# Discovery of Susan Lynne Schwenger proves Pyramid of Calakmul,Campeche,Mexico is an ancient calendar

Discussion in 'Ancient, Indigenous, & Tribal Calendars' started by CULCULCAN, Oct 16, 2014.

1. ### CULCULCANThe Final Synthesis - isbn 978-0-9939480-0-8Staff Member

Messages:
10,576
The Pyramid of Calakmul, Campeche, Mexico
is an ancient calendar
and, was decoded by:
Susan Lynne Schwenger
Aug 20th 2012
• Pyramid 390 ft square
• 390 x 24,000 = 9,360,000 = 360 x 26000
http://www.thuban.spruz.com/forums/?page=post&id=336142E7-BF61-486B-8338-19FD6A632328&pageindex=1

The Calendar of Calakmul, Campeche, Mexico

- Pyramid 390 ft square

~ 390 x 24,000 = 9,360,000

= 360 x 26000 = 9,360,000

= 260 x 36000 =9,360,000

=5 major cycles of 13 = 65 cycle x 144,000 =9,360,000

SUSAN LYNNE SCHWENGER - Posted Aug 20th 2012

This is also another calendar:
That fits into the work of:
Susan Lynne Schwenger & Tony Bermanseder
where:

9,360,000 divided by 360 = 26,000
9,360,360 divided by 360 = 26,001
also 9,360,000 divided by 390 = 24,000 - plato's great year
and, 9,360,360 divided by 390 = 24,000.923

~ Susan Lynne Schwenger

Structure II at the ancient Mayan city of Calakmul (Campeche, Mexico)

is a massive north-facing pyramid temple,
one of the largest in the Maya world.

Its base measures 120 meters (390 ft) square
and it stands over 45 metres (148 ft) high.

The city is situated on a promontory
formed by a natural 35-metre (115 ft) high limestone dome
rising above the surrounding lowlands.

This dome was artificially leveled by the Maya.

The stone used in construction at the site is a soft limestone.
This has resulted in severe erosion of the site's sculpture.

Post last edited Dec 12th, 2012

ORIGINAL POST: Posted Aug 20th 2012

http://www.thuban.spruz.com/forums/?page=post&id=336142E7-BF61-486B-8338-19FD6A632328&pageindex=1

and, it is NOW on this forum at this link:

(http://www.cosmosdawn.net/forum/ind...l-campeche-mexico-is-an-ancient-calendar.618/

Oxlajuj Qanil likes this.
2. ### CULCULCANThe Final Synthesis - isbn 978-0-9939480-0-8Staff Member

Messages:
10,576

Calakmul, one of the largest, most powerful and most important Mayan cities ever discovered,
had sophisticated infrastructure (including the largest Mayan reservoir ever found)
and a massive amount of land and buildings.

The so-called Snake Kingdom even had a logo–an emblematic snake head has been found all over the place.

Calakmul reached the height of power during the Classic Period (250 to 900 AD)
and the city/kingdom once had 50,000 inhabitants and ruled the land up to 150 kilometers away.

Calakmul’s cross-town rival, however, was Tikal to the south in what is now northern Guatemala.

Among other differences, Tikal was all about male rulers while Calakmul emphasized joint male/female rule.

There are even some carved stone stelae at Calakmul depicting queens.

We’re just saying.

Tikal finally dominated, but not before Calakmul put its stamp on the Mayan world.

Structure VIII is one of the smaller buildings of Calakmul which also boasts some of the most massive temples
in the Mayan world.

The journey through the jungle to reach Calakmul, a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2002,
is definitely part of the adventure.

Located within the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve, which covers 14% of the state of Campeche,
the roughly 30 mile drive off the highway takes you through a slice of one of the largest protected areas
in Mexico until you finally reach the archaeological site itself.

During our early morning drive to the site, over a mostly well-paved road, we saw two deer, a toucan and a grey fox. The preserve is also home to pumas and more than 250 species of bird. That jungly feeling continues even after you’ve entered this archaeological site.

The core areas of Calakmul, include roughly 1,000 structures covering nearly a square mile, however, that’s a mere fraction of the nearly 40 square miles of civilization and 6,500 structures believed to still be hidden in the ever-encroaching jungle.

Structure IV is really a group of three temples built on the foundation of an older Preclassic period temple.

This group of buildings may have been used to determine the solstice.

The number of stelae in front of it is remarkable.

On of the reasons UNESCO made Calakmul a World Heritage Site is the city’s collection of stelae.
Almost every impotant structure in the excavated area has at least one remaining carved stone slab
–often depicting intricate historical and political facts about the city and the kingdom.

Structure VII is a nearly 80 foot high temple on the north side of the Central Plaza at Calakmul
with five stelae in front of it.

The nearly 150 foot high Structure II (one of the largest in the Mayan world)
as seen from the top of Structure VII.

Calakmul is a vast site (allow at least two hours) but there’s a prescribed walking route
that pretty much ensures you won’t miss anything.

In addition to the remarkable stelae, Calakmul offers a number of awesome temples–some of the biggest
and highest in the region–that can (and should) be climbed.

Only by climbing the temples can you really appreciate the layout of the city below you,
the impenetrability of the jungle and the shape, size and placement of the other temples.
Also, the tops of the temples provide relief from the heat and the mosquitoes because a breeze
reaches their pinnacles which poke through the dense jungle.

Classic Calakmul: stairs and stelae.

At just shy of 150 feet high and nearly 400 feet across its base,
Structure II is one of the largest buildings in the Mayan world.
It's also a great climb which is rewarded with a cooling breeze and views across the city.
On a clear day you might even be able to see the remains of El Mirador archeology site in Northern Guatemala.

Structure I (the really big temple) as seen from the top of Structure II (the really REALLY big temple).

Structure I seems to be higher than Structure II because it was built on a slight hill.
The stelae in front of it date back to 731 AD.

Karen surveying the Mayan world at Calakmul from the top of Structure I.

Don’t feel like doing the Mayan stairmaster? Check out our three part video, below,
and get your own overview of the amazing Calakmul archaeological site.
Part one shows the enormous Structure II as seen from Structure VII.
Part two is a panorama shot over the site shot from the top of Structure II.
Part three is another panorama, this time taken from the top of Structure I,
including a look across to the even-taller Structure II. Enjoy.

Part of what experts believe was a residential complex at Calakmul--like a Mayan suburb.

TIP
Because the Calakmul archaeological site is within the vast Calakmul Biosphere Reserve there is no nearby town,
unless you count Xpujil which is quite a ways away and something of a hole.

Therefore, the most comfortable and convenient place to stay before and after your visit to Calakmul
is Hotel Puerta Calakmul. Located just off the highway and right at the entrance to the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve, Puerto Calakmul has 15 stand-alone bungalows with hand-made log and branch furniture, polished concrete floors, modern bathrooms and (most importantly) very good screens. The hotel put us up in bungalow #11
and one morning we had flamboyant ocellated turkeys in the backyard and a small family of howler monkeys
in the front yard.

We’re pretty sure the concept of the air being “thick” with mosquitoes was inspired by the swarms in
and around the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve.

We actually broke out our electronic mosquito swatting tennis racquet and went to town in an attempt to kill enough of the little biters to be able to relax on the little porch in front of our bungalow.

It didn’t work, but the hundreds of zaps were satisfying nonetheless.

http://trans-americas.com/blog/2011/01/calakmul/

3. ### CULCULCANThe Final Synthesis - isbn 978-0-9939480-0-8Staff Member

Messages:
10,576
The Mayan city of Calakmul,
one of the largest, most powerful,
and most important Mayan cities ever discovered,
including the largest Mayan reservoir ever found,
and a massive amount of land and buildings.

The so-called Snake Kingdom even had a logo
–an emblematic snake head has been found all over the place.
And the place is still imposing today.

The Calakmul Mayan archaeological site in Mexico
is home to some of the most massive temples in the Mayan world.
The troubled past of Calakmul

Calakmul reached the height of power during the Classic Period
and ruled the land up to 90 miles (150 km) away.

Calakmul’s cross-town rival, however, was Tikal
to the south in what is now northern Guatemala.

Among other differences, Tikal was all about male rulers
while Calakmul emphasized joint male/female rule.

There are even some carved stone stele at Calakmul depicting queens.

Tikal finally dominated, but not before Calakmul
put its stamp on the Mayan world.
Getting to Calakmul

The journey through the jungle to reach Calakmul,
a UNESCO World Heritage site since 2002,
is definitely part of the adventure.

Located within the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve,
which covers 14% of the state of Campeche,
the roughly 30 mile (48 km) drive off the highway
takes you through a slice of one of the largest protected areas
in Mexico until you finally reach the archaeological site itself.

During our early morning drive to the site,
we saw two deer, a toucan and a grey fox.

The preserve is also home to pumas and more than 250 species of bird.

Structure IV is really a group of three temples
built on the foundation of an older Preclassic period temple.
This group of buildings may have been used to determine the solstice.

The number of stelae in front of it is remarkable.
Exploring the Calakmul Mayan

archaeological site

That jungly feeling continues even after you’ve entered
this archaeological site.

The core areas of Calakmul include roughly 1,000 structures
covering nearly a square mile, however, that’s a mere fraction
of the nearly 40 square miles of civilization
and 6,500 structures believed to still be hidden
in the ever-encroaching jungle.

Structure VII is a nearly 80 foot (25 meter)
high temple on the north side of the Central Plaza
at Calakmul with five stele in front of it.

Calakmul is a vast site (allow at least two hours)
but there’s a prescribed walking route that pretty much ensures
you won’t miss anything. In addition to the remarkable stele,
Calakmul offers a number of awesome temples,
some of the biggest and highest in the region,
that can (and should) be climbed.

The nearly 150 foot (50 meter) high Structure II
(one of the largest in the Mayan world)
as seen from the top of Structure VII.

Only by climbing the temples can you really appreciate
the layout of the city below you, the impenetrability of the jungle
and the shape, size and placement of the other temples.

Also, the tops of the temples provide relief from the heat
and the mosquitoes because a breeze reaches their pinnacles
which poke through the dense jungle.

Classic Calakmul: stairs and stele.

Structure II is one of the largest buildings in the Mayan world.

At just shy of 150 feet (50 meters) high and nearly 400 feet
(120 meters) across its base,
Structure II is one of the largest buildings
in the Mayan world.

It’s also a great climb which is rewarded with a cooling breeze
and views across the city.

On a clear day you might even be able to see
the remains of El Mirador archaeological site
in Northern Guatemala.

Structure I (the really big temple)
as seen from the top of Structure II (the really really big temple).

Structure I seems to be higher than Structure II
because it was built on a slight hill.

The stele in front of it date back to 731 AD.

One of the reasons UNESCO made Calakmul
a World Heritage site is the city’s collection of stele.

Almost every important structure in the excavated area
has at least one remaining carved stone slab,
often depicting intricate historical and political facts
about the city and the kingdom.

Karen surveying the Mayan world at Calakmul
from the top of Structure I.

Don’t feel like doing the Mayan stairmaster?

Check out our three part video, below,
and get your own overview of the amazing Calakmul
archaeological site.

Part one shows the enormous Structure II
as seen from Structure VII.

Part two is a panorama shot over the site shot
from the top of Structure II.

Part three is another panorama,
this time taken from the top of Structure I,
including a look across to the even-taller Structure II.

Calakmul travel tips

Because the Calakmul archaeological site
is within the vast Calakmul Biosphere Reserve
there is no nearby town, unless you count Xpujil
which is quite a ways away and something of a hole.

Therefore, the most comfortable and convenient place

to stay before and after your visit to Calakmul
is Hotel Puerta Calakmul.

Part of what experts believe was a residential complex
at Calakmul–like a Mayan suburb.

Located just off the highway and right at the entrance
to the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve, Puerto Calakmul
has 15 stand-alone bungalows with hand-made log
and branch furniture, polished concrete floors,
modern bathrooms, and (most importantly) very good screens.

The hotel put us up in bungalow #11
and one morning we had flamboyant ocellated turkeys
in the backyard and a small family of howler monkeys
in the front yard.

Also, we’re pretty sure the concept of the air being “thick”
with mosquitoes was inspired by the swarms in
and around the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve.

We actually broke out our electronic mosquito swatting tennis racquet
and went to town in an attempt to kill enough of the little biters
to be able to relax on the little porch in front of our bungalow.

It didn’t work, but the hundreds of zaps were satisfying nonetheless.
Check out our Archaeological Index post
which has quick links to information and photos
from the 100+ archaeological sites we’ve visited.

http://trans-americas.com/blog/2011/01/calakmul/

4. ### CULCULCANThe Final Synthesis - isbn 978-0-9939480-0-8Staff Member

Messages:
10,576

Structure VII is a nearly 80 foot high temple on the north side of the Central Plaza at Calakmul
with five stelae in front of it.

Susan Lynne Schwenger says:
"The Five (5) Stelae are markers for The Five (5) Major cycles
of Thirteen (13) Minor Cycles of 144,000 days = 9,360,000 Ancient Days,
which breaks down to 390
(the square feet of the pyramid, and, also Plato's Number)
x 24,000 Ancient Years = 9,360,000 Ancient Days.

The Calendar of Calakmul, Campeche, Mexico is an ancient calendar...
it also can be balanced with 9,360,000 divided by 360 days
(the length of an ancient year) which equals 26,000 ancient years,
and, it can also be balanced with 9,360,00 divided by 260 day cycle
(which, is the length of maya/aztec cycle)
which equals 36,000 cycles x 260 ancient days."

- Pyramid 390 ft square

390 ancient days x 24,000 ancient years = 9,360,000 ancient days

= 360 ancient days x 26000 ancient years = 9,360,000 ancient days

= 260 ancient days x 36000 ancient years =9,360,000 ancient days

=5 major cycles of 13 minor cycles = 65 cycles x 144,000 ancient days =9,360,000 ancient days

5. ### CULCULCANThe Final Synthesis - isbn 978-0-9939480-0-8Staff Member

Messages:
10,576

Susan Lynne Schwenger aka The eXchanger aka White Lotus Star
is an internationally known Cosmologist, Healer & Seer
Doctor of Metaphysics, Metaphysician, ABD
Msc.D, ABD, DMeta, ABD, MsD, ABD
aka Wassenakoshka Anang ~ Wassenakoshka Giizis (Kwe)
(which translates into English as: Bright Shining Star ~ Bright Shining Sun (Woman)\
Talks with Thunder with Thunders
Elder - Grandmother - Sage - Seer - Spiritual Healer
- Spiritual Medicine Woman through Ceremony - Counselling - Doctoring

Day/Night - Record - Time - Wisdom Keeper
~ who discovered The Grand Cycle of Macha & Pacha
End Date of The 16th December 2013 (16 DEC 2013) at sunset

~who discovered The Grand Cycle of Pacha iNTi
Start Date of The 17th December 2013 (17 DEC 2013) at sunrise
as, The Second (2nd) Full Moon in December,
which starts The Winter Cycle, on The Six (6) Season Calendar
(6 Seasons x 60 ancient days = 360 ancient days)
aka The Ancient Year Calendar of
(6 seasons x 60 ancient days =360 ancient days=1 ancient year (360)
360 DEGREE ROUND - or, it takes 365.25 days = 31 557 600 seconds
aka The Thirteen (13) Moon Calendar
(12 cycles - runs from The Full Moon to eve of day before
The next full moon in a cycle of Full Moon to Full Moon

aka The Six (6) Event Calendar of The Celts, Druids, Pict - Pictish
back in 1984, when she was 25 years old.

Tony Bermanseder & Susan Lynne Schwenger
have successfully aligned & calibrated all the ancient calendars:

The Maya - Mayan Cholq'ij
aka Tzolk'in aka Tzolkin Calendar of 260 days
to The Current Civil Calendar aka The Gregorian Calendar
through 9,360,360 days, which equals:

(5 great cycles x 13 cycles x 144,000 days=9,360,000

+ (6 cycles x 60 days=360)
=9,360,000 + 360 = 9,360,360/360=26,001 Ancient Years
utilizing cosmology, mathematics, and the relations of real science,
with the backup of The New Moon and The Full Moon Cycles.

There was nothing wrong with any of the ancient time keeping systems,
the only thing, that was wrong,
was the 21st of December 2012,
was NOT the day before a full moon,
and, the 22nd December 2012,
was NOT the day of a full moon.

There are exactly 6 seasons x 60 days =360 days
between 22nd December 2012, and, 16th December 2013.

The 16th December 2013, is the day before the last full moon in December,
and, the 17th December 2013, is the day of the last full moon in December.

Full details can be found on the old forum at:
http://www.thuban.spruz.com/forums/?page=post&fid=&lastp=1&id=0265D780-C9C1-46C1-80A1-A15795198653

The new forum post can be found here:
https://www.cosmosdawn.net/forum/th...he-calendars-bermanseder-schwenger.93/page-10

Tony Bermanseder & Susan Lynne Schwenger
have also aligned the following calendar:

The Maya aka The Mayan Tzolk'in aka Tzolkin Calendar of 260 Days

Susan Lynne Schwenger, then went onto aligning:

The Aztec Tonalpohualli Calendar of 260 Days
which has its roots in The Aztec, Meso-American, Olmec, and Q'ero

aka The Turtle Island Tribal Calendars of 260 Days

mainly, The Cree, Ojibwa-Ojibway-Ojibwe,
Algonquin, Mi'Kmaq aka MicMac,
Chippewa aka Chipewyna, Chippewa Ojibway,
Woodland Cree, Nipissing,
Odawa of Ottawa, Potawatomi, Saulteaux,
Missississagua, Tingit, Tahitan, Tagish,
Passamaquoddy,
Haudenosaunee aka Iroquois,
Cayuga, Mohawk, Onedia, Onondaga, Seneca,
Tuscaronia,
Wyandot aka Huron,
Tli Cho, Slavey, Haida, Sahtu,
Yellowknifes, Dunneza, Gwich'in, Dene, Nakoda,
Yakama, Blackfoot~Kainai aka Blood,
North Peigan & Siksika,
Coast Salsih, etc.etc.etc.,

(there are just too many different tribes to mention all of them.)

The Metis of Canada aka The Turtle Island Calendar of 260 Days

The Native American of USA aka The Turtle Island Calendar of 260 Days
(too many tribes to mention, since, all of them use this ancient calendar)
mainly,
The Catawba,
Cherokee,
Chippewa-Ojibway,
Ojibwa-Ojibway-Ojibwe,
Dakota,
Lakota,
Nakota Tribes etc.etc.etc.,
(there are just too many tribes to mention all of them.)

The Cherokee Calendar of 260 Days

The Maori of New Zealand Calendar of 260 Days

The Aborigine aka The Aboriginal of Australia Calendar of 260 Days

All 260 Day calendars have cycles of 13 cycles x 20 days =
260 Days

20 days = Four (4) weeks of Five (5) days = 4x5 = 20 Days

260 Days is The Gestation Period of a baby in its mothers womb

The Six (6) Season or The Six (6) Event Calendar of 360 days
= 6 Cycles or Seasons x 60 days)
9,360,000 Days/180 Cycle
= (52,000 Cycles/2=26,000 Ancient Years)

The Mayan Mucmuchumil (52 Days),
aligned to 9,360,000/52=180,000 Cycles

The Mayan Tzolkin aka Tzolk"in aka Cholq'ij = 260 days

The Mayan Momtun =180 days x 2 Cycles = 360 days

9,360,360 Days/180 Cycle = 52,002 cycles/2=26,001 Ancient Years

The Mayan TUN = 360 days
9,360,000 Days/360 Cycle = 26,000 Ancient Years
9,360,360 Days/360 Cycle = 26,001 Ancient Years

The Mayan IK TUN MOON
- The Difference between The New Moon & The Full Moon Cycle in Days

The Mayan Mucmuchumil (52 Days)
aligned to 9,360,000/52 day cycles=180,000 cycles

The Mayan Kit Jeb (400 Days)
aligned to 9,360,000/400 day cycles=23,400 cycles

The 360 Day Ancient Calendars
of The Maori of New Zealand,
and, The 360 Day Ancient Calendars
of The Aboriginal of Australia.

The Grand Cycle of Macha is 9,360,000 days
(5 major cycles x 13 minor cycles) =
65 cycles x 144,000 days=9,360,000 days
+ The Grand Cycle of Pacha is 360 days
(6 seasons x 60 days = 360)=9,360,360 days
9,360,360/360 Days=26,001 Ancient Years
9,360,000/360 Days=26,000 Ancient Years
360/360 Days=One (1) Ancient Year

360 = 1 degree precessional advancement per day
x 360 Days= 1 (One) Ancient Year
which is, now modified to:

The Gregorian Calendar which consists of:
(3 years X 365 days
)+ (1 leap year X 365)
+ (1 day)= 1461 days or 4 Gregorian Years

There are also yearly cycles:

The Mayan Chol Tun (260 Years),
aligned to 9,360,000/360=26000/260=100 Cycles

The Mayan Kutan (520 Years),
aligned to 9,360,000/360=26000/260=52 Cycles

The Mayan Ajau Tun (20 Years),
aligned to 9,360,000/360=26000/20=1300 Cycles

The Mayan Ekomal Jun (520 Years),
aligned to 9,360,000/360=26000/520=50 Cycles.

The Mayan Ox Lajuj Baktun (5200 Years),
aligned to 9,360,000/360=26000/5200=5 Cycles.

The Mayan Tikitun
22 Cycles of 52 Years = (9 x 52 = 468) Darkness-Hell
+ (13 x 52 = 676) Light-Heaven

The Mayan Bolon Tiki
9 x 52 =
468 Years of Darkness-Hell

The Mayan Oxala Juj Tiki
13 x 52 =
676 Years of Light-Heaven
(468 YEARS+676 YEARS=1144 YEARS=
( 9 Darkness/Hell x 13 Light/Heaven) =
22 cycles x 52 YEARS)

also Fits into The Greater Cycle of:
26,000 Ancient Years/500 cycles = 52 Years
500 cycles x 52 Ancient years = 26,000

The HAAB (360 + 5 DAYS)
The Five "Dead" or "Unlucky" Days
can occur two times per year,
- the middle of the year
& OR
- 27 Dec, 28 Dec, 29 Dec, 30 Dec & 31 December

AND, also the proof that the pyramids are also calendars

http://www.thuban.spruz.com/forums/?page=post&fid=&lastp=1&id=0265D780-C9C1-46C1-80A1-A15795198653

~ Susan Lynne Schwenger

https://www.cosmosdawn.net/forum/th...he-calendars-bermanseder-schwenger.93/page-10

Last edited: Oct 17, 2014
6. ### CULCULCANThe Final Synthesis - isbn 978-0-9939480-0-8Staff Member

Messages:
10,576
Calakmul (also Kalakmul and other less frequent variants)
is a Maya archaeological site
in the Mexican state of Campeche,
deep in the jungles of the greater Petén Basin region.

It is 35 kilometres (22 mi) from the Guatemalan border.

Calakmul was one of the largest
and most powerful ancient cities
ever uncovered in the Maya lowlands.

Calakmul is a modern name, in ancient times
the city core was known as Ox Te' Tuun.

Calakmul was a major Maya power
within the northern Peten
region of the Yucatan of southern Mexico.

Calakmul administered a large domain marked
by the extensive distribution of their emblem glyph

Calakmul was the seat of what has been dubbed
the Kingdom of the Snake
or Snake Kingdom.

This Snake Kingdom reigned during most of the Classic period.

Calakmul itself is estimated to have had
a population of 50,000 people
over places as far away as 150 kilometers.

There are 6,750 ancient structures identified
at Calakmul the largest of which
is the great pyramid at the site.

Structure 2 is over 45 metres (148 ft) high,
making it one of the tallest of the Maya pyramids.

Four tombs have been located within the pyramid.

Like many temples or pyramids within Mesoamerica
the pyramid at Calakmul
increased in size by building
upon the existing temple to reach its current size.

The size of the central monumental architecture
is approximately 2 square kilometres
(0.77 sq mi) and the whole of the site,
mostly covered with dense residential structures,
is about 20 square kilometres (7.7 sq mi).

Throughout the Classic Period,
Calakmul maintained an intense rivalry with the major city
of Tikal to the south, and the political manoeuvrings
of these two cities have been likened
to a struggle between two Maya superpowers.

Rediscovered from the air by biologist
Cyrus L. Lundell of the Mexican Exploitation Chicle Company
on December 29, 1931, the find was reported to
Sylvanus G. Morley of the Carnegie Institute
at Chichen Itza in March 1932.

According to Lundell, who named the site,
"In Maya, 'ca' means 'two',
signifies any artificial mound or pyramid,
so 'Calakmul' is the 'City of the Two Adjacent Pyramids'."

Messages:
10,576

8. ### CULCULCANThe Final Synthesis - isbn 978-0-9939480-0-8Staff Member

Messages:
10,576
Calakmul is located in Campeche state in southeastern Mexico, about 35 kilometres (22 mi) north of the border with Guatemala
and 38 kilometres (24 mi) north of the ruins of El Mirador.[2] The ruins of El Tintal are 68 kilometres (42 mi) to the southwest of Calakmul
and were linked to both El Mirador and Calakmul itself by causeway.[3]
Calakmul was about 20 kilometres (12 mi) south of the contemporary city of Oxpemul and approximately 25 kilometres (16 mi) southwest of La Muñeca.[4]
The city is located on a rise about 35 metres (115 ft) above a large seasonal swamp lying to the west,[5]
known as the El Laberinto bajo (a Spanish word used in the region to denote a low-lying area of seasonal marshland).[6]
This swamp measures approximately 34 by 8 kilometres (21 by 5.0 mi) and was an important source of water during the rain season.[6]
The bajo was linked to a sophisticated water-control system including both natural and artificial features such as gullies and canals that encircled a 22-square-kilometre (8.5 sq mi) area around the site core, an area considered as Inner Calakmul.[6]
The location of Calakmul at the edge of a bajo provided two additional advantages:
the fertile soils along the edge of the swamp and access to abundant flint nodules.[3]
The city is situated on a promontory formed by a natural 35-metre (115 ft) high limestone dome rising above the surrounding lowlands.[3]
This dome was artificially levelled by the Maya.[7]
During the Preclassic and Classic periods settlement was concentrated along the edge of the El Laberinto bajo, during the Classic period structures were also built on high ground and small islands in the swamp where flint was worked.[3]
At the beginning of the 21st century the area around Calakmul remained covered by dense forest.[8] During the 1st millennium AD the area received moderate and regular rainfall, although there is less surface water available than further south in Guatemala.[8] Calakumul is now located within the 1,800,000-acre (7,300 km2) Calakmul Biosphere Reserve.
Population and extent

At its height in the Late Classic period the city is estimated to have had a population of 50,000 inhabitants
and to have covered an area of over 70 square kilometres (27 sq mi).

The city was the capital of a large regional state with an area of about 13,000 square kilometres (5,000 sq mi).[9]

During the Terminal Classic the city's population declined dramatically and the rural population plummeted
to 10% of its former level.[10]

The Late Classic population density of Calakmul has been calculated at 1000/km² (2564 per square mile)
in the site core and 420/km² (1076 per square mile) in the periphery (an area of 122 square kilometres
(47 sq mi).[11]

Calakmul was a true urban city and not just an elite centre surrounded by commoner residences.[11]

The site core of Calakmul was known in ancient times as Ox Te' Tuun ("Place of Three Stones")
which may have been because of the triadic pyramid Structure 2.[7]

The Emblem Glyph of Calakmul

The Calakmul kingdom included 20 secondary centres, among which were large cities such as La Muñeca, Naachtun, Sasilha, Oxpemul and Uxul.[11]

The total population of these secondary centres has been estimated at 200,000.[11]

The kingdom also included a large number of tertiary and quaternary sites, mostly fairly small
and consisting of a number of groups arranged around courtyards, although there are also larger rural sites
situated on ridges along the edges of the bajos that include temples, palaces and stelae.[11]

The total rural population of the kingdom is calculated at 1.5 million people.[11]

The entire population of the Calakmul kingdom, including the city itself and the rural population
in the 13,000 square kilometres (5,000 sq mi) area of the regional state,
is calculated at 1.75 million people in the Late Classic period.[9]

The Emblem Glyph of Calakmul has a greater distribution than the Emblem Glyph of any other Maya city.
The Glyph is also found in more hieroglyphic texts than any other Emblem Glyph, including that of Tikal.[12]

Calakmul administered a large domain marked by the extensive distribution of their emblem glyph

Calakmul was the seat of what has been dubbed the Snake Kingdom.[15]

At times the city had governance over places as far away as 150 kilometers.[5]

Glyph of Calakmul

of Calakmul were known as k'uhul kan ajawob ("Divine Lords of the Snake Kingdom").[12]

This list is not continuous, as the archaeological record is incomplete. All dates AD.

Name (or nickname)[17]RuledAlternative Names
Yuknoom Ch'een I ?
Tuun K'ab' Hix-520-546+Cu Ix, Ku Ix
Sky Witness-561-572+
Yax Yopaat572-579First Axewielder
Scroll Serpent579-611+
Yuknoom Ti' Chan–619+Chan
Tajoom Uk'ab K'ahk'622-630Ta Batz'
Yuknoom Ch'een II636–686Yuknom Ch'en, Yuknoom the Great
Yuknoom Yich'aak K'ahk'686–c. 695Jaguar Paw Smoke, Jaguar Paw
Split Earthc. 695+
Yuknoom Took' K'awiil-702–731+Ruler 5, Ruler 6, Ruler 7
Wamaw K'awiilc. 736
Ruler Yc. 741Ruler 8, B'olon K'awiil I
Great Serpentc. 751Ruler 8, Ruler Z
B'olon K'awiil-771-c. 789+Ruler 9, B'olon K'awiil II
Chan Petc. 849
Aj Took'c. 909

Stela 51, dated to AD 731, depicts Yuknoom Took' K'awiil.[16]

History

Calakmul has a long occupational history and excavations have revealed evidence from the Middle Preclassic right through to the Postclassic.[6] The causeway network that linked Calakmul with the cities of El Mirador, Nakbe and El Tintal suggest strong political links between the four cities that may have begun in the Preclassic, when both Calakmul and El Mirador were important cities, and continued into the Classic period when Calakmul itself was the most powerful city in the region.[3] Calakmul was one of the largest and most powerful ancient cities ever uncovered in the Maya lowlands.[18]
Calakmul vs. Tikal

The history of Classic Maya civilization was dominated by the rivalry between the opposed alliance networks
of Calakmul and Tikal (pictured)

The history of the Maya Classic period is dominated by the rivalry between Tikal and Calakmul,
likened to a struggle between two Maya "superpowers".[19]

Earlier times tended to be dominated by a single larger city and by the Early Classic Tikal was moving
into this position after the dominance of El Mirador in the Late Preclassic and Nakbe in the Middle Preclassic.[20]

However Calakmul was a rival city with equivalent resources that challenged the supremacy of Tikal
and engaged in a strategy of surrounding it with its own network of allies.[21]

From the second half of the 6th century AD through to the late 7th century Calakmul gained the upper hand
although it failed to extinguish Tikal's power completely and Tikal was able to turn the tables on its great rival
in a decisive battle that took place in AD 695.[22]

Half a century later Tikal was able to gain major victories over Calakmul's most important allies.[22]

Eventually both cities succumbed to the spreading Classic Maya collapse.[23]

The great rivalry between these two cities may have been based on more than competition for resources.
Their dynastic histories reveal different origins and the intense competition between the two powers
may have had an ideological grounding.

Calakmul's dynasty seems ultimately derived from the great Preclassic city of El Mirador
while the dynasty of Tikal was profoundly affected by the intervention of the distant central Mexican metropolis of Teotihuacan.[23]

With few exceptions, Tikal's monuments and those of its allies place great emphasis upon single male rulers
while the monuments of Calakmul and its allies gave greater prominence to the female line
and often the joint rule of king and queen.[21]
Preclassic

Calakmul was already a large city in the Preclassic period.[24]

The early history of Calakmul is obscure, although a dynastic list has been pieced together that extends back
into an ancestral past. This dynasty has been reconstructed in part from Late Classic ceramics
from the region of great Preclassic cities of El Mirador and Nakbe.[25]

This may mean that Calakmul ultimately inherited its political authority from one of these cities,
with its dynasty originating in the Late Preclassic in the Mirador Basin and relocating itself to Calakmul
in the Classic period after the collapse of these cities.[25]

REFERENCE NOTES
1 - 25
1. ^ 1491: New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus by Charles C. Mann 2005
2. ^ Sharer & Traxler 2006, p.356. Folan et al 1995a, p.310.
3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Folan et al 1995a, p.313.
4. ^ Folan et al 1995a, p.311.
5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Sharer and Traxler 2006, p.356.
6. ^ a b c d Folan et al 1995a, p.310.
7. ^ a b Braswell et al 2005, p.167.
8. ^ a b c d e f g h Braswell et al 2005, p.165.
9. ^ a b Braswell et al 2005, p.171.
10. ^ Braswell et al 2005, pp.164, 188.
11. ^ a b c d e f Braswell et al 2005, p.170.
12. ^ a b Braswell et al 2005, p.162.
13. ^ Schele and Freidel 1990, pp.456–457 n.21.
14. ^ Nikolai Grube, "Hieroglyphs" in Divine Kings of the Rain Forest (Könemann, 2000), 115f; 120
15. ^ Martin & Grube 2000, pp.101, 104.
16. ^ Martin & Grube 2000 p.113.
17. ^ Martin & Grube 2000 pp.102-115. Sharer & Traxler 2006, pp.360-361.
18. ^ Martin & Grube 2000, p.101. Braswell et al 2005, p.162.
19. ^ Webster 2002, pp.168-169.
20. ^ Sharer & Traxler 2006, p.495.
21. ^ a b Sharer & Traxler 2006, pp.495-496.
22. ^ a b Sharer & Traxler 2006, p.496.
23. ^ a b Sharer & Traxler 2006, p.497.
24. ^ a b c d e f g Martin & Grube 2000, p.103.
25. ^ a b Martin & Grube 2000, p.102. Sharer & Traxler 2006, p.357.

9. ### CULCULCANThe Final Synthesis - isbn 978-0-9939480-0-8Staff Member

Messages:
10,576
Jorgelito - Posted Aug 20th 2012

Have you heard of an ancient Mayan trade route between the proximity of Cancun
(by river) to near Uxmal (by land) on the Gulf of Mexico.

It obviated the necessity of going around the Yucatan Peninsula.

It would be a wondeful adventure to travel what may have been this trade route short cut !!

What charms me about such an endeavor more than actually finding evidence along the way

of such a trade route (which I have not been able to verify) -- maybe relics, maybe resting huts 20 miles apart

not completely engulfed by the jungle, maybe Mayan folklore of indigenous people describing travelers

of the route

To be honest though, what appeals to me is an excuse to play the role. Something akin to Indiana Jones!

To my knowledge no one has actually tried to recreate this route.

10. ### CULCULCANThe Final Synthesis - isbn 978-0-9939480-0-8Staff Member

Messages:
10,576
Calakmul - Step Pyramid