emu,
    at Emu-Egg Harvest Time. It's a Galactic Calendar, yes..? ;-) Ciao !


    The Emu in the Sky


    The photograph above shows the aboriginal "emu-in-the-sky" constellation in the sky. It won its creator, Barnaby Norris, third prize in the prestigious 2007 "Eureka" awards.

    To see the "constellation", look at the dark dust-clouds, not the stars!

    Below it is the emu engraving at the Elvina engraving site, in Kuring-Gai Chase National Park, near Sydney The constellation is positioned above the engraving as it appears in real life in Autumn.

    Many Aboriginal groups have stories about the “Coalsack” – the famous
    dark cloud next to the Southern Cross. Some see it as the head of a lawman, or a
    possum in a tree, but many groups tell stories of a great emu whose head is the
    Coalsack, and whose neck, body, and legs are formed from dust lanes stretching
    across the Milky Way. It’s easy to make out the emu in a dark autumn sky, and once
    you’ve seen it, the Milky Way will never look the same again This “Emu in the Sky”
    has became an icon of the Australian SKA Pathfinder (ASKAP) project.

    The Aboriginal Astronomy project aims to study stories like this in a systematic way,
    and to explore the importance of astronomy in Aboriginal cultures. The project has
    two parts. One is to examine the culture of Aboriginal people, such as the Yolngu
    people in Australia’s Top End, whose culture is thriving, and who can tell us about
    the role that astronomy plays in their culture. For example, a few weeks ago we were
    privileged to be invited to visit the remote Yolngu community of Dhalunbuy. There,
    an elder told us a story of the evening star, whose appearance signals the time to
    collect Raika nuts, and showed us an “evening star rope” made of stringy vine and
    possum fur decorated with the nuts. It was a memorial made at the time of death of his
    grandmother, and is still used in modern funeral ceremonies to establish contact with
    ancestors. Little of this is known to western science or ethnology.

    The other part of the project is to study the artefacts of those Aboriginal cultures
    whose culture was badly damaged by the arrival of Europeans 200 years ago. For
    example, we are studying a 50-metre stone circle in Victoria which appears to be
    aligned on the equinox and solstice sunsets, and we are trying to understand a possible
    lunar calendar in South Australia. Closer to home are thousands of rock engravings
    around Sydney, most notably in Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park, just 20 km north of
    Sydney. Amazingly, many Sydneysiders are unaware of this beautiful sacred art on
    their doorstep, showing animals, people, creator spirits, and strange symbols whose
    meaning is unknown. It has been suggested that some engravings may be
    astronomical, and may even represent constellations.

    However, while many sites have been recorded, few have been reliably surveyed, and
    most records consist of no more than a hand-drawn sketch, inevitably reflecting the
    preconceptions of the recorder. For example, a crescent may be drawn by an
    archaeologist as a boomerang, and by an astronomer as a crescent moon. Instead, a
    serious study needs an unbiased photographic record. Such a record also has value for
    future generations who may not be able to see the real thing, as the engravings are
    rapidly being destroyed by acid rain.

    However, photographing them is tricky. The grooves are shallow and frequently
    obscured by natural undulations in the rock. Received wisdom is to photograph them
    at sunrise or sunset, when the low angle of the Sun outlines the grooves with shadows.
    But we can’t always wait for sunset, and even then the resulting photo is likely to be
    marred by shadows of nearby trees.

    Instead, Barnaby Norris and I decided to replace the Sun by a 1000 Joule studio flash
    (emitting something like 1MW of light), together with batteries and an inverter for use
    at remote sites. Three telescopic pool poles were used to construct a tripod five metres
    high, from which we suspend a remotely-operated digital SLR camera vertically
    above the engraving. Further image processing, sometimes including spatial filtering,
    then clearly shows up the engravings.

    One of the most beautiful sites in Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park, close to the
    Elvina Track, features a finely engraved emu. A few years ago, Hugh Cairns of
    Sydney University pointed out that this engraving looks more like the Emu in the Sky
    than a real emu. Furthermore, the Aboriginal artists oriented the engraving to line up
    with the Emu in the Sky just when real-life emus are laying their eggs. To illustrate
    this, we decided to take a photo of the engraving with the Emu in the Sky correctly
    positioned above it. Our low-angle flash technique took care of the engraving, but
    what about the sky?

    Since the night sky at the Elvina Track site is now ruined by the streetlights of
    Sydney, we decided to photograph it from Siding Spring Mountain. A further
    challenge is that the emu stretches half-way across the sky, so doesn’t fit in the field
    of view of a normal lens. A fish-eye lens on an equatorial mount would do the trick,
    but would distort the image, preventing a realistic comparison with the engraving. So
    instead we made a mosaic of smaller images that could be stitched together in
    software. Furthermore, by taking a series of short exposure images, we wouldn’t need
    an equatorial drive, as we could correct for sky rotation in software.
    Having taken the photos, Barnaby spent two months stitching the hundreds of images
    together, working out how to correct for the distortions and sky rotation while keeping
    the shape true to the projection seen by the human eye from the Elvina Track site. The
    result was magnificent (see above) and in August won Barnaby
    a $2000 prize in the New Scientist Eureka science prizes.

    All material on this page © Ray Norris 2007 except where otherwise indicated.


    Australian Aboriginal astronomy
    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    Australian Aboriginal astronomy is a name given to indigenous Australian culture relating to astronomical subjects — such as the Sun and Moon, the stars, planets, and the Milky Way, and their motions on the sky.
    One of the earliest records of indigenous astronomy was made by William Edward Stanbridge, an Englishman who emigrated to Australia in 1841 and befriended the local Boorong people.[1]
    Some Aboriginal groups use the motions of celestial bodies for calendar purposes. Many attribute religious or mythological meanings to celestial bodies and phenomena. There is a diversity of astronomical traditions in Australia, each with its own particular expression of cosmology. However, there appear to be common themes and systems between the groups.

    Interpreting the sky
    Emu in the sky


    The Aboriginal "Emu in the sky". In Western astronomy terms, the Southern Cross is on the right, and Scorpius on the left; the head of the emu is the Coalsack.

    A constellation used in Aboriginal culture in Australia is the "Emu in the sky", a 'constellation' that is defined by dark nebulas (opaque clouds of dust and gas in outer space) that are visible against the Milky Way background, rather than by stars. The Emu's head is the very dark Coalsack nebula, next to the Southern Cross; the body and legs are other dark clouds trailing out along the Milky Way to Scorpius.
    Just North of Sydney, in the Kuringai National Park, are extensive rock engravings of the Guringai people who live there, including representations of the creator-hero Daramulan and his emu-wife. An engraving near the Elvina Track[2] shows an emu in the same pose and orientation as the Emu in the Sky constellation. On autumn evenings, the emu in the sky stands directly over her portrait, just at the time when it's time to gather emu eggs.
    To the Wardaman, however, the Coalsack is the head of a lawman.[3]

    Canoe in Orion

    The Yolngu people of northern Australia say that the constellation of Orion, which they call Julpan, is a canoe. They tell the story of three brothers who went fishing, and one of them ate a fish that was forbidden under their law. Seeing this, the Sun carried the two brothers and their canoe up into the sky. The three stars in the constellation's centre, which form Orion's Belt in Western mythology, are the two brothers; the Orion Nebula above them is the forbidden fish; and the bright stars Betelgeuse and Rigel are the bow and stern of the canoe. This is an example of astronomical legends underpinning the ethical and social codes that people use on Earth.[4]


    The Pleiades also figures in the Dreamings of several language groups. For example, in the central desert region, they are said to be seven sisters fleeing from the unwelcome attentions of a man represented by some of the stars in Orion. The close resemblance of this to Greek mythology is believed to be coincidental - there is no evidence of any cultural connection.[4]
    However, stars were commonly used to measure time and the seasons and to regulate daily activities before written culture, and long after in some cultures. The myths of the Australian Aborigines are, as around the world, to do with moral lessons and various reminders such as when to eat certain types of food, which is itself a cultural connection in the general form of the stories. Therefore the study of the stars is probably the oldest knowledge on earth, such that it remains an intriguing possibility that aboriginal star knowledge does contain some fragments of a much older original culture. Aborigines came to Australia from Asia 50,000 years ago (well before Greek culture formed 3-4,000 years ago), and presumably the Aborigines originally came from Africa. While there is no hard evidence of a cultural connection, the possibility should not be written off and the door is open to research to construct models of older human cultures, through the tracing of these narratives and other means such as linguistics.[5]

    The Milky Way

    The Yolngu people believe that when they die, they are taken by a mystical canoe, Larrpan, to the spirit-island Baralku in the sky, where their camp-fires can be seen burning along the edge of the great river of the Milky Way. The canoe is sent back to earth as a shooting star, letting their family on Earth know that they have arrived safely in the spirit-land.[4]
    The Boorong people see in the Southern Cross a possum in a tree.[4]

    Sun and Moon

    Many traditions have stories of a female Sun and a male Moon.
    The Yolngu say that Walu, the Sun-woman, lights a small fire each morning, which we see as the dawn.[6] She paints herself with red ochre, some of which spills onto the clouds, creating the sunrise. She then lights a torch and carries it across the sky from east to west, creating daylight. At the end of her journey, as she descends from the sky, some of her ochre paints again rubs off onto the clouds, creating the sunset. She then puts out her torch, and throughout the night travels underground back to her starting camp in the east.[4]
    The Yolngu tell that Ngalindi, the Moon-man, was once young and slim (the waxing Moon), but grew fat and lazy (the full Moon). His wives chopped bits off him with their axes (the waning Moon); to escape them he climbed a tall tree towards the Sun, but died from the wounds (the new Moon). After remaining dead for three days, he rose again to repeat the cycle, and continues doing so till this day.[4] The Kuwema people in the Northern Territory say that he grows fat at each full Moon by devouring the spirits of those who disobey the tribal laws.[4][6][7]
    The Yolngu also associated the Moon with the tides.[4]


    The Warlpiri people explain a solar eclipse as being the Sun-woman being hidden by the Moon-man as he makes love to her.[4] This explanation is shared by other groups, such as the Wirangu.[8] On the other hand, a lunar eclipse is caused when the Moon-man is pursued and threatened by the Sun-woman.[4][9]
    In the Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park there are a number of engravings showing a crescent shape, with sharp horns pointing down, and below it a drawing of a man in front of a woman. While the crescent shape has been assumed by most researchers to represent a boomerang, some argue that it is more easily interpreted as a solar eclipse, with the mythical man-and-woman explanation depicted below it.[4]


    The rising of Venus marks an important ceremony of the Yolngu, who call it Barnumbirr ("Morning Star and Evening Star") They gather after sunset to await the rising of the planet. As she approaches, in the early hours before dawn, the Yolngu say that she draws behind her a rope of light attached to the island of Baralku on Earth, and along this rope, with the aid of a richly decorated "Morning Star Pole", the people are able to communicate with their dead loved ones, showing that they still love and remember them.[4]

    Eta Carinae

    In 2010, astronomers Duane Hamacher and David Frew from Macquarie University in Sydney showed that the Boorong Aboriginal people of northwestern Victoria, Australia, witnessed the outburst of Eta Carinae in the 1840s and incorporated it into their oral traditions as Collowgulloric War, the wife of War (Canopus, the Crow – wɑː).[10] This is the only definitive indigenous record of Eta Carinae's outburst identified in the literature to date.

    Astronomical calendars

    Aboriginal calendars tend to be more complex than European calendars. Many groups in northern Australia use a calendar with six seasons, and some groups mark the seasons by the stars which are visible during them.[4] For the Pitjantjatjara, for example, the rising of the Pleiades at dawn (in May) marks the start of winter.[4][11]
    Many stories exist where the heliacal rising or setting of stars or constellations are used to tell Aboriginal Australians when it's time to move to a new place and/or look for a new food source.[4]
    The Boorong people in Victoria know that when the Malleefowl constellation (Lyra) disappears in October, to "sit with the Sun", it's time to start gathering her eggs on Earth. Other groups know that when Orion first appears in the sky, the Dingo puppies are about to be born.[4] When Scorpius appears, the Yolngu know that the Macassan fisherman would soon arrive to fish for trepang.[4]
    It is not known to what extent Aboriginal people were interested in the precise motion of the Sun, Moon, planets or stars. However, it has been suggested that some of the stone arrangements in Victoria such as Wurdi Youang near Little River, Victoria may have been used to track the equinoxes and/or solstices. The arrangement is aligned with the setting sun at the solstices and equinox, but the age is currently unknown.[12]
    There are also rock engravings by the Nganguraku people at Ngaut Ngaut which, according to oral tradition, represent lunar cycles. Unfortunately, most of the Nganguraku culture (including their language) has been lost because of repression by Christian missionaries over a hundred years ago.[4]

    In contemporary culture

    A great deal of contemporary Aboriginal art has an astronomical theme, reflecting the astronomical elements of the artist's culture. Prominent examples are Gulumbu Yunupingu, Bill Yidumduma Harney, and Nami Maymuru, all of whom have won awards or been finalists in the Telstra Indigenous Art Awards. In 2009 an exhibition of Indigenous Astronomical Art from WA, named Ilgarijiri was launched at AIATSIS in Canberra in conjunction with a Symposium on Aboriginal Astronomy.[13]
    Other contemporary painters include the daughters of the late Clifford Possum Tjapaltjarri, who have the seven sisters as one of their Dreamings. Gabriella Possum and Michelle Possum paint the Seven Sisters Dreaming in their paintings. They inherited this Dreaming through their maternal line.

    See also


    1. Aboriginal Astronomers: World's Oldest?, Australian Geographic, 28 May 2010
    2. Wildwalks entry on the Elvina Track walk
    3. Yidumduma Harney (2005)
    4. Australian Aboriginal Astronomy at the CSIRO site. Accessed on 2009-08-02.
    5. Aboriginal Astronomy Mysteries
    6. Wells (1964)
    7. Hulley (1996)
    8. Bates (1944)
    9. Warner (1937)
    10. Hamacher, D. W.; Frew, D. J. (2010). "An Aboriginal Australian Record of the Great Eruption of Eta Carinae". Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage 13 (3): 220–234. arXiv:1010.4610. Bibcode:2010arXiv1010.4610H.
    11. Clarke (2003)
    12. Andrew Carswell and Robert Cockburn (5 February 2011). "Wurdi Youang rocks could prove Aborigines were first astronomers". Daily Telegraph (News Limited). Retrieved 14 March 2011.
    13. 'Things belonging to the sky': a symposium on Indigenous Astronomy
    Further reading


    Susan was the first person to identify The Grand Cycle change in 1984,
    as The Last Full Moon in 2013- 17 DEC 2013, and, discover the relation of; The Six (6) Season Calendar
    aka The Thirteen (13) Moon Calendar aka The Anicent Year of 360 Days to The Aborginal of Australia Calendar back in 1984.

    The Aztec, Mayan, Maori, Aboriginal, First Nations, Metis & Native American Tribes had cycles of 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 13, 18, 20, 52, 60, 180, 260, 360, 360+5, 360+1+5, 23,400, 26,000, 26,001, 52,000, 52,002, 144,000, 180,000, 1,872,000 & 9,360,000.

    The Six (6) Season Calendar aka The Thirteen (13) Moon Calendar aka The Ancient Year begins on The Last Full Moon of December, each and every year. However, when it is 'winter' in the southern hemisphere, it is "summer" in the northern hemisphere, and, when it is 'summer' in the southern hemisphere, it is "winter" in the northern hemisphere.

    ~ Susan Lynne Schwenger
    Last edited: May 14, 2014

    CULCULCAN The Final Synthesis - isbn 978-0-9939480-0-8 Staff Member

    ANCIENT EGYPTIAN CALENDAR - 365 (12X30+5) LIKE haab - 11 SEP 2012 - HAPPY NEW YEAR

    The ancient civil Egyptian calendar had a year that was 365 days long


    and was divided into 12 months of 30 days each, plus five extra days (epagomenae, from Greek ἐπαγόμεναι) at the end of the year.

    The months were divided into three weeks of ten days each. Because the ancient Egyptian year was almost a quarter of a day shorter than the solar year and stellar events therefore "wandered" through the calendar, it has been referred to as the annus vagus, or "wandering year".


    Ancient Egyptian Calendar Reveals Earliest Record of 'Demon Star'
    Charles Choi, LiveScience Contributor | May 31, 2012 12:17am ET


    The Demon Star lies some 93 light-years away in the constellation Perseus as one of the eyes of Medusa's head. (Shown here in Johannes Hevelius' Perseus from Uranographia.)
    Credit: Public Domain
    View full size image
    Ancient Egyptians may have chronicled the flickering of a star known as "the Demon," perhaps the earliest known record of a variable star, astronomers suggest.

    The ancient Egyptians wrote calendars that marked lucky and unlucky days. These predictions were based on astronomical and mythological events thought of as influential for everyday life. The best preserved of these calendars is the Cairo Calendar, a papyrus document dating between 1163 and 1271 B.C. The entry for each day is prefaced by three hieroglyphics that indicate either good or bad luck, with the characters often derived from events[​IMG] of mythology.

    Astronomers at the University[​IMG] of Helsinki in Finland had previously discovered that some of the fortunate days recurred in a pattern, every 29.6 days. This almost exactly matches the length of the lunar cycle — the time between two full moons. New moons may have been associated with bad luck.

    Dimming demon star

    The scientists also detected another pattern in the calendar, one that occurred every 2.85 days. Now the researchers suggest this approximately matches regular dimming of Algol, "the Demon Star," which lies approximately 93 light-years away in the constellation Perseus as one of the eyes of Medusa's head. Its name comes from the Arabic phrase, ra's al-ghul, which means "the demon's head."

    Algol is the brightest known example of an eclipsing binary system — the large bright member of the system, Beta Persei A, regularly gets eclipsed by the dimmer Beta Persei B. From our point of view, Algol dims by more than a factor of three for 10 hours at a time, dwindling easily[​IMG] seen with the naked eye.

    "It seems that the first observation of a variable star was made 3,000 years earlier than was previously thought," said researcher Lauri Jetsu, an astronomer at the University of Helsinki.

    The Cairo Calendar describes how Wedjat, the Eye of Horus, regularly transformed from peaceful to raging, with good or bad influences on life. Horus was the patron god of kings in ancient Egypt. [Gallery: Sun Gods and Goddesses]

    "The eclipse seems to be linked with the lucky days, because it represents the pacification of the Eye of Horus," researcher Sebastian Porceddu, an astronomer and Egyptologist at the University of Helsinki, told LiveScience. "A bright Eye of Horus meant it is raging and a threat to mankind."

    Pinch of salt?

    In modern times, Algol actually dims every 2.867 days. The researchers suggest this discrepancy of 0.017 days — about 25 minutes — between ancient Egyptian and modern values for Algol's dimming may be due to changes Algol may have undergone in the past three millennia. Matter is apparently flowing from the dimmer member of this eclipsing binary to the brighter star, altering their orbit so that eclipses now take longer than they once did. If correct, this ancient Egyptian data[​IMG] could shed light on eclipsing binaries and the details of how such mass transfer might affect their orbits.

    "I believe that from now on, Egyptologists will be keeping an eye on possible references to Algol elsewhere," Porceddu said.

    Other scientists are intrigued by the idea, but remain skeptical.

    "I think it's an interesting idea — just how convincing it is is another issue," astrophysicist Peter Eggleton at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, who did not take part in this research, said in an interview.

    This pattern "does seem very plausibly attributed to Algol, and the suggestion that it has slowed down by a small amount over 3,000 years is not unreasonable," Eggleton said. "But you do have to take the idea with a pinch of salt — it's obviously difficult to pin down what people were really thinking 3,000 years ago."

    The scientists submitted their findings to the journal Astronomy & Astrophysics.


    Linking Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece to The Hebrew Numbers

    Here I will show you the links between ancient Egypt , Hebrew and ancient Greece .

    It is important to realize that it is not intended to make you a mathematician
    or really go deeply into the number site of things,
    but for you to become aware of the underlying structure.

    You might say I do see that, but are you really aware of the implications?

    You will also learn that all this is related to astronomy,
    and if you did follow the articles closely then you did not only notice the mirror images of numbers
    but also twin numbers
    such as 101,1001 7007 93609360.

    And I shown you in previous articles 37 and 73,
    now lets look at the Mayan figure 6665.6665 which is related to the 583.890411 days of synodic periods
    of Venus and is equal to 10656 tropical years of the Mayans.

    6665.6665 x 583.890411 days = 10656 (12 x 888)

    And if you look up the number value of 10656 in the other articles
    you will see that it is the grammatical value of YHWH.

    Now lets take 73 and multiply with our now familiar 18
    73 x 18 = 1314,

    now lets look at the 4 different counts: 260,
    360, 365 and 365,2420

    260 days x 360 x 365 x 365,2420 = 9496292 days = 26000 tropical years

    So how are these 26 generations or 26000 years related to the 10656 years.

    26000 tropical years x 1314 x 583,890411 days = 1872000 days
    10656 tropical years
    583,890411 being a synodic period of Venus.

    The same result will be reached if instead of using tropical years you use

    TUNS or HAABS . 1872000 days is one fifth of 9360000 days,
    which is a Mesoamerican period called the 5th Sun,
    after which a new cycle begins of 26000 Tuns

    The Mayans equated the precession with 25920 Haabs equaling 9460800 days.

    As you will remember on the star of Bethlehem
    you have the rough count of 40 or 400
    but in the fine tuning it is build of twice 192 which is 384.
    similar with the 26000 and 25920.

    As you know we will need to look at Plato’s number
    and the time cycle through one zodiac 2160.

    we used the 73 and now its mirror image 37

    Lets use the count 21600 days / 37 for a synodic period of Venus,
    9460800 days can be written as 16206 synodic periods of Venus
    counted as 21600 days / 37 for a period.
    9460800 days x 37 = 16206 synodic periods of Venus
    21600 days
    16206 synodic periods of Venus = 2701 x 6 synodic periods of Venus

    And 2701 as you remember is 37 x73 =2701 and was related to hydrogen.

    2701 synodic periods of Venus of 21600 days / 37 = 4320 Haabs, 4320 Haabs
    = 2700 periods of Venus of 584 days.

    And you will also remember the letter value of the first sentence of the Bible in Hebrew
    which also equals 2701.

    So by using the simple count of 584, 16200 (the mirror of 192)

    16200 x 584 days = 9460800 days.

    But if you use the 1314 and multiply it with the 7200 days you also get 9460800 days.

    Now the 7th word of the bible is the earth and its letter value is 296

    And when you look at the names of the 12 Tribes of Israel
    and their individual values
    in Greek 888 , 1332 1480 and 2368
    If you take the now known Fibonacci Series 1 , 1, 2, 3, 5 , 8 …….144 ,233

    And multiply them by 296 days you will get 296 , 296 , 592 , 888 , 1480, 2368 ……….
    And 42624 days, 68968 days
    68968 = 233 = 16180555 Phi
    42624 = 144

    The 12th term then of 42624 days,
    equals 73 synodic periods of Venus 583,890411 days
    and fully correspond with the Holy figures in the Bible
    2368 days x 18 = 42624 days

    A Venus year, 365 synodic periods of Venus of 583,890411 days
    has 213120 days and 213120 days = 592 Tuns = 90 x 2368 days.

    Now the Greek letter value of Godhead is 592 (twice 296)

    52 with a 9 in the middle or 25 as you remember is the Snake

    Lets look at these 4 numbers again, 592 , 888 , 1480 , and 2368

    By integrating the 9 or Yin Jesus rose to Christ (1480)

    Now lets add up 592 + 888 + 1480( = 2960 )+2368 =5328

    And 5328 is 8 times 666. or the square of 1332 .

    You might also remember the mirror of the speed of light 7992,..
    Which is 27 x 296.

    This 592 complements the trinity of the figures 888 , 1480 , 2368,
    in the same way the figure 1184 is a necessary complement
    to receive the central 3:4:5 triangle with the sides 888 , 1184 , and 1480 ,
    and the perimeter 3552 days, so the perimeter of the square,
    5328 days and the perimeter of the triangle 3552 days.

    Sum up to 8880 days, and in Greek geometrics the figures 8880 is the symbol of the risen Christ.

    Now lets get back to our 2701 (37 x 73) 2701 x 583,890411 days = 1577088 days

    1577088 days = 2368 days x 666

    1577088 days = 364 sidereal orbits of Jupiter

    1577088 days = 18 x 2962 days

    Now with the equation 16206 x 583,890411 days you get a precession of 9462528 days

    and this count is 1728 days longer then 9460800 days.

    Or 888 x 888 x 12= 9462528

    Now lets look at the Venus period again of 583,89411
    if added up you get 39 like the 39 books
    in the old testament but if you multiply the individual numbers
    5×8x3×8x9×4x1×1 = 34560 and 34560 days equals 96 Mayan Tuns.

    Then you have the 40 so lets see 40 x 34560 days = 1382400 gays = 2368 Venus of 21600 days / 37.

    So noteworthy is the fact that 5328 synodic periods of Venus of 584 days
    correspond to 5329 synodic periods of Venus of 583,890411 days
    in the same way as 2701 and 2700

    5328 Haabs = 3330 Venus of 584 days.

    2368 Haabs = 1480 Venus of 584 days

    As you have noticed I mention days
    but you also need to remember that according to the bible a day is like a year.

    If you take the Latin alphabet A-Z A being 1 and Z being 26 adds up

    To 27 and again 1+2+3…….26+27=378 which equals the synodic period of Saturn.

    You already know the diameter of the Sun being 864000 statute miles

    And the square around the disc of the earth which slightly rounded off, equals 31680 miles,
    this is 8 times the radius of the earth (3960 s miles)
    also explained already the Greek value of lord Jesus- Christ equals 3168.
    the radius of the Moon is 1080 s miles and the Greek letter value of the Holy spirit is 1080.

    Now 2368 Haabs multiplied by the Venus quotient 2700 / 2701 results in the 864000 days.
    2368 days x 365 x 2700= 864000 days

    You might recall that 1+2+3…+17= 153 and its mirror 351 is 1+2+3……26
    and add up to 504 and 504 x 1001 = 504504 twin numbers again
    which is a Mayan astronomical number 315315 synodic periods of Venus of 584 days
    = 504504 Haabs.

    In 21600 days a pentagram is drawn by Jupiter and Saturn and 21600 days
    corresponds to 5 sidereal orbits of Jupiter
    and 2 sidereal orbits of Saturn.

    666 stands for the magic square of the Sun
    and 1080 the radius of the moon joined it makes 1746
    and this was a value known by Plato
    as “ the same and the other and Fusion,
    but also the letter value in Greek of the biblical phrase a grain of mustard seed
    which equals 1746

    X 33rd degree= 57618 and 52.909090909 reverse 18576/33=562,909090909

    ( 18,576 & 576,18

    And the 592, these 3 joined 592+562+529=1683

    Move the 3, 3 places and you have 3168,
    yes these numbers too move according the same principles.

    Now lets look at the magic of 864000 lets divide by 10
    and start multiplying 864 , 1728 , 2592 , 3456,4320 ,5184 , 6048 ,6912 , 7776

    All familiar numbers, 777600 was another platonic number related to a month, how?

    A month of G-d is 25920, while for us there are 12 months in 25920 of 2160 years

    but 12 times 25920 is 311040

    And 3 of these months of 25920 is 77760 ( 36 x 2160)

    And 25 times 864 is 21600.

    I did not tell you yet that 17 or 170 divided by 10 times 9 =153

    Therefore they are related.

    Do the same with 86400 ,
    86400/10 x 9 = 77760.

    In revelations 22:12 it is mentioned that Jesus refers to him self as the Alpha and Omega.

    The Greek text has a full letter value for Alpha as 532 but Omega has only the ohm sign which has a value of 800.

    This gives you the total of twice 666 or 1332.

    Now the number 2368 again and 1332 makes 3700.

    The names of the 12 tribes of Israel totals in Hebrew letter value to 3700

    The first 5 names add up to 1332 and the next 4 have a total value of 1480 and the last 3 names,
    the foundation figures have a letter value of 888.

    1480 is 148 more then 1332. Christ is 1480 and 1+4+8+0=13
    and the spokes man of the 12 tribes of Israel. speaking for the tribe of Levi, the thirteenth tribe,
    set aside by JHVH of priestly functions.

    The proportions 5:4:3 of the 12 tribes points to the Pythagorean triangle.

    And the figures 1332 , 1480 and 888 connect to the chapter Numbers

    Now pay attention here, I said the tree is equal to 18, 180 108

    If we use the single letter A
    with a value of 1 and omega 800 you have the 801 and in Greek geometric 801 represents the Dove,
    which is also a symbol for the Holy spirit as mentioned in John 1:32.

    1332 plus the 108 is 1440.

    We go back to 777600 and multiply it by 13 and divide by 12 is 8424000 days
    and 8424000 times 10 divided by 9 is 9360000 days or 36000 Tzokins.

    As you see 2701 and 2700 and numbers such as 13 and 12 are related

    See if this is true, 864000 days x 13 / 12 =936000 days

    As last point Deut 34:1-4, he climbed the mountain Nebo

    Nebo = 50-2-6 is 58 ,
    when g-d tells Moses to climb the mountain 58
    then there are exactly 5800 verses completed Deut 32:69 Moses is then 120 years.

    The grave of Moses is unknown , g-d gave him a place in the valley of Moab somewhere in the 49.

    Moshiya de Broek



    Does every frequency, every energy, every state,level or dimension of consciousness have a number? If so, can this knowledge be used to "dial up", "self-create" or "tune in" any loving energy of the universe?


    yes..."energy is, colour, frequency, light, sound, tone and vibration through the lower six aspects" - susan lynne schwenger
    and,it all feeds into, and, flows through the lower central vertical channel, and, into the upper central vertical channel
    the upper six, are mathematical relation equations - stuff, i discovered back in 1991





    Love it!


    yes, curious what date this was posted


    When? The posting or the recording?



    Attached Files:

    Last edited: May 15, 2014

    CULCULCAN The Final Synthesis - isbn 978-0-9939480-0-8 Staff Member

    Metonic cycle - 2000 years old computer found - aligns 19 years - 235 months to cycles of moon

    It took more than 100 years to work out from its corroded remains how the Antikythera mechanism worked. Video: New Scientist

    In 1900, Greek sponge divers stumbled across "a pile of dead, naked women" on the seabed near the tiny island of Antikythera. It turned out the figures were not corpses but bronze and marble statues, part of a cargo of stolen Greek treasure that was lost when the Roman ship carrying them sank two thousand years ago on the island's treacherous rocks.

    It was the first marine wreck to be studied by archaeologists, and yielded the greatest haul of ancient treasure that had ever been found. Yet the salvage project – carried out in treacherous conditions with desperately crude equipment – was never completed. So this month, armed with the latest diving technology, scientists are going back.

    Between 1900 and 1901, the sponge divers retrieved a string of stunning antiquities, including weapons, jewellery, furniture and some exquisite statues. But their most famous find was a battered lump that sat unnoticed for months in the courtyard of Athens' National Archaeological Museum, before it cracked open to reveal a bundle of cogwheels, dials and inscriptions.

    It has taken scientists over a hundred years to decode the inner workings of those corroded fragments, with x-ray and CT scans finally revealing a sophisticated clockwork machine used to calculate the workings of the heavens(video).

    Dubbed the Antikythera mechanism, it had pointers that displayed the positions of the sun, moon and planets in the sky, as well as a star calendar, eclipse prediction dial and a timetable of athletics events including the Olympics.

    It's a stunning piece of technology that revolutionises our understanding of the abilities of the ancient Greeks. Nothing close to its complexity is known to have been created for well over a thousand years afterwards, and the emergence of mechanical clocks in medieval Europe.

    There are questions that remain unanswered, such as where it's from and who built it (Posidonius, a philosopher who lived on Rhodes during the first century BC, is one candidate, while the third century BC genius Archimedes may have invented this type of device). But one of the most intriguing mysteries relates to the wreck on which it was found. What's still down there?

    The wreck lies in around 60 metres of cold, rocky, current-swirled water – not an easy place to visit. The sponge divers who salvaged its cargo worked in clunky metal diving suits with little understanding of the dangers of diving at such depth. By the time they abandoned their project, two of them had been paralysed by the bends, and one was dead. They left behind stories of abandoned treasures, including giant marble statues that rolled down the steep slope from the wreck and out of reach.

    The undersea explorer Jacques Cousteau spent a couple of days at the wreck site in 1978 and brought up some precious smaller items, including some coins from the Asia Minor coast, which suggested that the ship sailed from there around 70-60 BC (probably carrying war booty from Greek colonies back to Rome). But even with their sleek scuba gear, Cousteau's divers could spend only brief minutes on the seabed without risking the bends.

    No one has been back since. Now, after years of negotiations with the Greek authorities,Brendan Foley, a marine archaeologist based at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in Massachusetts, finally has permission to dive at Antikythera. He's working with Greek archaeologists including Theotokis Theodoulou of the Ephorate of Underwater Antiquities.

    This week, the team begins a three-week survey using rebreather technology, which recycles unused oxygen from each breath and allows divers to stay deeper for longer. The aim is to survey the wreck site properly for the first time, to find out once and for all what has been left down there – and to check down the slope, to 70 metres depth or more, to see if those stories of runaway statues are true.

    Any items found on the wreck site could provide further clues to the origin or ownership of the ship. And not all of the pieces of the Antikythera mechanism were ever found. It's a long shot, but those missing bits could still be on the seabed.

    This isn't what gets Foley most excited about the project, however. His team will also dive around the entire island, a distance of about 17 nautical miles, using James Bond-style propellers to cover ground quickly. Foley hopes this could reveal a whole clutch of previously unknown wrecks.

    The island of Antikythera sits in the middle of what has been a busy trade route since ancient times: a treacherous shard of rock notorious for downing ships in a storm. In Roman times, it was also an infamous centre for pirates. So it's a good bet that there are plenty of other wrecks here, from all periods of history.

    On a two-day reconnaissance survey in June this year, Foley and his team discovered the wreck of a British warship called HMS Nautilus, lost in 1807, plus a range of ancient anchors, ceramics and a 19th-century naval gun.

    This suggests the area hasn't been looted (which makes sense given the difficulty of diving here), so any new wrecks found could be pristine. "Everyone is very, very excited," Foley says of the upcoming mission. "This ought to be extraordinary."

    He also points out that the Antikythera ship, with its valuable cargo, is unlikely to have been travelling alone. When it sank, others in its fleet may have gone down too. Could one of them have been carrying another Antikythera mechanism? For the past hundred years, this awe-inspiring device has stood alone, our only glimpse into a technology lost for millennia. That might – just might – now change.
    Jo Marchant is the author of a book about the mechanism, Decoding the Heavens: Solving the Mystery of the World's First Computer



    shows the sun, moon and 5 planets (known at that time)
    shows the zodiac signs & 365 days
    it shows a cycle of 235 months or 19 years
    it also shows, that time keeping was measured by the moon


    THE BERMANSEDER-SCHWENGER 65TH AHUA - 16 DEC 2013 at sunset, end of The 12th Grand Cycle
    START of THE 13TH GRAND CYCLE - 66th cycle - 17 DEC 2013 at sunrise
    was calibrated on the 'NEW' and, the "FULL" MOON CYCLES
    THRU 9,360,360 kin/or days
    full info: is found here


    Read more: Read more:

    A working model of an ancient computer was recently recreated in London.



    Virtual Reconstruction of the Antikythera Mechanism (by M. Wright & M. Vicentini)


    Metonic cycle

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


    Heliocentric Solar System

    For astronomy and calendar studies, the Metonic cycle or Enneadecaeteris (from Ancient Greek: ἐννεακαιδεκαετηρίς, "nineteen years") is a period of very close to 19 years that is remarkable for being nearly a common multiple of the solar year and the synodic (lunar) month. The Greek astronomer Meton of Athens (fifth century BC) observed that a period of 19 years is almost exactly equal to 235 synodic months and, rounded to full days, counts 6,940 days. The difference between the two periods (of 19 years and 235 synodic months) is only a few hours, depending on the definition of the year.

    Considering a year to be 119 of this 6,940-day cycle gives a year length of 365 + 14 + 176 days (the unrounded cycle is much more accurate), which is slightly more than 12 synodic months. To keep a 12-month lunar year in pace with the solar year, an intercalary 13th month would have to be added on seven occasions during the nineteen-year period (235 = 19 × 12 + 7). When Meton introduced the cycle around 432 BC, it was already known by Babylonian astronomers.

    A mechanical computation of the cycle is built into the Antikythera mechanism.

    The cycle was used in the Babylonian calendar, ancient Chinese calendar systems (the 'Rule Cycle' 章) and the medieval computus (i.e. the calculation of the date of Easter). It regulates the 19-year cycle of intercalary months of the Hebrew calendar.

    Mathematical basis

    At the time of Meton, axial precession had not yet been discovered, and he could not distinguish between sidereal years (currently: 365.256363 days) and tropical years (currently: 365.242190 days). Most calendars, like the commonly used Gregorian calendar, are based on the tropical year and maintain the seasons at the same calendar times each year. Nineteen tropical years are about two hours shorter than 235 synodic months. The Metonic cycle's error is, therefore, one full day every 219 years, or 12.4 parts per million.

    19 tropical years = 6,939.602 days (12 × 354-day years + 7 × 384-day years + 3.6 days).
    235 synodic months (lunar phases) = 6,939.688 days (Metonic period by definition).
    254 sidereal months (lunar orbits) = 6,939.702 days (19 + 235 = 254).
    255 draconic months (lunar nodes) = 6,939.1161 days.

    Note that the 19-year cycle is also close (to somewhat more than half a day) to 255 draconic months, so it is also an eclipse cycle, which lasts only for about 4 or 5 recurrences of eclipses. The Octon is 15 of a Metonic cycle (47 synodic months, 3.8 years), and it recurs about 20 to 25 cycles.

    This cycle seems to be a coincidence. The periods of the Moon's orbit around the Earth and the Earth's orbit around the Sun are believed to be independent, and do not have any known physical resonance. An example of a non-coincidental cycle is the orbit of Mercury, with its 3:2 spin-orbit resonance.

    A lunar year of 12 synodic months is about 354 days, approximately 11 days short of the "365-day" solar year. Therefore, for a lunisolar calendar, every 2 to 3 years there is a difference of more than a full lunar month between the lunar and solar years, and an extra (embolismic) month needs to be inserted (intercalation). The Athenians initially seem not to have had a regular means of intercalating a 13th month; instead, the question of when to add a month was decided by an official. Meton's discovery made it possible to propose a regular intercalation scheme. The Babylonians seem to have introduced this scheme around 500 BC, thus well before Meton.

    Application in traditional calendars

    Traditionally, for the Babylonian and Hebrew lunisolar calendars, the years 3, 6, 8, 11, 14, 17, and 19 are the long (13-month) years of the Metonic cycle. This cycle, which can be used to predict eclipses, forms the basis of the Greek and Hebrew calendars, and is used for the computation of the date of Easter each year.

    The Babylonians applied the 19-year cycle since the late sixth century BC. As they measured the moon's motion against the stars, the 235:19 relationship may originally have referred to sidereal years, instead of tropical years as it has been used for various calendars.

    The Runic calendar is a perpetual calendar based on the 19-year-long Metonic cycle. Also known as a Rune staff or Runic Almanac, it appears to have been a medieval Swedish invention. This calendar does not rely on knowledge of the duration of the tropical year or of the occurrence of leap years. It is set at the beginning of each year by observing the first full moon after the winter solstice. The oldest one known, and the only one from the Middle Ages, is the Nyköping staff, which is believed to date from the 13th century.

    The Bahá'í calendar, established during the middle of the 19th century, is also based on cycles of 19 years.

    Further details

    The Metonic cycle is related to two less accurate subcycles:
    • 8 years = 99 lunations (an Octaeteris) to within 1.5 days, i.e. an error of one day in 5 years; and
    • 11 years = 136 lunations within 1.5 days, i.e. an error of one day in 7.3 years.
    By combining appropriate numbers of 11-year and 19-year periods, it is possible to generate ever more accurate cycles. For example, simple arithmetic shows that:
    • 687 tropical years = 250,921.39 days;
    • 8,497 lunations = 250,921.41 days.
    This gives an error of only about half an hour in 687 years (2.5 seconds a year), although this is subject to secular variation in the length of the tropical year and the lunation.

    Meton of Athens approximated the cycle to a whole number (6,940) of days, obtained by 125 long months of 30 days and 110 short months of 29 days. During the next century, Callippus developed the Callippic cycle of four 19-year periods for a 76-year cycle with a mean year of exactly 365.25 days.



    Heavenly Mathematics:
    The Mathematics of the
    Chinese, Indian, Islamic and
    Gregorian Calendars

    Helmer Aslaksen

    Department of Mathematics
    National University of Singapore

    The Year

    The tropical year (or solar year) is the time from one March equinox to the next. The mean value is 365.2422 days.

    The synodic month is the time from one new Moon to the next. It ranges from 29.27 days to 29.84 days with a mean of 29.53 days. 12×29.5 = 354, so a lunar year consisting of 12 lunar months is about 11 days short of a solar year.

    365 − 12 × 29.5 = 11
    365/11 33

    The Metonic Cycle

    19 solar years is almost exactly 235 lunar months.

    235 × 29.53 = 6939.6884,
    19 × 365.2422 = 6939.6018.

    The difference is about two hours. This is called the Metonic cycle (432 BCE). It was known in China by about 600 BCE and was called the zh¯ang (9) cycle.

    The Metonic cycle is used in the Jewish calendar, in the computation of Easter, and was used in the Chinese calendar before 104 BCE.

    Classification of Calendars

    solar Gregorian calendar. Basic unit is day. Approximates the tropical year by adding leap days. Ignores the Moon. The year is 365 or 366 days.

    lunar Islamic calendar. Basic unit is lunar month. Ignores the Sun. The year is 12 months or 354 (sometimes 353 or 355) days.

    lunisolar Chinese and Jewish calendars. Basic unit is lunar month. Approximates the tropical year by adding leap months. The year is 12 or 13 months. A 12-month year is 354 (sometimes 353 or 355) days. A 13-month year is 384 (sometimes 383 or 385) days.

    The Chinese calendar is NOT a lunar calendar!

    Alternative Classification of Calendars

    arithmetical Gregorian and Jewish calendars.
    Based on arithmetical formulas. Prediction and conversion between different arithmetical calendars is simple.

    astronomical Islamic, Indian and Chinese calendars.
    Based on astronomical data. Prediction and conversion is hard.

    The Gregorian Calendar

    A normal year consists of 365 days, but leap years have 366 days. Year n is a leap year if n is divisible by 4, but not by 100 or if n is divisible by 400. 1900 is not a leap year, but 2000 is. In the Julian calendar, every fourth year is a leap year.

    The average length of the Gregorian year is 365.2425. The difference between this and the tropical year will cause an error of about one day in 2,500 years.

    Computation of Easter

    The rule of thumb is that Easter Sunday is the first Sunday after the first full Moon on or after the day of the March equinox. It will fall between March 22 and April 25.

    The actual rule is that Easter Sunday in year y falls on day d in month m where d and m are computed as follows (all remainders from division are dropped).

    c = y/100
    n = y − 19 by/19c
    k = b(c − 17)/25c
    i = c − c/4 − b(c − k)/3c+19 n+15
    i = i − 30 bi/30c
    i = i − bi/28c (1 − bi/28c b29/(i+1)c
    b(21 − n)/11c)
    j = y +by/4c+i+2 − c+bc/4c
    j = j − 7 bj/7c
    l = i − j
    m = 3+b(l +40)/44c
    d = l +28 − 31 bm/4c

    The Islamic Calendar

    No leap months. Muslim holiday move about 11 days backward each year.

    New months are determined by sighting of the new Moon. A new Moon is normally not visible until it is more than 24 hours old. Muslim months start between one and four days after the Chinese months (usually on the third day). The Muslim month starts at sunset the previous day.

    Hari Raya Puasa is the first day of the 10th month. Hari Raya Haji is the 10th day of the 12th month.

    In 1999, Hari Raya Puasa fell on Jan. 19. In 2000, it will fall on Jan. 8 and on Dec. 27. Since 365/11 33, we see that such double Hari Raya Puasa’s will occur every 32 or 33 years.

    The Chinese Calendar

    The goal is to approximate the solar year by adding leap months. Sine 12 lunar months are 11 days too short we will need to add a leap month a little bit more than every third year. In ancient times, this was done by observing nature.

    Since 235 = 19 × 12 + 7, we can use the Metonic cycle and get a decent lunisolar calendar by having 7 leap years in every 19-year cycle.

    Chinese New Year

    It can be shown that Chinese New Year will always fall between Jan. 21 and Feb. 21. Most of the time Chinese New Year will fall 11 (or sometimes 10 or 12) days earlier than the previous year, but if that would take us outside of the Chinese New Year range of Jan. 21 to Feb. 21, we must add a leap month, so Chinese New Year jumps 19 (or sometimes 18 or 20) days later.

    1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003
    28/1 16/2 5/2 24/1 12/2 1/2
    19 11 12 19 11
    2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
    22/1 9/2 29/1 18/2 7/2 26/1
    10 18 11 20 11 12

    Chinese New Year and Hari Raya Puasa

    The Muslim holidays will always fall about 11 days earlier. Sometimes Hari Raya Puasa will coincide with Chinese New Year. They will then stay together for two or three years. After that, HRP will continue on its 33 year cycle backwards through the calendar, while CNY will jump forward because of a leap month. They will then meet up again in 30 or 31 years. This happened from 1964 to 1966, from 1996 to 1998, and will happen again from 2029 to 2031.

    The 19-year Cycle

    Because of the Metonic cycle, there is almost a 19-year cycle in the Chinese calendar. I was born on April 16, 1960. This was the 21st day in the 3rd month in the Chinese calendar. Normally my birthday will fall on different days in the Chinese calendar, but my 19th birthday fell on the 20th day in the third month. The same goes for my 38th and 57th birthday. So we see that the 19-year cycle is close but not exact.

    There are two reasons for this. First of all, the Metonic cycle is off by about two hours. But more importantly, we are now comparing the Chinese calendar not with the tropical
    year, but with the Gregorian calendar, which is just an approximation to the tropical year. In particular, since 19 is not a multiple of 4, different cycles will contain different numbers of leap years.

    The 19-year Cycle and the Dates of Chinese New Year

    1980: Feb. 16 1999: Feb. 16
    1981: Feb. 5 2000: Feb. 5
    1982: Jan. 25 2001: Jan. 24
    1983: Feb. 13 2002: Feb. 12
    1984: Feb. 2 2003: Feb. 1
    1985: Feb. 20 2004: Jan. 22
    1986: Feb. 9 2005: Feb. 9
    1987: Jan. 29 2006: Jan. 29
    1988: Feb. 17 2007: Feb. 18
    1989: Feb. 6 2008: Feb. 7
    1990: Jan. 27 2009: Jan. 26
    1991: Feb. 15 2010: Feb. 14
    1992: Feb. 4 2011: Feb. 3
    1993: Jan. 23 2012: Jan. 23
    1994: Feb. 10 2013: Feb. 10
    1995: Jan. 31 2014: Jan. 31
    1996: Feb. 19 2015: Feb. 19
    1997: Feb. 7 2016: Feb. 8
    1998: Jan. 28 2017: Jan. 28


    The 24 Jié Qì

    A fundamental concept in the Chinese calendar is the 24 solar terms or jié qì (í). They are a generalization of the solstices and equinoxes. The even ones are called major solar terms or zh¯ong qì (¥í).

    A useful rule of thumb is that Chinese New Year is the new Moon closest to lì ch¯un (Á), the beginning of spring. This rule is correct most of the time, but it failed in 1985 and will fail again in 2015. Since lì ch¯un falls around Feb. 4, this helps explain why Chinese New Year will always fall between Jan. 21 and Feb. 21. It also helps explain why Chinese New Year is called the spring festival.

    In Western astronomy, spring begins at spring equinox. In Chinese astronomy, spring begins midway between winter solstice and spring equinox.







    The Eight Characters

    This cycle is used for keeping track of years, months, days and (double) hours in Chinese astrology. Your date and time of birth is determined by the “Eight Characters" (¬) formed by the pair of cyclical characters for the year, month, day and hour. The 60-day cycle has been used for keeping track of days since ancient times. During the Hàn (G) dynasty, the 60-year cycle was also introduced.

    What is Year 2000 in the Chinese Calendar?

    The Chinese do not have a continuous year count. They started counting from one again with each new emperor. However, from the Hàn dynasty, some scholars tried to reconstruct the ancient Chinese chronology, and it became customary to claim that the calendar was invented by the Yellow Emperor, Huáng Dì (±’), in 2637 BCE during the 61st year of his reign. However, many people prefer to start the count with the first year of his reign in 2697 BCE. Since these years are 60 years apart, it follows that 1984 was the first year of either the 78th or 79th 60-year cycle. Using this as a starting point, Chinese New Year in 2000 marks the beginning of the Chinese year 4637 or 4697. While Chinese chronology is fairly reliable going back to 841 BCE, and oracle bones with date inscription go back to the 13th century BCE, modern scholars consider the Yellow Emperor to be a mythological figure.

    Why Was the Calendar Important?

    With a lunar or lunisolar calendar, errors are much more obvious than with a solar calendar. A solar calendar can be off by a couple of weeks without anybody noticing. The reason why the Catholic church had to reformmthe Julian calendar was because the rules for computing Easter had frozen the March equinox to be March 21. That meant that Easter was drifting noticeably towards summer. Otherwise, few would have cared about the drift of the March equinox. But with a lunar calendar, an error of even a couple of days is a serious problem. Every peasant could each month see that the new Moon was visible near the end of the previous month or that the old Moon was visible in the next month.

    Because of the importance the Chinese rulers placed on calendars, they were surprisingly open to incorporate foreign ideas into the making of calendars. The last three main calendar reforms have all been associated with
    foreign impulses.

    The Main Calendar Reforms

    Before 621 BCE, the start of the month was based on visibility of the crescent Moon. During the Zh¯ou (±) dynasty, the Metonic cycle was used for determining leap months and the leap months were always placed at the end of the year. After the Tài Ch¯u (Ôð) calendar reform in 104 BCE, the “no zh¯ong qì" (Ã¥í) rule was used for determining leap months, and the month containing the December solstice was fixed to be the 11th month.

    The Táng (ï) dynasty calendar reform in 619 switched to following the true Moon. This was inspired by Indian Buddhist astronomers.

    The Yuán (Ã) dynasty reform in 1280 was inspired by Muslim astronomers. It was the
    most accurate calendar in the world at that time.

    The last calendar reform came in 1645 during the Q¯ıng dynasty (8) and was implemented by Jesuit missionaries. It used the true Sun.

    The Jesuits

    In 1644, the German Adam Schall went to the new Q¯ıng rulers and presented his calculations for an upcoming solar eclipse. He challenged the Chinese and the Muslim astronomers in the Bureau, and the Jesuits’calculations were best. Schall was appointed director of the Bureau. The next year, he formulated the current rules for the Chinese calendar.

    The Trial of the Jesuits

    A Chinese official, Yáng Gu¯ang Xi¯an (í), had as his slogan that it was “better to have a wrong calendar than to have foreigners in China". Yáng managed to have the Jesuits arrested in 1664. A solar eclipse was coming up and while in prison, the Jesuits predicted it would occur at 3 pm, Yáng predicted 2.15 pm, and the Muslim Wú Míng Xuˇan (ÇÒ®) predicted 2.30 pm. On the day of the eclipse, the Jesuits were brought into the palace in chains, and everybody watched as the eclipse occurred at 3pm sharp! Unfortunately, the regents were not impressed and the Jesuits were sentenced to death. However, the next day a strong earthquake struck Beijing. This was taken as a sign from Heaven that the sentence was unjust, and the sentence of the Jesuits was first converted to flogging and eventually to just house arrest.

    The Kang Xi Emperor

    In 1668, the K¯ang X¯ı (Ú) emperor took over from the regents. The emperor ordered the Belgian Verbiest, Yáng and Wú to compute the length of the shadow of a pole on a certain day and the position of the Sun at noon on a certain day. They were to leave their instruments pointing towards the predicted spot in the emperor’s garden two weeks in advance. Verbiest easily won and was appointed director of the Bureau, while Yáng and Wú were arrested. Verbiest became personal tutor to the K¯ang X¯ı emperor, and even learned Manchu. Jesuits remained as directors of the Bureau until 1746 and it was run by other Westerners until 1826.


    Susan Lynne Schwenger
    discovered the importance of this connection,
    on 04 Oct 2010 - and, (we will come back to post in earlier notations on this calendar from other links online)


    This page was last updated on November 28, 2012
    (later, than the discovery of Susan Lynne Schwenger)




    connect to article - susan
    Last edited: May 16, 2014

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